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Morad Chughtai, John J Kelly, Jared M Newman, Assem A Sultan, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Anil Bhave, Michael C Kolczun, Michael A Mont
This study evaluated the use of telerehabilitation during the postoperative period for patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Specifically, this study evaluated the following: (1) patient compliance and adherence to the program, (2) time spent performing physical therapy exercises, (3) the usability of the virtual rehabilitation platform, and (4) clinical outcome scores in a selected primary knee arthroplasty cohort. A total of 157 consecutive patients underwent TKA ( n  = 18) or UKA ( n  = 139)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Steve Geoffrion, Jane Goncalves, André Marchand, Richard Boyer, Alain Marchand, Marc Corbière, Stéphane Guay
Background: Serious violent acts (e.g. physical violence, robbery, sexual aggression and death threats) are among the most visible and notable examples of workplace violence. Although women are commonly found to be at higher risk for post-traumatic reactions following workplace violence, little is known as regards sex differences concerning the types of post-traumatic reactions and their predictors. Objective: This study aimed to describe sex differences in the post-traumatic reactions of serious violent acts and the predictors of such reactions...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Daniella C Parravano, Daniel A Ciampi, Erich T Fonoff, Bernardo Monaco, Jessie Navarro, Lin T Yeng, Manoel J Teixeira, Clement Hamani
BACKGROUND: Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is routinely used for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain but its effect on quality of life remains uncertain. OBEJCTIVE: To systematically review the published literature on MCS and quality of life and report the effects of this therapy in a series of patients prospectively followed in our center. METHODS: The systematic literature review was conducted using the search words "motor cortex stimulation and pain and neurosurgery" and "motor cortex stimulation and pain and quality of life...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Luke Mease, Reema Sikka, Randall Rhees
Introduction: To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture). Pupillometer use permits real-time, accurate pupil measurements, which are of significant value in occupational setting where exposure to organophosphates is suspected and in dynamic military settings where it may be unclear if service members were exposed to nerve agent or not...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Gordon G Wisbach, Joshua Peters, Jenise Leon Guerrero, Nelson Mozzini, Helen Metzger
Introduction: The obesity epidemic in the USA includes active duty service members in the military and effects physical readiness. At the Naval Medical Center San Diego command, the Health & Wellness Department is charged with administering the Weight Management Programs (WMP) for sailors in the San Diego area to ensure military physical readiness requirements. The optimal allocation of personnel and resources to manage these programs is paramount for mission success. We analyzed the cost and effectiveness of the WMPs for the active duty population stationed at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD) with the intent of offering potential recommendations for program optimization...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Jason El Brihi, Rob Horne, Kate Faasse
Background: Recent evidence indicates that placebo effects can occur even when patients know that they are taking a placebo, termed the open-label placebo effect. Aim: To assess whether placebo dose (one pill per day vs. four pills per day), treatment expectancies, and adherence contribute to open-label placebo effects. Method: Healthy undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to take one or four open-label placebo pills per day or to a no-treatment control group...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Sharon Reif, Rachel Sayko Adams, Grant A Ritter, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Douglas P Beall, M R Chambers, Sam Thomas, John Amburgy, James R Webb, Bradly S Goodman, Devin K Datta, Richard W Easton, Douglas Linville, Sanjay Talati, John B Tillman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) are common and painful, threatening quality of life and increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. Balloon kyphoplasty is a percutaneous option for treating painful cancer- and osteoporosis-related VCFs, supported by 2 randomized trials demonstrating efficacy benefits of BKP over nonsurgical care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate 12-mo disability, quality of life, and safety outcomes specifically in a Medicare-eligible population, representing characteristic patients seen in routine clinical practice...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Thorsten Tjardes, Markus Luecking
Introduction: To achieve the aim of zero preventable deaths on the battlefield a deeper understanding of uncontrolled hemorrhage from junctional or proximal extremity sources is mandatory. While tourniquet application to the extremities has drastically reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still room for improvement regarding the timing of tourniquet placement as the available evidence clearly points out a tight correlation between timing of tourniquet application and outcome. To save as many lives as possible the "point of no return" regarding the circulatory breakdown due to hemorrhage, colloquially addressed as platinum 5 min, needs to be determined...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Dayna A Johnson, Jana A Hirsch, Kari A Moore, Susan Redline, Ana V Diez Roux
Although dense neighborhood built environments support increased physical activity and lower obesity, these features may also disturb sleep. Therefore, we sought to understand the association between the built environment and objectively measured sleep. From 2010 to 2013, we analyzed data from examination 5 of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a diverse population from 6 US cities. We fit multilevel models that assessed the association between the built environment (Street Smart Walk Score, social engagement destinations, street intersections, and population density) and sleep duration or efficiency from 1-week wrist actigraphy in 1,889 individuals...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Simon A Sarkisian, Daniel Brillhart
