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Exercise obesity

Antonio Coutinho Madruga-Neto, Wanderley Marques Bernardo, Diogo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura, Vitor Ottoboni Brunaldi, Rafael Krieger Martins, Iatagan Rocha Josino, Eduardo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura, Thiago Ferreira de Souza, Marco Aurélio Santo, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux de Moura
Endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBTs) are promising alternatives to conventional surgery for obesity. The aim of this study is to compare efficacy and safety through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the endoscopic gastroplasty techniques versus conservative treatment. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, Lilacs/Bireme. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling obese patients comparing endoscopic gastroplasty to sham or diet/exercise were considered eligible. Among 6014 records, three RCTs were selected for meta-analysis...
June 16, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Alice S Ryan, Heidi K Ortmeyer
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are characterized by metabolic inflexibility, a condition described as an inability to switch from fat oxidation during fasting to carbohydrate oxidation during hyperinsulinemia. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of metabolic flexibility in 103 obese (37-59% fat), sedentary (VO2 max: 19.4 ± 0.5 ml/kg/min), postmenopausal (45-76 years) women, and changes in metabolic flexibility with exercise and weight loss interventions...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Nerylee Ann Watson, Kathryn Ann Dyer, Jonathan David Buckley, Grant David Brinkworth, Alison Mary Coates, Gaynor Parfitt, Peter Ranald Charles Howe, Manny Noakes, Karen Joy Murphy
BACKGROUND: Although higher-protein diets (HP) can assist with weight loss and glycemic control, their effect on psychological wellbeing has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a HP and a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC), combined with regular exercise, on psychological wellbeing both during weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance phases (WM). METHODS: In a parallel RCT, 61 adults with T2D (mean ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Tessa E Adler, Charlotte W Usselman, Akira Takamata, Nina S Stachenfeld
Hypertension, obesity, and endothelial function predict cardiovascular disease in women and these factors are interrelated. We hypothesized that hypertension and obesity are associated with endothelial dysfunction in young women, and that short-term ethinyl estradiol exposure mitigates this dysfunction. We examined flow-mediated dilation responses before and during 7 days of oral ethinyl estradiol (30 µg/day) in 19 women (25 {plus minus} 5, 18-35 yrs). We divided our sample into two groups based on two criteria: blood pressure and obesity...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jiaqin Cui, Youping Bai, Lin Wu, Mingming Sun, Chan Lin, Haoyue Zhang, Min Su, Weiwei Song
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of exercise and resveratrol on retinol binding protein 4( RBP4) mRNA and protein expression in visceral adipose tissue, plasma RBP4 concentration and blood glucose and insulin sensitivity of aged obese rats. METHODS: To establish elderly obese SD rat model, 6 aged rats of natural growth were selected normal group, 24 obese rats were randomly divided into four groups: obesity control group, exercise group, resveratrol group, exercise combined with resveratrol group...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Yongjoo Kim, S Bryn Austin, S V Subramanian, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND/ PURPOSE: Despite emerging evidence suggesting harmful influences of accurate weight perception on psychological health among individuals with obesity, little is known about the association in Asian populations. The aim of this study was investigate the association between body weight perception and depressive symptoms among Korean adults, and potential differential associations across gender. METHODS: We used data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2014, comprising 3,318 female (n = 1,876) and male (n = 1,442) participants, aged 19-65 years, with no history of depression and a body-mass index (BMI)> = 18...
2018: PloS One
Borja Jurio-Iriarte, Peter H Brubaker, Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, Pablo Corres, Aitor Martinez Aguirre-Betolaza, Sara Maldonado-Martin
The study aimed to assess whether the Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) can detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in overweight/obese people with hypertension (HTN) after an exercise intervention evaluating the equation presented in the previous research by Jurio-Iriarte et al. Participants (N= 248) performed a peak cardiorespiratory exercise test (CPET) and MSWT before and after 16-weeks of different types of aerobic exercise intervention. The formula of Jurio-Iriarte et al. was used to predict peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak )...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Ashley E Mason, Frederick M Hecht, Jennifer J Daubenmier, David A Sbarra, Jue Lin, Patricia J Moran, Samantha G Schleicher, Michael Acree, Aric A Prather, Elissa S Epel
OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a weight-loss clinical trial for obesity, the impact of intervention arm, weight change, and weight-loss maintenance on telomere length (TL). METHODS: Adults (N=194) with a BMI between 30 and 45 were randomized to a 5.5-month weight-loss program with (n=100) or without (n=94) mindfulness training and identical diet-exercise guidelines. We assessed TL at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline in immune cell populations (primarily in peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs], but also in granulocytes and T and B lymphocytes)...
