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Rectal MRI

Maryam Alfa-Wali, Samantha Muktar, Dimitrios Pissas, Ceri Slater
A 48-year-old man presented as an emergency with a 3-week history of rectal bleeding. Examination of his rectum revealed a circumferential tumour, 2 cm from the anal verge. An MRI scan reported a locally infiltrative mid-lower rectal tumour staged as T3d/T4 N2 MX. A colonoscopy revealed appearances of severe proctitis and biopsies did not show any evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. The patient was discussed at the regional colorectal cancer multidisciplinary team meeting with a management plan for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy following repeat biopsies, which were again negative for malignancy...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Valeria Molinelli, Maria Gloria Angeretti, Ejona Duka, Nicola Tarallo, Elena Bracchi, Raffaele Novario, Carlo Fugazzola
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the addition of gadolinium-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) improves T2 sequence performance for the diagnosis of local recurrence (LR) from rectal cancer and to assess which approach is better at formulating this diagnosis among readers with different experience. METHODS: Forty-three patients with suspected LR underwent pelvic MRI with T2 weighted (T2) sequences, gadolinium fat-suppressed T1 weighted sequences (post-contrast T1), and DWI sequences...
March 14, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
I Thomassin-Naggara, S Bendifallah, P Rousset, M Bazot, M Ballester, E Darai
Diagnostic performance of MR imaging for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis are good. Even if some differences of performances exists according the location considered, the risk of misdiagnosis is lower than 10% for trained teams (NP2). The performance of pelvic MR imaging and surgery are quite similar to diagnose endometrioma (sensitivity and specificity>90%). A negative pelvic MR imaging allows to exclude deep pelvic endometriosis with a performance similar to surgery but a positive MR imaging is less accurate than surgery because of a high number of false positives (23%)...
March 11, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Juha Knaapila, Heini Kallio, Antti J Hakanen, Kari Syvänen, Otto Ettala, Esa Kähkönen, Tarja Lamminen, Marjo Seppänen, Ivan Jambor, Antti Rannikko, Jarno Riikonen, Eveliina Munukka, Erkki Eerola, Marianne Gunell, Peter J Boström
OBJECTIVES: To determine, in a prospective, multicenter setting, the prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli strains in men undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) in Finland and to survey the associated risk factors for having the previously mentioned strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a substudy of the trial investigating the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate cancer diagnosis (multi-IMPROD, NCT02241122)...
March 13, 2018: BJU International
Ewa Juresic, Gary P Liney, Robba Rai, Joseph Descalar, Mark Lee, Karen Wong, Daniel Moses, Jacqueline Veera, Lois Holloway
INTRODUCTION: A magnetic resonance (MR) scanner for radiotherapy treatment simulation was commissioned in our department in June 2013. Practical set up and MR image quality trade-offs using a variety of patient positions and immobilisation devices routinely used in the treatment planning of rectal cancer patients were considered. The study also aimed to investigate the MR compatibility of the device materials with a focus on temperature changes during routine clinical examinations. METHODS: Ten volunteers were scanned: (1) Prone on a Civco Contoura Bellyboard (BBB), (2) Prone on a Civco MR Series Bellyboard (WBB), (3) Prone with no bellyboard and (4) Supine...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Siamak Sabour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Pierre Graff, Daniel Portalez, Amélie Lusque, Thomas Brun, Richard Aziza, Jonathan Khalifa, Mathieu Roumiguié, Marie-Laure Quintyn Ranty, Thomas Filleron, Jean-Marc Bachaud, Bernard Malavaud
PURPOSE: Focal therapy of prostate cancer requires precise positioning of therapeutic agents within well-characterized index tumors (ITs). We assessed the feasibility of low-dose-rate ultrafocal brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The present study was an institutional review board-approved European Clinical Trials Database-registered phase II protocol. Patients referred (October 2013 to August 2016) for active surveillance (prostate-specific antigen <10 ng/mL, cT1c-cT2a, Gleason score on referring biopsy specimens ≤6 (3+3), ≤3 positive biopsy cores, ≤50% of cancer) were preselected...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
J X Zhang, Z Yang, P Fan, J J Zhang, L Xin, L N Hou, X S Du, X T Yang
Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of MRI features and pathological parameters on local recurrence, metastasis and progression free survival (PFS) for locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and subsequent total mesorectal excision surgery. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 95 patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent total mesorectal excision after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the predictive value of MRI features before chemoradiation and postoperative pathological parameters on progression free survival...
