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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537848/influence-of-endurance-training-on-skeletal-muscle-mitophagy-regulatory-proteins-in-type-2-diabetic-men
#1
Christian Brinkmann, Axel Przyklenk, Alexander Metten, Thorsten Schiffer, Wilhelm Bloch, Klara Brixius, Sebastian Gehlert
BACKGROUND: Mitophagy is a form of autophagy for the elimination of mitochondria. Mitochondrial content and function are reduced in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Physical training has been shown to restore mitochondrial capacity in T2DM patients, but the role of mitophagy has not been examined in this context. This study analyzes the impact of a 3-month endurance training on important skeletal muscle mitophagy regulatory proteins and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in T2DM patients...
May 24, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530381/diabetes-update-risk-factors-screening-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#2
Beth Choby
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of insulin resistance. Significant differences are noted in the prevalence of T2D among races. Screening recommendations vary by subspecialty society. Asian Americans should be screened for T2D at a lower body mass index (BMI) (ie, 23 kg/m(2)) than other racial groups. Risk factors for T2D include high-risk ethnicity, obesity, taking of certain drugs (including statins), and gestational diabetes. Health disparities and genetics also influence risk of T2D, although these complexities continue to be poorly understood...
May 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529328/perivascular-adipose-tissue-epiphenomenon-or-local-risk-factor
#3
REVIEW
K Schäfer, I Drosos, S Konstantinides
Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying the link between increased body weight and vascular disease are incompletely understood. Over the past 15 years, perivascular adipose tissue has emerged as active component of the vessel wall involved in vascular homeostasis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can adopt detrimental properties under the influence of obesity and other factors and contribute actively to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, changes of the vessel wall may negatively affect perivascular adipose tissue qualities...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528077/is-the-success-of-the-slimmer-diabetes-prevention-intervention-modified-by-socioeconomic-status-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Andrea J Bukman, Geerke Duijzer, Annemien Haveman-Nies, Sophia C Jansen, Josien Ter Beek, Gerrit J Hiddink, Edith J M Feskens
AIM: To explore the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in participation, programme attendance, programme acceptability, adherence to lifestyle guidelines, drop-out, and effectiveness in the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention. METHODS: SLIMMER was a randomised controlled intervention, carried out in a real-world setting, targeting 40- to 70-year-old adults at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (n=316). The intervention group participated in a 10-month combined dietary and physical activity programme...
May 10, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526920/effects-of-semaglutide-on-beta-cell-function-and-glycaemic-control-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Christoph Kapitza, Kirsten Dahl, Jacob B Jacobsen, Mads B Axelsen, Anne Flint
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its effects on first- and second-phase insulin secretion and other measures of beta cell function and glycaemic control were assessed. METHODS: In this single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, conducted at the Profil Institut für Stoffwechselforschung, Germany, 75 adult (aged 18-64 years) participants with type 2 diabetes (eligibility: HbA1c of 6...
May 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525624/early-and-asymptomatic-cardiac-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Shanmugakumar Chinnappa, Edward White, Nigel Lewis, Omer Baldo, Yu-Kang Tu, Griet Glorieux, Raymond Vanholder, Meguid El Nahas, Andrew Mooney
Background: . Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction in CKD, especially in the early asymptomatic stage, is not well understood. We studied subclinical cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic CKD patients without comorbid cardiac disease or diabetes mellitus by evaluating peak cardiac performance. Methods.: In a cross-sectional study ( n  = 130) we investigated 70 male non-diabetic CKD patients (21 CKD stage 2-3a, 27 CKD stage 3b-4 and 22 CKD stage 5) employing specialized cardiopulmonary exercise testing to measure peak cardiac output and cardiac power output non-invasively...
May 19, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521867/effect-of-a-single-bout-of-aerobic-exercise-on-high-fat-meal-induced-inflammation
#7
Kelly N Z Fuller, Corey M Summers, Rudy J Valentine
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of metabolic disorders including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome. Aerobic exercise has been shown to be anti-inflammatory and attenuate postprandial blood lipids, however, the effect of exercise on postprandial inflammation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise against postprandial lipemia and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and to evaluate associations with changes in the energy-sensing enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520446/-diabetic-foot-syndrome-importance-of-calf-muscles-mr-spectroscopy-in-the-assessment-of-limb-ischemia-and-effect-of-revascularization
#8
Andrea Němcová, Michal Dubský, Alexandra Jirkovská, Petr Šedivý, Miloslav Drobný, Milan Hájek, Monika Dezortová, Robert Bém, Vladimíra Fejfarová, Anna Pyšná
AIM: The standard method for assessment of effect of revascularization in patients with diabetic foot (DF) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) is transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2). Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) enables to evaluate oxidative muscle metabolism that could be impaired in patients with diabetes and its complications. The aim of our study was to compare MRS of calf muscle between patients with DF and CLI and healthy controls and to evaluate the contribution of MRS in the assessment of the effect of revascularization...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515794/influence-of-a-home-based-exercise-program-on-the-urine-ph-in-elderly-female-subjects-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yuichiro Nishida, Keitaro Tanaka, Megumi Hara, Noriko Hirao, Hiroaki Tanaka, Takuro Tobina, Masaharu Ikeda, Hiroshi Yamato, Masanori Ohta
BACKGROUND: A low urine pH is a characteristic metabolic feature of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week home-based bench step exercise on the urine pH status of elderly female subjects. METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 59 postmenopausal female subjects were randomized to either the exercise group (n = 29) or the control group (n = 30)...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514822/-cardiovascular-effects-of-antidiabetic-therapies
#10
Katharina Laubner, Jochen Seufert
Type 2- diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Strict glucose control in the early course of the disease prevents cardiovascular complications only in the long run. Non-medical therapies (diet, exercise, body weight reduction) bear little evidence for positive cardiovascular effects.Bariatric surgery is not number one choice in therapy of T2DM. Metformin seems to provide positive cardiovascular effects. Insulin seems to be cardiovascular neutral, as well as the DPP4-inhibitors Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin and Alogliptin...
