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Hyaluronan

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655072/oral-administration-of-glycine-and-leucine-dipeptides-improves-skin-hydration-and-elasticity-in-uvb-irradiated-hairless-mice
#1
Jong Il Park, Ji Eun Lee, Hyun Jun Shin, Soonran Song, Won Kyung Lee, Jae Sung Hwang
Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity in vitro and in vivo. We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not...
June 27, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649193/repeated-low-intensity-blast-exposure-is-associated-with-damaged-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-downstream-behavioral-deficits
#2
Aaron A Hall, Mirian I Mendoza, Hanbing Zhou, Michael Shaughness, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard M McCarron, Stephen T Ahlers
Current clinical research into mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has focused on white matter changes as identified by advanced MRI based imaging techniques. However, perivascular tau accumulation in the brains of individuals diagnosed with mTBI suggests that the vasculature plays a key role in the pathology. This study used a rat model to examine whether the endothelial glycocalyx, a layer of the vasculature responsible for sensing luminal shear forces, is damaged by exposure to repeated low intensity blast, and whether this layer is associated with observed behavioral deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647849/the-clinical-outcomes-of-using-a-new-cross-linked-hyaluronan-gel-in-endoscopic-frontal-sinus-surgery
#3
Teoman Dal, Seçil Bahar
In endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) synechiae formation and ostial stenosis are frequently encountered. This is not uncommon after frontal recess and ostium interventions due to the narrow recess and difficult anatomy of the region. The goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the new cross-linked hyaluronan gel-PureRegen(®) Gel Sinus-on wound healing and synechiae prevention in endoscopic frontal sinus surgery. The study consists of two groups of patients who underwent ESS, including frontal sinus surgery...
June 24, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646530/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#4
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641565/d-amino-acid-analogues-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cdt-exhibit-anti-cancer-properties-in-a549-a-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#5
Deborah L Heyl, Hedeel Guy Evans, Jeff Guthrie, Murali Jujjavarapu, Nathan Hendrickson, Anna Eitel, Yeji Park, Jennifer Garvey, Rebecca Newman, Daniel Esckilsen
The importance of the antitumor activity of some antimicrobial peptides is being increasingly recognized. The antimicrobial peptide, tachyplesin, has been shown to exhibit anticancer properties and a linear, cysteine deleted analogue (CDT), was found to retain its antibacterial function. We used sequence reversal and D-amino acids to synthesize four CDT analogues. We found that D-CDT exhibited the best bactericidal properties with the highest selectivity index. While the MIC was found to improve only modestly against S...
June 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639541/influence-of-hyaluronan-nasal-dressing-on-clinical-outcome-after-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
J Chen, X Wang, L Chen, J Liu
INTRODUCTION: Hyaluronan nasal dressing might be promising in promoting reepithelialization after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). However, the results remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the effects of hyaluronan nasal dressing on clinical outcome after ESS. METHODS: Medical literature data bases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed the effect of hyaluronan nasal dressing on the outcome after ESS were included...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#7
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633290/planning-evaluating-and-vetting-receptor-signaling-studies-to-assesshyaluronan-size-dependence-and-specificity
#8
Paul H Weigel
Exciting discoveries in many diverse fields of hyaluronan (HA) biology over the last 40 years have centered around the ability of HA to bind cell surface HA receptors (e.g. CD44, Layilin, LYVE-1, HARE/Stab2 and RHAMM) and sometimes also to activate intracellular signal transduction pathways, frequently involving ERK1/2. Though perplexing, a major characteristic of HA-mediated signal pathway activation for some receptors has been a dependence on the size of the bound HA. Receptors that directly interact with HA, which may not include TLR2/4, bind very well to any HA molecule > 8-20 sugars, depending on the receptor...
June 13, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631800/a-hyaluronidase-temperature-dual-responsive-supramolecular-assembly-based-on-the-anionic-recognition-of-calixpyridinium
#9
Kui Wang, Jian-Hua Cui, Si-Yang Xing, Xiao-Wei Ren
We have successfully constructed a supramolecular assembly based on the anionic recognition of calixpyridinium for the first time employing native biocompatible polysaccharide hyaluronan as the guest, which showed hyaluronidase-responsive disassembly and temperature-responsive morphological conversion from a nanosphere to a nanosquare upon increasing the temperature.