June 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Sarah Nicolas, Joëlle Chabry, Alice Guyon, Hadi Zarif, Catherine Heurteaux, Agnès Petit-Paitel
Adiponectin (ApN) is a hormone produced by adipose tissue, yet the plasma level of ApN is decreased in overweight and obese people, as well as in people with diabetes. In the periphery, this decrease in circulating levels of ApN induces the establishment of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and is involved in the development of insulin resistance and atheromas. Conversely, "favorable" living conditions, weight loss and regular physical exercise increase ApN blood concentration. Some forms of ApN can reach the brain parenchyma through the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Kyle D Flack, Kelsey Elise Ufholz, LuAnn K Johnson, John S Fitzgerald, James N Roemmich
BACKGROUND: Weight loss from exercise is often less than expected. Putative compensatory mechanisms may limit exercise-induced reductions in body fat and might be proportional to exercise energy expenditure. PURPOSE: To determine compensation (difference between accumulated exercise energy expenditure and changes in body tissue energy stores) and compensatory responses to 1500 or 3000 kcal/week of exercise energy expenditure. METHODS: Overweight to obese (n=36) sedentary men and women were randomized to groups expending 300 or 600 kcal/exercise session, 5 days/week, for 12 weeks...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Ni Zhang, Liang Yang, Lanting Guo, Sheng Bi
Previous reports have shown that running wheel activity or voluntary exercise prevents hyperphagia and obesity in various animal models of obesity, but such effects seem only minimal in obese animals lacking leptin or leptin receptors. The mechanisms underlying this ineffectiveness remain unclear. Here, we identified the action of neuronal activation in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in modulating physical activity, food intake and body weight using leptin receptor mutant obese Zucker ( Lepr(fa) , ZF) and Koletsky ( Lepr(fak) , SHROB) rats...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Joao Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, Grasielle Clotildes Kincheski, Ruy Andrade Louzada, Antônio Galina, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha Pierucci, Denise P Carvalho
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Physical exercise has emerged as a non-pharmacological treatment for obesity by promoting changes in energy balance. Despite the accumulated knowledge about exercise effects on energy expenditure, the central question of this study is to understand how an acute session of exercise might affect food intake of male Wistar rats. What is the main finding? The main finding of this work is that food intake in male Wistar rats is decreased in the first hour after physical exercise independent of the intensity...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Toru Yoshikawa, Asako Zempo-Miyaki, Hiroshi Kumagai, Kanae Myoenzono, Rina So, Takehiko Tsujimoto, Kiyoji Tanaka, Seiji Maeda
Pulse pressure amplification (i.e., the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. Circulating free fatty acid, which is a major cause of insulin resistance, has been reported to favorably be associated with pulse pressure amplification in the arm (from the aorta to brachial artery). We hypothesized that this paradoxical relationship depended on an evaluating site of pulse pressure amplification and investigated whether serum free fatty acid level is related to pulse pressure amplification in the arm or trunk (from the aorta to femoral artery) in overweight/obese men...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Zachary S Zeigler, Pamela D Swan, Matthew P Buman, Farouk Mookadam, Glenn A Gaesser, Siddhartha S Angadi
PURPOSE: We assessed resting central/peripheral blood pressure (BP), postexercise BP and hemodynamic responses [stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR)] after acute exercise and 2 wk of aerobic training in lean and centrally obese men matched for BP. METHODS: Eight lean (body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m; visceral fat = 279±224 cm) and eight centrally obese (BMI>30 kg/m; visceral fat = 1,471±374 cm) men performed 6 training sessions (3d/wk for 40 min at 65-70%HRmax)...