February 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
Shoko Merrit Yamada, Yusuke Tomita, Soichiro Shibui, Mikiko Takahashi, Masashi Kawamoto, Sumihito Nobusawa, Junko Hirato
Astroblastoma is a rare tumor that is thought to occur exclusively in the cerebrum. To the authors' knowledge, no cases of spinal cord astroblastoma have been reported. A 20-year-old woman presented with numbness in her legs. MRI demonstrated a 2-cm intramedullary enhancing lesion in the spinal cord at the T-1 level. The patient declined to undergo resection of the tumor because she was able to walk unassisted; however, she returned for surgery 1 month later because she had developed paraplegia with bladder and rectal dysfunction, and MRI showed enlargement of the tumor...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Kentaro Maeda, Katsushige Iwai, Yosuke Kobayashi, Hirotake Tsuji, Tomokatsu Yoshida, Yasushi Kobayashi
A 51-year-old woman presented with progressive weakness of the neck extensor muscles and gait disturbances since the past 6 years. In addition, she presented with symptoms such as dysarthria, dysphagia, bladder, and rectal disturbances. Bilateral plantar reflex was positive. Her gait was short-stepped-spastic. Brain and cervical MRI showed atrophy of the medulla and spinal cord. As these imaging features were suggestive of Alexander disease (AxD), we sequenced the GFAP gene. We identified a heterozygous c.368T>C missense mutation of the GFAP gene in the patient...
February 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Tomohiro Tate, Yudai Fukui, Kenji Tomizawa, Yutaka Hanaoka, Shigeo Toda, Shuichiro Matoba, Hiroya Kuroyanagi
BACKGROUND: The local recurrence of rectal cancer classifies 4 types, anterior, posterior, lateral compartment and anastomotic site. This study evaluates outcome of laparoscopic lateral lymph node dissection(LLND)against the lateral lymph node recurrence. METHOD: Five patients were diagnosed as the lateral lymph node recurrence and underwent laparoscopic LLND. We diagnosed the lateral lymph node recurrence by CT, MRI and PET-CT. All cases revealed abnormal uptake on PET-CT...
February 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Colin McQuade, Peadar S Waters, Ciara O'Brien, Stephen Crowther, William Torreggiani, Dara O Kavanagh
INTRODUCTION: Intussusception in adults is a rare condition, accounting for just 5% of all cases. Approximately 50% of cases of large intestine intussusception occur due to a malignant neoplasm. We present here a novel case report of colo-rectal intussusception arising secondary to a primary rectal melanoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the case of an 85 year-old patient, who underwent a colonoscopy for investigation of weight loss and altered bowel habit. At colonoscopy, a pigmented polypoid mass was visualised in the upper third of the rectum...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jessica Bogach, Scott Tsai, Kevin Zbuk, Raimond Wong, Vanja Grubac, Angela Coates, Gregory R Pond, Marko Simunovic
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment decisions for rectal cancer rely on preoperative staging with CT and MRI scans. We assessed the quality of such scans in a region of Ontario. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data for patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery between July 2011 and December 2014. We measured three aspects of quality: use; comprehensiveness of reporting T-category, N-category, mesorectal fascia (MRF) status; and in non-radiated patients sensitivity and specificity of reports for relevant elements...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
A Palmisano, A Esposito, A Di Chiara, A Ambrosi, P Passoni, N Slim, C Fiorino, L Albarello, N Di Muzio, R Calandrino, R Rosati, A Del Maschio, F De Cobelli
AIM: To investigate the potential role of an additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination performed during neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in the prediction of pathological response in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight consecutive patients with LARC underwent neoadjuvant CRT. MRI studies at 1.5 T, including high-resolution T2-weighted sequences that were acquired parallel and perpendicular to the main axis of the tumour were performed before (preMRI), during (midMRI), and 6-8 weeks after the end of CRT (postMRI)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Yanyan Xu, Qiaoyu Xu, Hongliang Sun, Tongxi Liu, Kaining Shi, Wu Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of DW-MRI relative parameters for differentiation of rectal cancers with different Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) mutation status. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with rectal cancer underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging with eight b values. ADCs (including Max-ADC, Min-ADC and Mean-ADC) and IVIM parameters (D, pure diffusion; f, perfusion fraction; D*, pseudodiffusion coefficient) were respectively calculated by mono- and bi-exponential analysis...
