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Rectal MRI

Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Alfonso Reginelli, Luca Roberto, Francesco Granata, Daniela Rega, Antonio Rotondo, Roberto Grassi, Francesco Izzo, Antonella Petrillo
Anal cancer is uncommon neoplasm with an incidence of 2 new cases per 100,000 per year in the USA, accounting approximately 0.4 % of all tumors and 2.5 % of gastrointestinal malignancies. An early detection of the anal cancer is crucial for the patient management, whereas the diagnosis at an early stage allows conservative management with sphincter sparing, on the contrary a delays in diagnosis might lead to an advance cancer stage at presentation with worst survival. According to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Anal Carcinoma guidelines the patients should be subjected to a careful clinical examination, including a digital rectal examination (DRE), an anoscopic examination, and palpation of inguinal nodes...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
A A Pham, B D Nguyen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Finn Ole Larsen, Alice Markussen, Benny V Jensen, Anne L Fromm, Kirsten K Vistisen, Vibeke K Parner, Dorte Linnemann, Rasmus H Hansen, Helle H Johannesen, Jakob V Schou
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before, during, and after radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with rectum cancer T4 or T3 involving the mesorectal fascia was included in a prospective phase 2 trial. Liver or lung metastases were accepted if the surgeons found them resectable. The patients received 6 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy (CRT), continued capecitabine and oxaliplatin during radiotherapy, and received 4 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin after CRT...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Marta Penna, Roel Hompes, Steve Arnold, Greg Wynn, Ralph Austin, Janindra Warusavitarne, Brendan Moran, George B Hanna, Neil J Mortensen, Paris P Tekkis
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to report short-term clinical and oncological outcomes from the international transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (taTME) registry for benign and malignant rectal pathology. BACKGROUND: TaTME is the latest minimally invasive transanal technique pioneered to facilitate difficult pelvic dissections. Outcomes have been published from small cohorts, but larger series can further assess the safety and efficacy of taTME in the wider surgical population...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Muhammed R S Siddiqui, Jemma Bhoday, Nicholas J Battersby, Manish Chand, Nicholas P West, Al-Mutaz Abulafi, Paris P Tekkis, Gina Brown
AIM: To define good and poor regression using pathology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) regression scales after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on all studies up to December 2015, without language restriction, that were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2015), and EMBASE (1991-2015). Searches were performed of article bibliographies and conference abstracts. MeSH and text words used included "tumour regression", "mrTRG", "poor response" and "colorectal cancers"...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
A S Dhadda, A Martin, S Killeen, I A Hunter
AIMS: Contact radiotherapy for early rectal cancer uses 50 kV X-rays to treat rectal cancers under direct vision. We present data of a series of patients treated at a single centre with prospective follow-up and functional assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients were treated at the Queen's Centre for Oncology, Hull, UK between September 2011 and October 2015. Patients received a biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver/pelvis, computed tomography of the chest and endorectal ultrasound...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
R Boissier, C Udrescu, X Rebillard, J E Terrier, A Faix, O Chapet, D Azria, M Devonec, P Paparel, A Ruffion
OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique combining the implantation of fiducials and a prostatic spacer (hyaluronic acid (HA)) to decrease the rectal toxicity after an image-guided EBRT with hypofractionation for prostate cancer and to assess the tolerance and the learning curve of the procedure. MATERIAL & METHOD: Thirty patients with prostate cancer at low or intermediate risk were included in a phase II trial: image-guided EBRT of 62Gy in 20 fractions of 3.1Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
October 7, 2016: Urology
David O Prichard, Taehee Lee, Gopanandan Parthasarathy, Joel G Fletcher, Alan R Zinsmeister, Adil E Bharucha
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Contrary to conventional wisdom, the rectoanal gradient during evacuation is negative in many healthy people, undermining the utility of anorectal high resolution manometry (HRM) for diagnosing defecatory disorders. We aimed to compare HRM and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing rectal evacuation and structural abnormalities. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 118 patients (all female; 51 with constipation, 48 with fecal incontinence, and 19 with rectal prolapse; age, 53±1 years) assessed by HRM, the rectal balloon expulsion test (BET), and MRI at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from February 2011 through March 2013...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
A McBrearty, K McCallion, R J Moorehead, I McAllister, K Mulholland, R Gilliland, W J Campbell
BACKGROUND: In patients with locally advanced or low rectal cancers, long-course chemoradiotherapy (LCCRT) is recommended prior to surgical management.(1) The need for restaging afterwards has been questioned as it may be difficult to interpret imaging due to local tissue effects of chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine if restaging affected the management of patients receiving long-course chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with rectal cancer discussed at the South Eastern Health and Social Care Trust Lower Gastrointestinal Multi-Disciplinary Team Meeting (LGIMDT) in 2013 who had received long-course chemoradiotherapy was performed...