June 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ling-Yu Shen, Cui-Mei Liang, Wen-Jin Yang, Liang Pan, Hua Li, Hui Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with abdominal obesity by regulating glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, sex hormones, etc. METHODS: Eligible PCOS volunteers were randomly divided into treatment group( n =30) and control group( n =28). The treatment group received acupuncture therapy three times a week combined with diet control and exercise. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 4-8 mA) was applied to bilateral Daimai (GB 26)and Tianshu (ST 25) for 20 min/time, and bilateral Daheng (SP 15), Shenshu (BL 23), Ciliao (BL 32), Guilai (ST 29), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Waiguan (SJ 5) were stimulated with filiform needles, with the needles retained for 20 min...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Anne Sofie Gram, Martin Bæk Petersen, Jonas Salling Quist, Mads Rosenkilde, Bente Stallknecht, Else-Marie Bladbjerg
Obesity and exercise constitute important factors for cardiovascular disease risk, but the long-term effects of different exercise modalities on haemostatic biomarkers are not well elucidated. We investigated the effects of 6 months of active commuting or leisure-time exercise on measures of fibrin turnover in individuals who are overweight and obese. Ninety younger (20-40 years), sedentary, healthy women and men who are overweight and obese (BMI: 25-35 kg/m2 ) were randomised to 6 months of habitual lifestyle (CON, n =16), active commuting (BIKE, n =19), or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, ∼50% VO2 peak reserve, n =31) or vigorous intensity (VIG, ∼70% VO2 peak reserve, n =24)...
2018: Journal of Obesity
Chris Estes, Quentin M Anstee, Maria Teresa Arias-Loste, Heike Bantel, Stefeno Bellentani, Joan Caballeria, Massimo Colombo, Antonio Craxi, Javier Crespo, Christopher P Day, Andreas Geier, Loreta A Kondili, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Rohit Loomba, Michael P Manns, Giulio Marchesini, Francesco Negro, Salvatore Petta, Vlad Ratziu, Manuel Romero-Gomez, Arun Sanyal, Jörn M Schattenberg, Frank Tacke, Christian Trautwein, Lai Wei, Stefan Zeuzem, Homie Razavi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are increasingly a cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally. This burden is expected to increase as epidemics of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome continue to grow. The goal of this analysis was to use a Markov model to forecast NAFLD disease burden using currently available data. METHODS: A model was used to estimate NAFLD and NASH disease progression in 8 countries based on data for adult prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Julianne C Barry, Svetlana Simtchouk, Cody Durrer, Mary E Jung, Alice L Mui, Jonathan P Little
A key pathological component of obesity is chronic low-grade inflammation, which is propagated by infiltration of immune cells into tissues and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines that possess anti-inflammatory properties, such as interleukin (IL)-10 and IL6, may also play an important role. This study was designed to determine the impact of short-term exercise on the anti-inflammatory action of IL10 and IL6. Thirty-three inactive obese adults were randomized to two weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT)...
June 6, 2018: Cytokine
Gioia Braun, Benjamin Hafner, Karsten Königstein, Denis Infanger, Christopher Klenk, Anja Rossmeissl, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Henner Hanssen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of retinal microvascular health with cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In a population of 260 obesity-enriched participants we investigated the association of retinal vessel diameters with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP). Retinal vessel imaging was performed by use of a fundus camera and a semi-automated processing software, calculating the central retinal arteriolar (CRAE) and venular equivalent (CRVE) as well as the arteriolar-to-venular diameter ratio (AVR)...
June 5, 2018: Microvascular Research
Yupaporn Rattanavichit, Jariya Buniam, Juthamard Surapongchai, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
We have recently reported that male rats given liquid fructose ingestion exhibit features of cardiometabolic abnormalities including non-obese insulin resistance with impaired insulin signaling transduction in skeletal muscle (Rattanavichit Y et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 311: R1200-R1212, 2016). While exercise can attenuate obesity-related risks of cardiometabolic syndrome, the effectiveness and potential mechanism by which exercise modulates non-obese insulin resistance have not been fully studied...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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