February 15, 2018: European Radiology
Hongliang Sun, Yanyan Xu, Aiping Song, Kaining Shi, Wu Wang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-DWI derived parameters and their relationships with tumor prognostic markers using 3-T MRI in patients with rectal cancer. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients with histopathologically proven rectal cancer who underwent preoperative pelvic MRI were prospectively enrolled in this study. Diffusion and perfusion parameters including the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient, perfusion fraction, and pseudodiffusion coefficient derived from IVIMDWI were independently measured by two radiologists...
February 15, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Yiqun Sun, Panpan Hu, Jiazhou Wang, Lijun Shen, Fan Xia, Gan Qing, Weigang Hu, Zhen Zhang, Chao Xin, Weijun Peng, Tong Tong, Yajia Gu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that magnetic resonance (MR) radiomic analysis is feasible and has some value in identifying tumor characteristics, but there are few data regarding the role of MR-based radiomic features in rectal cancer. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether radiomic features extracted from T2 -weighted imaging (T2 WI) can identify pathological features in rectal cancer. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Lee Goddard, Nils P Brodin, William R Bodner, Madhur Garg, Wolfgang A Tomé
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether photon or proton based SBRT is the preferred modality for high dose hypofractionation prostate cancer treatment. Achievable dose distributions were compared when uncertainties in target positioning and range uncertainties were appropriately accounted for. METHODS: Ten patients with prostate cancer previously treated at our institution with photon SBRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were identified. MRI images fused to the treatment planning CT allowed for accurate target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
A R Wijsmuller, C Giraudeau, J Leroy, G J Kleinrensink, E Rociu, L G Romagnolo, A G F Melani, V Agnus, M Diana, L Soler, B Dallemagne, J Marescaux, D Mutter
BACKGROUND: Long-term morbidity after multimodal treatment for rectal cancer is suggested to be mainly made up by nerve-injury-related dysfunctions. Stereotactic navigation for rectal surgery was shown to be feasible and will be facilitated by highlighting structures at risk of iatrogenic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to make a 3D map of the pelvic nerves with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify a main positional reference for each pelvic nerve and plexus...
February 12, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Lotte Jacobs, David B Meek, Joost van Heukelom, Thomas L Bollen, Peter D Siersema, Anke B Smits, Ellen Tromp, Maartje Los, Bas Lam Weusten, Niels van Lelyveld
Background and aim: Endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used routinely in the diagnostic and preoperative work-up of rectal cancer. We aimed to compare colonoscopy and MRI in determining rectal tumor height. Methods: Between 2002 and 2012, all patients with rectal cancer with available MRIs and endoscopy reports were included. All MRIs were reassessed for tumor height by two abdominal radiologists. To obtain insight in techniques used for endoscopic determination of tumor height, a survey among regional endoscopists was conducted...
February 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
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