In the United States, the rate of primary and secondary syphilis has increased by 18% in 2016, the highest rate since 1993. These patients can often present to the emergency department (ED) in various stages. Although syphilis is well described in the literature, there is a paucity of ED reports of atypical cases. A 22-yr-old male presented to the ED complaining of neck pain. The patient was found to have right-sided tender cervical lymphadenopathy causing neck pain. A thorough physical exam revealed diffuse lymphadenopathy...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Xuan Shi, Huu Hao Ngo, Langtao Sang, Pengkang Jin, Xiaochang C Wang, Guanghua Wang
In this study, a pilot combined sewer system was constructed to characterize the pollutant transformation in sewer sediment. The results showed that particulate contaminants deposited from sewage could be transformed into dissolved matter by distinct pollutant transformation pathways. Although the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was varied from -80 mV to -340 mV in different region of the sediment, the fermentation was the dominant process in all regions of the sediment, which induced hydrolysis and decomposition of particulate contaminants...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Laura Jayne Broome, Cristina Izura, Nuria Lorenzo-Dus
Within the literature individuals who use the internet to facilitate the sexual abuse of a minor are generally classified as being fantasy or contact driven. Classification is based upon the intended location for sexual climax: fantasy driven individuals aim to reach sexual climax online, whereas contact driven individuals target minors to achieve physical sex offline. This review systematically investigates whether there is an empirical basis for the distinction between these two proposed discrete types. Comparison of tactics and behaviour are considered to examine whether the contact vs...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Erika Obikane, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Daisuke Takagi, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with adult suicidal behaviors, partially mediated by mental disorders. However, the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders is uncertain because the same risk factors serve as mediators and confounders of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders on suicidal behaviors using marginal structural models. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of Japanese adults in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures (The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Tahereh Shojaeimehr, Farshad Rahimpour, Michael Schwarze, Jens-Uwe Repke, Hamid Reza Godini, Günter Wozny
The present study evaluates the capability of ion exclusion chromatography (IEC) of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids using a cation exchange column (8% sulfonated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer) in different experimental conditions. Since one of the prerequisites to the development of an efficient carboxylic acid separation process is to obtain the optimum operational conditions, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to develop an approach to evaluate carboxylic acids separation process in IEC columns...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Chen Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Qiran Zhao, Qihui Chen
In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis)...
February 19, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Juan Xiong, Meihua Hu, Xiaoping Li, Hongying Li, Xin Li, Xiang Liu, Guozhong Cao, Weishan Li
A porous graphite (PG) is proposed as anode electrocatalyst of microbial fuel cell (MFC), which is synthesized by thermally decomposing ferrous gluconate followed by leaching iron. The physical characterizations from scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicate that the resulting PG is mesopore-rich and exhibits high graphitization with oxygen-containing functional groups...
March 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mohammad Hadi Karbalaie Niya, Hossein Keyvani, Fahimeh Safarnezhad Tameshkel, Mostafa Salehi-Vaziri, Sedigheh Teaghinezhad-S, Farah Bokharaei Salim, Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari, Davod Javanmard
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common viral infection worldwide associated with a variety of cancers. The integration of the HPV genome in these patients causes chromosomal instability and triggers carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the HPV-16 genome physical status in four major cancers related to HPV infection. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from our previous projects on head and neck, colorectal, penile, and cervical cancers were collected, and HPV-16-positive specimens were used for further analysis...
March 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
Raymond Smith, Vari Drennan, Ann Mackenzie, Nan Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Volunteer led befriending and peer support is provided to a wide range of people with varying needs. Despite large numbers of such schemes for carers of people with dementia, there is little evidence for any benefits they may offer. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of befriending and peer support on carers of people with dementia and to explore their experiences of receiving the interventions using a mixed methods approach. METHODS: Nineteen carers of people with dementia were recruited from befriending and peer support services...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Sandrina Nunes, Dalila Alves, Patrícia Barreto, Miguel Raimundo, Maria da Luz Cachulo, Cláudia Farinha, Inês Laíns, João Rodrigues, Carlos Almeida, Luísa Ribeiro, João Figueira, Lelita Santos, Rufino Silva
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the association of lifestyle and nutritional risk profiles with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in two subpopulations with differing AMD prevalence. METHODS: This case-control study (n = 1992) included 768 patients with AMD and 1224 age- and sex-matched participants without AMD with a single visit at a primary health care unit. Enrolled participants completed a validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition
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