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Isabel Ortuño-Lizarán, Guillermo Vilariño-Feltrer, Cristina Martínez-Ramos, Manuel Monleón Pradas, Ana Vallés-Lluch
Hydrogels have widely been proposed lately as strategies for neural tissue regeneration, but there are still some issues to be solved before their efficient use in tissue engineering of trauma, stroke or the idiopathic degeneration of the nervous system. In a previous work of the authors a novel Schwann-cell structure with the shape of a hollow cylinder was obtained using a three-dimensional conduit based in crosslinked hyaluronic acid as template. This original engineered tissue of tightly joined Schwann cells obtained in a conduit lumen having 400 μm in diameter is a consequence of specific cell-material interactions...
October 24, 2016: Biofabrication
Kathryn M Kingsmore, Daniel K Logsdon, Desiree H Floyd, Shayn M Peirce, Benjamin W Purow, Jennifer M Munson
Glioblastoma (GBM) prognosis remains dismal due in part to the invasiveness of GBM cells. Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) has been shown to increase invasion of glioma cells in vitro through the CXCR4 receptor interacting with autologous, pericellular gradients of CXCL12 (autologous chemotaxis) or through the CD44 receptor interactions with the extracellular matrix (hyaluronan-mediated mechanotransduction). These mechanisms have not been examined together and thus we hypothesized that both mechanisms contribute to invasion in populations of cancer cells...
October 24, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
S Thönes, L M Kutz, S Oehmichen, J Becher, K Heymann, A Saalbach, W Knolle, M Schnabelrauch, S Reichelt, U Anderegg
Cryogels made of components of natural extracellular matrix components are potent biomaterials for bioengineering and regenerative medicine. Human dermal fibroblasts are key cells for tissue replacement during wound healing. Thus, any biomaterial for wound healing applications should enable growth, differentiation and matrix synthesis by these cells. Cryogels are highly porous scaffolds consisting of a network of interconnected pores. Here, we used a novel group of cryogels generated from acrylated hyaluronan where the polymerization was initiated by accelerated electrons (E-beam)...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Aarti Sharma, Dai Rees, Sally Roberts, Nicola J Kuiper
BACKGROUND: Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been used to treat cartilage defects in thousands of patients worldwide with good clinical effectiveness 10-20years after implantation. Information concerning the quality of the repair cartilage is still limited because biopsies are small and rare. Glycosaminoglycan structure influences physiological function and is likely to be important in the long term stability of the repair tissue. The aim of this study was to assess glycosaminoglycans in ACI tissue over a two year period...
October 20, 2016: Knee
Roshini Fernando, Ekaterina Placzek, Edmund A Reese, Andrew T Placzek, Samantha Schwartz, Aaron Trierweiler, Leslie M Niziol, Stephen Atkins, Thomas S Scanlan, Terry J Smith
CONTEXT: The sources and biological impact of 3,3',5,5' tetraiodothyroacetic acid (TA4) are uncertain. CD34(+) fibrocytes express several proteins involved in the production of thyroid hormones. They infiltrate the orbit in Graves' disease (GD), an autoimmune process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. It appears that the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TAO. OBJECTIVE: To quantify levels of TA4 in healthy subjects and those with Graves' disease...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lydia Edjekouane, Samira Benhadjeba, Maïka Jangal, Hubert Fleury, Nicolas Gévry, Euridice Carmona, André Tremblay
Chromosomal and genome abnormalities at the 3p21.3 locus are frequent events linked to epithelial cancers, including ovarian and breast cancers. Genes encoded in the 3p21.3 cluster include HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 members of hyaluronidases involved in the breakdown of hyaluronan, an abundant component of the vertebrate extracellular matrix. However, the transcriptional regulation of HYAL genes is poorly defined. Here, we identified the estrogen receptor ERα as a negative regulator of HYAL1 expression in breast cancer cells...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Theerawut Chanmee, Pawared Ontong, Tomomi Izumikawa, Miho Higashide, Nobutoshi Mochizuki, Chatchadawalai Chokchaitaweesuk, Manatsanan Khansai, Kazuki Nakajima, Ikuko Kakizaki, Prachya Kongtawelert, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Naoki Itano
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of self-renewing oncogenic cells. Like many other stem cells, metabolic reprogramming has been implicated to be a key characteristic of CSCs. However, little is known on how the metabolic features of cancer cells are controlled to orchestrate their CSC-like properties. We recently demonstrated that hyaluronan (HA) overproduction allowed plastic cancer cells to revert to stem-cell states. Here, we adopted stable isotope-assisted tracing and mass spectrometry profiling to elucidate the metabolic features of HA-overproducing breast cancer cells...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yin Chen, Megan Reddy, Yanlei Yu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were prepared from the muscular stomach or gizzard of the chicken. The content of GAGs on a dry weight basis contains 0.4 wt.% a typical value observed for a muscle tissue. The major GAG components were chondroitin-6-sulfate and chondroitin-4-sulfate (~64 %) of molecular weight 21-22 kDa. Hyaluronan (~24 %) had a molecular weight 120 kDa. Smaller amounts (12 %) of heparan sulfate was also present which was made of more highly sulfated chains of molecular weight of 21-22 kDa and a less sulfated low molecular weight (< 10 kDa) heterogeneous partially degraded heparan sulfate...