June 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629001/biomimetic-electrospun-scaffolds-from-main-extracellular-matrix-components-for-skin-tissue-engineering-application-the-role-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-sulfated-hyaluronan
#10
Sirsendu Bhowmick, Sandra Rother, Heike Zimmermann, Poh S Lee, Stephanie Moeller, Matthias Schnabelrauch, Veena Koul, Rainer Jordan, Vera Hintze, Dieter Scharnweber
Incorporation of bioactive components like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) into tissue engineering scaffolds, is a promising approach towards developing new generation functional biomaterial. Here, we have designed electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds made of gelatin and different concentrations of chemically sulfated or non-sulfated hyaluronan (sHA or HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). Evenly distributed fiber morphology was observed with no differences between varying concentrations and types of GAGs. In vitro release kinetics revealed that GAGs release is driven by diffusion...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627617/sorafenib-controls-the-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-egf-and-the-cd44%C3%A2-ha-signaling-pathway-in-a-cell-type%C3%A2-dependent-manner
#11
Ga Bin Park, Hyun-Suk Ko, Daejin Kim
Cluster of differentiation (CD) 44 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are closely involved in cellular migration and have been used as stem cell markers. Although the hyaluronan (HA)‑binding CD44 is responsible for enhanced cellular motility, the mechanism underlying its actions in various cell types and clinical conditions have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib was used to investigate the diverse effects of EGF stimulation on epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ovarian cancer cells using immunoblotting and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625726/pulmonary-administration-of-soluble-antigen-arrays-is-superior-to-antigen-in-treatment-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Christopher Kuehl, Sharadvi Thati, Bradley Sullivan, Joshua Sestak, Michael Thompson, Teruna Siahaan, Cory Berkland
Antigen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) has been used to hyposensitize patients to allergens and offers an enticing approach for attenuating autoimmune diseases. Applying ASIT to mucosal surfaces such as the lungs may engage unique immune response pathways to improve efficacy. Pulmonary delivery of soluble antigen arrays (SAgAs) was explored in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a multiple sclerosis model. SAgAs were designed to impede immune response to autoantigen epitopes and are composed of a hyaluronan backbone with peptides PLP139-151 and LABL, a disease-causing proteolipid peptide epitope and an ICAM-1 ligand, respectively...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625420/formation-and-remodeling-of-the-brain-extracellular-matrix-in-neural-plasticity-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronan
#13
REVIEW
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the brain is rich in glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan. These glycosaminoglycans are organized into either diffuse or condensed ECM. Diffuse ECM is distributed throughout the brain and fills perisynaptic spaces, whereas condensed ECM selectively surrounds parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV cells) in mesh-like structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The brain ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neural plasticity and axon regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618228/mechanical-properties-and-cell-compatibility-of-agarose-hydrogels-containing-proteoglycan-mimetic-graft-copolymers
#14
Hannah M Pauly, Laura W Place, Tammy L Haut Donahue, Matt J Kipper
Proteoglycans have vital biochemical and biomechanical functions. Their proteolytic degradation results in loss of these functions. We have previously reported non-protein proteoglycan-mimetic graft copolymers that stabilize and deliver growth factors and are not subject to proteases. Here we expand our investigation of these proteoglycan mimics by also investigating their effects on hydrogel mechanical properties. Four polysaccharide side chains - chondroitin sulfate, heparin, dextran, and dextran sulfate - are each grafted to a hyaluronan backbone...
