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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#1
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302863/transfer-of-dysbiotic-gut-microbiota-has-beneficial-effects-on-host-liver-metabolism
#2
Simon Nicolas, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Audren Fournel, Jerome Gilleron, Pascale Klopp, Aurelie Waget, Franck Ceppo, Alysson Marlin, Roshan Padmanabhan, Jason S Iacovoni, François Tercé, Patrice D Cani, Jean-François Tanti, Remy Burcelin, Claude Knauf, Mireille Cormont, Matteo Serino
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in a variety of systemic disorders, notably metabolic diseases including obesity and impaired liver function, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate this question, we transferred caecal microbiota from either obese or lean mice to antibiotic-free, conventional wild-type mice. We found that transferring obese-mouse gut microbiota to mice on normal chow (NC) acutely reduces markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis with decreased hepatic PEPCK activity, compared to non-inoculated mice, a phenotypic trait blunted in conventional NOD2 KO mice...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286571/we-are-not-alone-a-case-for-the-human-microbiome-in-extra-intestinal-diseases
#3
EDITORIAL
S Shivaji
BACKGROUND: "Dysbiosis" in the gut microbiome has been implicated in auto-immune diseases, in inflammatory diseases, in some cancers and mental disorders. The challenge is to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of dysbiosis so as to understand the disease manifestation. MAIN BODY: Next generation sequencing and genome enabled technologies have led to the establishment of the composition of gut microbiomes and established that "dysbiosis" is the cause of several diseases...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286500/diet-induced-obesity-does-not-alter-tigecycline-treatment-efficacy-in-murine-lyme-disease
#4
Helena Pětrošová, Azad Eshghi, Zoha Anjum, Nataliya Zlotnikov, Caroline E Cameron, Tara J Moriarty
Obese individuals more frequently suffer from infections, as a result of increased susceptibility to a number of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, obesity can alter antibiotic treatment efficacy due to changes in drug pharmacokinetics which can result in under-dosing. However, studies on the treatment of bacterial infections in the context of obesity are scarce. To address this research gap, we assessed efficacy of antibiotic treatment in diet-induced obese mice infected with the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282253/introduction-to-the-special-focus-issue-on-the-impact-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-and-future-opportunities-for-nutritional-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-to-improve-human-health
#5
Sharon M Donovan
Over the past decade, application of culture-independent, next generation DNA sequencing has dramatically enhanced our understanding of the composition of the gut microbiome and its association with human states of health and disease. Host genetics, age, and environmental factors such as where and who you live with, use of pre-, pro- and antibiotics, exercise and diet influence the short- and long-term composition of the microbiome. Dietary intake is a key determinant of microbiome composition and diversity and studies to date have linked long-term dietary patterns as well as short-term dietary interventions to the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280086/phentermine-induced-acute-interstitial-nephritis
#6
Emily Ximin Shao, Gregory John Wilson, Dwarakanathan Ranganathan
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has a number of medication-related aetiologies. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes; however, any medication has the potential to cause drug-induced AIN. We report the first case of phentermine-induced AIN. A Caucasian woman aged 43 years presented with a 5-week history of lethargy, left-sided lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. She had been taking phentermine for weight loss for 9 months and had recently ceased the medication...
March 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253945/-pyogenic-spinal-infections-in-adults-a-5-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-centre
#7
O Džupová, R Cihlářová
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY To describe epidemiological and clinical features of pyogenic spinal infections in patients treated at the Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Tropical Diseases of the Hospital Na Bulovce in 2010-2014, and to analyse a predictive significance of selected variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS A single-centre retrospective cohort study carried out from 1.1.2010 to 31.12.2014 enrolled adult patients with septic spondylitis, discitis and facet joint infections. Recorded parameters included: demographics, chronic comorbidities, time to diagnosis, radiological work-up, anatomical level of spinal infection, source of infection, etiological agent, complications, treatment and outcomes...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253911/childhood-bmi-in-relation-to-microbiota-in-infancy-and-lifetime-antibiotic-use
#8
K Korpela, M A C Zijlmans, M Kuitunen, K Kukkonen, E Savilahti, A Salonen, C de Weerth, W M de Vos
BACKGROUND: Children with high body mass index (BMI) at preschool age are at risk of developing obesity. Early identification of factors that increase the risk of excessive weight gain could help direct preventive actions. The intestinal microbiota and antibiotic use have been identified as potential modulators of early metabolic programming and weight development. To test if the early microbiota composition is associated with later BMI, and if antibiotic use modifies this association, we analysed the faecal microbiota composition at 3 months and the BMI at 5-6 years in two cohorts of healthy children born vaginally at term in the Netherlands (N = 87) and Finland (N = 75)...
March 3, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240736/antibiotic-treatment-at-delivery-shapes-the-initial-oral-microbiome-in-neonates
#9
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Oral microorganisms are important determinants of health and disease. The source of the initial neonatal microbiome and the factors dictating initial human oral microbiota development are unknown. This study aimed to investigate this in placental, oral and gut microbiome profiles from 36 overweight or obese mother-baby dyads as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Expression of five antibiotic resistance genes of the β-lactamase class was analysed in the infant oral microbiota samples by QPCR. The neonatal oral microbiota was 65...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240688/repeated-piperacillin-tazobactam-plasma-concentration-measurements-in-severely-obese-versus-nonobese-critically-ill-septic-patients-and-the-risk-of-under-and-overdosing
#10
Boris Jung, Martin Mahul, Dominique Breilh, Rachel Legeron, Jeremy Signe, Helene Jean-Pierre, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Nicolas Molinari, Samir Jaber
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and critical illness modify pharmacokinetics of antibiotics, but piperacillin-tazobactam continuous IV infusion pharmacokinetics has been poorly studied in obese critically ill patients. We aimed to compare pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in severely obese and nonobese patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. We hypothesized that plasma concentration variability would expose the critically ill to both piperacillin under and overdosing. METHODS: Prospective comparative study...