October 17, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Evgenia Karousou, Suniti Misra, Shibnath Ghatak, Katalin Dobra, Martin Götte, Davide Vigetti, Alberto Passi, Nikos K Karamanos, Spyros S Skandalis
Synthesis, deposition, and interactions of hyaluronan (HA) with its cellular receptor CD44 are crucial events that regulate the onset and progression of tumors. The intracellular signaling pathways initiated by HA interactions with CD44 leading to tumorigenic responses are complex. Moreover, HA molecules may perform dual functions depending on their concentration and size. Overexpression of variant isoforms of CD44 (CD44v) is most commonly linked to cancer progression, whereas their loss is associated with inhibition of tumor growth...
October 13, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Manuela Viola, Kathrin Brüggemann, Evgenia Karousou, Ilaria Caon, Elena Caravà, Davide Vigetti, Burkhard Greve, Christian Stock, Giancarlo De Luca, Alberto Passi, Martin Götte
Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans modulate numerous cellular processes relevant to tumour progression, including cell proliferation, cell-matrix interactions, cell motility and invasive growth. Among the glycosaminoglycans with a well-documented role in tumour progression are heparan sulphate, chondroitin/dermatan sulphate and hyaluronic acid/hyaluronan. While the mode of biosynthesis differs for sulphated glycosaminoglycans, which are synthesised in the ER and Golgi compartments, and hyaluronan, which is synthesized at the plasma membrane, these polysaccharides partially compete for common substrates...
October 15, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Li Shi, Florent Carn, François Boué, Eric Buhler
Aggregation of nanoparticles of given size R induced by addition of a polymer strongly depends on its degree of rigidity. This is shown here on a large variety of silica nanoparticle self-assemblies obtained by electrostatic complexation with carefully selected oppositely charged biopolyelectrolytes of different rigidity. The effective rigidity is quantified by the total persistence length L_{T} representing the sum of the intrinsic (L_{p}) and electrostatic (L_{e}) polyelectrolyte persistence length, which depends on the screening, i...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Elita Montanari, Arianna Gennari, Maria Pelliccia, Charlotte Gourmel, Enrique Lallana, Pietro Matricardi, Andrew J McBain, Nicola Tirelli
Nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid (HA) are designed to deliver tannic acid (TA) as an antimicrobial agent. The presence of HA makes these particles potentially useful to target bacteria that colonize cells presenting HA membrane receptors (e.g. CD44), such as macrophages. HA bearing 3-aminophenyl boronic acid groups (HA-APBA) is reacted with TA, yielding nanoparticles with a size that decreases with decreasing HA molecular weight (e.g. 200 nm for 44 kDa, 400 nm for 737 kDa). The boronate esters make the nanoparticles stable at physiological pH, but their hydrolysis in an acidic environment (pH = 5) leads to swelling/solubilization, therefore potentially allowing TA release in endosomal compartments...