September 2016: Ulster Medical Journal
Peter Bondeven
Rectal cancer constitutes one-third of all colorectal cancers, and the incidence in Denmark increasing. In 2012, 1.400 cases were registered, and of these 38% were located in the upper rectum. There have been several key advances in the optimal management of rectal cancer during the past decades, primarily by standardisation and improvement of the surgical procedure. There is now general agreement that the optimal surgical treatment involves the concept of total mesorectal excision and that a resection with tumour-free margins is crucial...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Wei Phin Tan, Andrew Mazzone, Stephanie Shors, Nency Antoine, Shahid Ekbal, Narendra Khare, Charles McKiel, Dennis Pessis, Leslie Deane
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score was developed to evaluate lesions in the peripheral and transition zone on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate. We aim to determine if the PI-RADS scoring system can be used to evaluate central zone lesions on mpMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 73 patients who underwent mpMRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsy of 143 suspicious lesions between February 2014 and October 2015 was performed...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Mohammad Fazel Bakhsheshi, Yong Wang, Lynn Keenliside, Ting-Yim Lee
BACKGROUND: Target temperature management is the single most effective intervention and the gold standard in post-resuscitation care today. However, cooling the whole body below 33-34 °C can cause severe complications. Therefore, developing a selective brain cooling (SBC) approach which can be initiated early to induce rapid cooling and maintain the target temperature over 12-24 h before slowly rewarming brain temperature by itself alone would be advantageous. Vortex tubes are simple mechanical devices generating cold air from a stream of compressed air without applied chemical or energy...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Manish Chand, Shahnawaz Rasheed, Richard Heald, Ian Swift, Nick West, Sheela Rao, Paris Tekkis, Gina Brown
AIM: MRI-detected extramural venous invasion (mrEMVI) is a poor prognostic factor in rectal cancer. Pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) can cause regression in the severity of EMVI and subsequently improve survival whereas mrEMVI persisting after CRT confers an increased risk of recurrence. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) following CRT on survival in rectal cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a survival advantage for AC given to patients with mrEMVI persisting after CRT...
September 27, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Talisa Ross, Kamran Ahmed, Nicholas Raison, Ben Challacombe, Prokar Dasgupta
INTRODUCTION: Prostate specific antigen is a marker for prostate cancer and a key diagnostic tool, yet when to refer patients with a borderline PSA is currently unclear. This review describes how to assess a patient with borderline PSA and provides an algorithm for management. METHODS: Current literature on reference values, factors affecting PSA, indications for referral, non-invasive investigations and the role of MRI were reviewed. Medline and EMBASE were searched using MeSH terms...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Roberta Fusco, Mario Sansone, Antonella Petrillo
OBJECT: The objective of this study is to propose a modified VARiable PROjection (VARPRO) algorithm specifically tailored for fitting the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) data from locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed algorithm is compared with classical non-linear least squares (NLLS) analysis using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and with two recently proposed algorithms for 'segmented' analysis...
September 26, 2016: Magma
Gustavo Cardoso Guimaraes, Walter Henriques da Costa, Renato Almeida Rosa, Stênio Zequi, Ricardo Favaretto
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the predictive value of TRIMprob test to detect prostate cancer (PCa) in patients referred to prostate biopsy (PB). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with PSA <10ng/mL and rectal exam without findings suggestive of prostate cancer were selected for TRIMprob evaluation. Exam was performed by a single operator through transperineal approach. Patients admitted for the study were submitted to TRIMprob and multiparametric mag¬netic resonance (mpMRI) and posteriorly to PB...
September 20, 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Jing Yu, Qing Xu, Jia-Cheng Song, Yan Li, Xin Dai, Dong-Ya Huang, Ling Zhang, Yang Li, Hai-Bin Shi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility and value of diffusion kurtosis (DK) imaging in assessing treatment response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHODS: Forty-one patients were included. All patients underwent pre- and post-CRT DCE-MRI on a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Imaging indices (D app , K app and ADC values) were measured. Change value (∆X) and change ratio (r∆X) were calculated. Pathological tumour regression grade scores (Mandard) were the standard reference (good responders: pTRG 1-2; poor responders: pTRG 3-5)...
September 8, 2016: European Radiology
Yu Ri Shin, Kyung Ah Kim, Soyoung Im, Seong Su Hwang, Kijun Kim
AIM: The purpose of the study was to investigate imaging predictors of Kirsten-ras (KRAS) mutations using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 275 patients with rectal cancer were enrolled. They underwent pretreatment rectal MRI, and then KRAS mutation evaluation following surgery. Two reviewers assessed diverse MRI findings associated with rectal cancer. RESULTS: KRAS mutations were detected in 107 (38...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
Minna Räsänen, Ari Ristimäki, Ritja Savolainen, Laura Renkonen-Sinisalo, Anna Lepistö
AIM: The primary purpose of this study was to analyse the overall survival and local recurrence rate after extended resection of locally advanced rectal cancer. The second aim was to determine the ability of radiological irradiation response to predict R0 resection. METHOD: A retrospective study was performed of 94 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer operated on at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland during 2005-2013. Data were collected from patient records...
September 13, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
M Barral, C Eveno, C Hoeffel, M Boudiaf, P Bazeries, R Foucher, M Pocard, A Dohan, P Soyer
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays now a major role in patients with colorectal cancer regarding tumor staging, surgical planning, therapeutic decision, assessment of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy and surveillance of rectal cancer, and detection and characterization of liver or peritoneal metastasis of colorectal cancers. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is a functional imaging tool that is now part of the standard MRI protocol for the investigation of patients with colorectal cancer. DW-MRI reflects micro-displacements of water molecules in tissues and conveys high degrees of accuracy to discriminate between benign and malignant colorectal conditions...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Visceral Surgery
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