May 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513120/gestational-weight-gain-and-its-relationship-with-maternal-characteristics
#11
Yeela Borenstein Ben Naftali, Ido Solt, Lior Lowenstein, Irit Chermesh
BACKGROUND: Both high and insufficient weight gain during pregnancy have been associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring. OBJECTIVES: To describe self-reported weight gain during pregnancy, assess the concurrence of this weight gain with issued recommendations, and investigate associations between lifestyle factors and weight gain. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 109 pregnant women hospitalized in one gynecological and obstetrics department completed questionnaires related to weight gain and lifestyle factors such as smoking, diet and exercise...
May 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512448/the-potential-role-of-contraction-induced-myokines-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-function-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Brian P Carson
Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ in the body, comprises 36-42% of body weight, and has recently been recognized as having an endocrine function. Proteins expressed and released by muscle that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine bioactivities have been termed myokines. It is likely that muscle contraction represents the primary stimulus for the synthesis and secretion of myokines to enable communication with other organs such as the liver, adipose tissue, brain, and auto-regulation of muscle metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512447/low-dose-pulsatile-interleukin-6-as-a-treatment-option-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#13
REVIEW
April Ann Cox, Yves Sagot, Gael Hedou, Christina Grek, Travis Wilkes, Aaron I Vinik, Gautam Ghatnekar
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) remains one of the most common and serious complications of diabetes. Currently, pharmacological agents are limited to treating the pain associated with DPN, and do not address the underlying pathological mechanisms driving nerve damage, thus leaving a significant unmet medical need. Interestingly, research conducted using exercise as a treatment for DPN has revealed interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling to be associated with many positive benefits such as enhanced blood flow and lipid metabolism, decreased chronic inflammation, and peripheral nerve fiber regeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512432/whole-body-cryotherapy-in-athletes-from-therapy-to-stimulation-an-updated-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Lombardi, Ewa Ziemann, Giuseppe Banfi
Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse) and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512155/functional-high-intensity-training-improves-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Stephan Nieuwoudt, Ciarán E Fealy, Julie A Foucher, Amanda R Scelsi, Steven K Malin, Mangesh R Pagadala, Michael Rocco, Bartolome Burguera, John P Kirwan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by reductions in β-cell function and insulin secretion on the background of elevated insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve β-cell function, despite a subset of T2D patients displaying "exercise resistance". Further investigations into the effectiveness of alternate forms of exercise on β-cell function in the T2D patient population are needed. We examined the effect of a novel 6-week CrossFit™ Functional High Intensity Training (F-HIT) intervention on β-cell function in 12 sedentary adults with clinically diagnosed T2D (54±2 years, 166±16 mg/dL fasting glucose)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511417/effectiveness-of-a-four-week-diet-regimen-exercise-and-psychological-intervention-for-weight-loss
#16
Tobias Weinreich, Hans-Peter Filz, Ursula Gresser, Barbara M Richartz
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is accompanied by restriction in the quality of life and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular, orthopedic, and metabolic disorders are among the possible consequences. In the management of obesity, a combination therapy that includes dietary, exercise, and behaviour modules has proven its worth. AIM: To evaluate the effect of weight-associated parameters, circulation associated parameters, glucose metabolism, body composition and life quality changes within a four-week inpatient rehabilitation program...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511141/the-co-occurrence-of-depressive-symptoms-and-cognitive-impairment-and-its-relationship-with-self-care-behaviors-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-with-diabetes
#17
Chia-Lin Li, Yi-Chen Chiu, Yuh-Bin Bai, Jen-Der Lin, Fiona Stanaway, Hsing-Yi Chang
AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment in community dwelling older adults with diabetes and its relationship with specific diabetes self-care behaviors. METHODS: We analyzed data from two national samples of older adults (65years or older) with self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes (N=1034), who participated in the 2005 or 2009 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used to assess cognitive function...
May 5, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507197/muscle-adipose-tissue-cross-talk
#18
Kristin I Stanford, Laurie J Goodyear
Exercise training results in adaptations to both skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) and protects against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Exercise-induced adaptations include an altered profile of secreted proteins, both myokines (from skeletal muscle) and adipokines (from adipose tissue). These secreted proteins may act in an endocrine manner to facilitate tissue-to-tissue communication and "cross talk," likely working together to improve overall metabolic health. Some studies suggest that contracting skeletal muscles release myokines that may function to alter the phenotype of WAT, including WAT "beiging," in which there is increased expression of beige marker genes and increased presence of multilocular cells within the WAT...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507196/health-benefits-of-exercise
#19
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Frank W Booth
Overwhelming evidence exists that lifelong exercise is associated with a longer health span, delaying the onset of 40 chronic conditions/diseases. What is beginning to be learned is the molecular mechanisms by which exercise sustains and improves quality of life. The current review begins with two short considerations. The first short presentation concerns the effects of endurance exercise training on cardiovascular fitness, and how it relates to improved health outcomes. The second short section contemplates emerging molecular connections from endurance training to mental health...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507015/preserving-healthy-muscle-during-weight-loss
#20
REVIEW
Edda Cava, Nai Chien Yeat, Bettina Mittendorfer
Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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