June 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606795/endothelium-independent-primitive-myxoid-vascularization-creates-invertebrate-like-channels-to-maintain-blood-supply-in-optic-gliomas
#15
Matija Snuderl, Guoan Zhang, Pamela Wu, Tara S Jennings, Seema Shroff, Valerio Ortenzi, Rajan Jain, Benjamin Cohen, Jason J Reidy, Mitchell S Dushay, Jeffrey H Wisoff, David H Harter, Matthias A Karajannis, David Fenyo, Thomas A Neubert, David Zagzag
Optic gliomas are brain tumors characterized by slow growth, progressive loss of vision, and limited therapeutic options. Optic gliomas contain various amounts of myxoid matrix, which can represent most of the tumor mass. We sought to investigate biological function and protein structure of the myxoid matrix in optic gliomas to identify novel therapeutic targets. We reviewed histological features and clinical imaging properties, analyzed vasculature by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, and performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on optic gliomas, which varied in the amount of myxoid matrix...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606534/ternary-polysaccharide-complexes-colloidal-drug-delivery-systems-stabilized-in-physiological-media
#16
Danjun Wu, Agathe Ensinas, Bernard Verrier, Armelle Cuvillier, Gaël Champier, Stephane Paul, Thierry Delair
Chitosan-hyaluronan (HYA) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were designed to maintain their colloidal stabilities in physiological ionic strength and pH, via a new concept of ternary complexes. This strategy relied on the formation of a binary PEC between chitosan and a strong polyacid, dextran sulphate (DS) or heparin (HEP), and further functionalization with HYA. The major parameter leading to stabilized colloids was a high ratio of the degrees of polymerization of chitosan versus the strong polyacid. The process afforded either positive or negative particles when HYA was used in default or in excess (vs...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606260/-the-stepwise-establishment-of-standardized-treatment-for-the-thyroid-eye-disease
#17
J Qian
Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the orbital tissue, hyaluronan deposition and tissue remodeling due to a skewed production of preadipocytic fibroblasts and increased adipogenesis in the late stage. Its progression is strongly related to the functional status of thyroid. So far, there is no consensus on staging, grading and treatment worldwide owning to the complexity of its clinical manifestations and therapies. However, it is of great importance to accurately judge its status and make individualized therapeutic regimen...
June 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605176/reduction-and-ph-sensitive-hyaluronan-nanoparticles-for-delivery-of-iridium-iii-anticancer-drugs
#18
Zhixiang Cai, Hongbin Zhang, Yue Wei, Yuanyuan Wei, Yanping Xie, Fengsong Cong
The organoiridium(III) complex (Ir(III)) [(η(5)-Cp(xbiph))Ir(phpy) (py)]PF6 containing π-bonded biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl(Cp(xbiph)), C∧N-chelated phenylpyridine(phpy), and pyridine (py) ligands has more potent antitumor activity as a new generation of drug than cisplatin toward various cancer cells. However, poor site-specific delivery, low solubility, and poor tumor penetration are common limitations of chemotherapy drugs. To develop CD44-targetable, pH-, and reduction-responsive drug delivery systems for Ir(III) drugs, the amphiphilic hyaluronan (HA)-based conjugates of HA-cystamin-pyrenyl (HA-ss-Py) containing disulfide bonds and HA-pyrenyl (HA-Py) were designed...
June 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605029/the-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment-a-true-double-agent
#19
REVIEW
Laleh G Melstrom, Marcela D Salazar, Don J Diamond
The tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer is a complex balance of pro- and anti-tumor components. The dense desmoplasia consists of immune cells, extracellular matrix, growth factors, cytokines, and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) or pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). There are a multitude of targets including hyaluronan, angiogenesis, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), CD40, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR-4), immunotherapy, and Vitamin D. The developing clinical therapeutics will be reviewed...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604766/the-deubiquitinating-enzymes-usp4-and-usp17-target-hyaluronan-synthase-2-and-differentially-affect-its-function
#20
M Mehić, V K de Sa, S Hebestreit, C-H Heldin, P Heldin
The levels of hyaluronan, a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan prominent in the extracellular matrix, is balanced through the actions of hyaluronan-synthesizing enzymes (HAS1, 2 and 3) and degrading hyaluronidases (Hyal 1, 2, 3 and PH20). Hyaluronan accumulates in rapidly remodeling tissues, such as breast cancer, due to deregulated expression of the HAS2 gene and/or alterations of HAS2 activity. The activity of HAS2 is regulated by post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination. In order to identify deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that are involved in de-ubiquitination of HAS2, a complementary (cDNA) library of 69 Flag-HA-tagged human DUBs cloned into retroviral vectors was screened in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells for their ability to de-ubiquitinate myc-tagged HAS2...
June 12, 2017: Oncogenesis
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