October 13, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Zdeněk Fryšák, David Karásek, Milan Halenka
Endocrine orbitopathy (EO) must be understood mainly as a result of oxidative stress. The pathological process finally affects both the appearance and vision of the patient. In the case of inappropriate or late treatment or lack of patient cooperation, it significantly influences the quality of life of those affected. In spite of the sophisticated dia-gnostic algorithms, in some cases it is difficult to confirm the diagnosis of EO. The range of laboratory methods, the essential part of the diagnostic process, has only recently been extended by the possibility of quantification of specific, stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI)...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Suneale Banerji, William Lawrance, Clive Metcalfe, David C Briggs, Akira Yamauchi, Omer Dushek, P Anton Van Der Merwe, Anthony J Day, David G Jackson
The lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor LYVE-1 is implicated in uptake of hyaluronan (HA) and trafficking of leucocytes to draining lymph nodes. Yet LYVE-1 has only weak affinity for hyaluronan, and depends on receptor clustering and higher-order ligand organisation for durable binding in lymphatic endothelium. An unusual feature of LYVE-1 not found in other HA receptors is the potential to form disulfide-linked homodimers. However their influence on function has not been investigated. Here we show LYVE-1 homodimers are the predominant configuration in lymphatic endothelium in vitro and in vivo and formation requires solely the unpaired cysteine residue C201 within the membrane-proximal domain, yielding a 15 fold higher HA binding affinity and ~ 70 fold slower off-rate than monomer...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ruiqing Yao, Miyuki Tanaka, Eriko Misawa, Marie Saito, Kazumi Nabeshima, Koji Yamauchi, Fumiaki Abe, Yuki Yamamoto, Fukumi Furukawa
Estrogen deficiencies associated with menopause accelerate spontaneous skin aging and stimulate the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced photoaging of skin. However, food compositions with the potential to ameliorate the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging with menopause have not yet been investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the ability of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel to prevent the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging in ovariectomized mice. Skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was significantly higher in the ovariectomy group than in the sham operation group following UVB irradiation, whereas skin elasticity was significantly lower...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Waleed F A Marei, D Claire Wathes, Kabir A Raheem, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Fataneh Ghafari, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta
An increasing number of reports suggests a role of hyaluronan (HA) in female reproduction and interest in its application in assisted reproduction is rising. However, there are contrasting data about the effectiveness of adding HA to the embryo-transfer medium on improving pregnancy rates. Using sheep as an experimental model, the studies reported here analysed the impact of HA infusion into the uterus on embryo attachment to uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and expression of selected markers of uterine receptivity...
October 11, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Antonietta Stellavato, Luisana Corsuto, Antonella D'Agostino, Annalisa La Gatta, Paola Diana, Patrizia Bernini, Mario De Rosa, Chiara Schiraldi
Hyaluronic Acid (HA)-based dermal formulations have rapidly gained a large consensus in aesthetic medicine and dermatology. HA, highly expressed in the Extracellular Matrix (ECM), acts as an activator of biological cascades, stimulating cell migration and proliferation, and operating as a regulator of the skin immune surveillance, through specific interactions with its receptors. HA may be used in topical formulations, as dermal inducer, for wound healing. Moreover, intradermal HA formulations (injectable HA) provide an attractive tool to counteract skin aging (e...
2016: PloS One
Savita Mallikarjun, Abhilash Neelakanti, Harsha Mysore Babu, Sujatha Ballambettu Pai, Sachin Vaijnathrao Shinde, Swathi Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are the predominant leukocytes in the periodontium, which prevent infection from periodontal pathogens and subsequent tissue destruction. A potentially destructive role has been elucidated, especially due to elastase enzyme. Controlling its levels might be crucial in minimizing the tissue destruction. Hyaluronan, known to inhibit the release of this enzyme from neutrophils, might be a viable option to treat chronic periodontitis. AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the effects of 0...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Silvina Laura Lompardía, Mariángeles Díaz, Daniela Laura Papademetrio, Matías Pibuel, Élida Álvarez, Silvia Elvira Hajos
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative syndrome characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome which encodes a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL). The first line treatment for CML consists on BCR-ABL inhibitors such as Imatinib. Nevertheless, such treatment may lead to the selection of resistant cells. Therefore, it is of great value to find molecules that enhance the anti-proliferative effect of first-line drugs. Hyaluronan is the main glycosaminglican of the extracellular matrix which is involved in tumor progression and multidrug resistance...
October 8, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
John Christian Givhan Spainhour, Peng Qiu
BACKGROUND: With the advent of large scale biological data collection for various diseases, data analysis pipelines and workflows need to be established to build frameworks for integrative analysis. Here the authors present a pipeline for identifying disease specific gene-drug interactions using CNV (Copy Number Variation) and clinical data from the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) project. Two cancer types were selected for analysis, LGG (Brain lower grade glioma) and GBM (Glioblastoma multiforme), due to the possible progression from LGG to GBM in some cases...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
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