February 24, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237561/evolution-of-endoscopic-treatment-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-leaks-from-partially-covered-to-long-fully-covered-stents
#11
Fabio Garofalo, Maxime Noreau-Nguyen, Ronald Denis, Henri Atlas, Pierre Garneau, Radu Pescarus
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become a widely accepted option in the treatment of morbid obesity. Gastric leaks after SG occur in .9%-2.2% of the patients, mostly at the gastroesophageal junction. The current treatment algorithm includes drainage, antibiotics, nutritional support, and endoluminal control. OBJECTIVES: Our hypothesis is that long, fully covered stents represent a safe, effective solution for SG leaks. SETTING: University hospital...
December 26, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235986/-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#12
C Lübbert, B Salzberger, J Mössner
The human intestinal microbiome has important metabolic and immunological functions for the host and is part of the defense against pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. Antibiotics, probiotics, dietary measures, such as prebiotics, and the relatively newly established method of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT, also known as fecal microbiome transfer) all influence the intestinal microbiome. The FMT procedure comprises the transmission of fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient...
February 24, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231175/mushroom-polysaccharides-chemistry-and-antiobesity-antidiabetes-anticancer-and-antibiotic-properties-in-cells-rodents-and-humans
#13
REVIEW
Mendel Friedman
More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential...
November 29, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225587/compms2miner-an-automatable-metabolite-identification-visualization-and-data-sharing-r-package-for-high-resolution-lc-ms-datasets
#14
William Matthew Bell Edmands, Lauren M Petrick, Dinesh Kumar Barupal, Augustin Scalbert, Mark Wilson, Jeffrey Wickliffe, Stephen M Rappaport
A long-standing challenge of untargeted metabolomic profiling by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is efficient transition from unknown mass spectral features to confident metabolite annotations. The compMS2Miner (Comprehensive MS2 Miner) package was developed in the R language to facilitate rapid, comprehensive feature annotation using a peak-picker-output and MS2 data files as inputs. The number of MS2 spectra that can be collected during a metabolomic profiling experiment far outweigh the amount of time required for pain-staking manual interpretation, therefore a degree of software workflow autonomy is required for broad-scale metabolite annotation...
February 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165758/early-antibiotic-exposure-and-risk-of-childhood-obesity-in-latinos
#15
Annette P Ville, Melvin B Heyman, Rosalinda Medrano, Janet M Wojcicki
We investigated the relationship between early antibiotic exposure before 6 months age and risk for obesity at 2 years in a high-risk, low-income, urban Latino cohort (n = 97), with the hypothesis that antibiotic exposure would increase risk for obesity by 2 years. Data were collected through maternal report of infant 24-hour dietary intake at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 1, and 2 years; and food frequency questionnaires at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 1, and 2 years. Antibiotic use data, including type and frequency, were collected through maternal self-report at 6 months and 1 year...
February 6, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137820/pharmacokinetics-of-clindamycin-in-obese-and-non-obese-children
#16
Michael J Smith, Daniel Gonzalez, Jennifer L Goldman, Ram Yogev, Janice E Sullivan, Michael D Reed, Ravinder Anand, Karen Martz, Katherine Berezny, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Kevin Watt
Although obesity is prevalent among children in the United States, pharmacokinetic (PK) data in obese children are limited. Clindamycin is a commonly used antibiotic that may require dose adjustment in obese children due to its lipophilic properties. We performed a clindamycin population PK analysis using data from three separate trials. A total of 420 samples from 220 children, 76 of whom had a body mass index ≥ 95(th) percentile for age, were included in the analysis. As compared to other metrics, total body weight (TBW) was the most robust measure of body size...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134687/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#17
Thomas Malikowski, Sahil Khanna, Darrell S Pardi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of the gut microbiome in human health is being increasingly recognized. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature pertaining to alterations in the gut microbiome and the utility of microbiome restoration therapies in gastrointestinal disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Imbalance and maladaptation of the microbiome, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with several disease states such as irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity among others...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128084/boils-at-frictional-locations-in-a-patient-with-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#18
Jurr Boer, Dalibor Mihajlovic
Dear Editor, Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease. The primary clinical presentation are painful inflamed nodules or boils of inverse areas, i.e. the axillary and anogenito-crural regions, but it can also involve the infra- and inter-mammary regions (1,2). The etiology of HS is not clearly defined. Obesity, smoking, and genetic factors are considered important risk factors. In addition, it has also been suggested that friction may contribute to the development of HS, especially in the obese, but this is based on highly anecdotal reports (3-5)...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122754/tigecycline-induced-coagulopathy
#19
Jonathan McMahan, Ryan P Moenster
PURPOSE: A case of coagulopathy in association with tigecycline use is described. SUMMARY: A 63-year-old morbidly obese, wheelchair-bound man was hospitalized for assessment of a possibly infected decubitus ulcer and surgical evaluation for placement of a diverting colostomy; he had been transferred from another facility after initiation of triple-agent antimicrobial therapy for suspected fecal infection of the ulcer. Based on the results of an ulcer swab culture, the patient's antibiotic regimen was modified (initially to i...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122314/does-current-cefazolin-dosing-achieve-adequate-tissue-and-blood-concentrations-in-obese-women-undergoing-cesarean-section
#20
Jessica J F Kram, Danielle M Greer, Omar Cabrera, Robert Burlage, Marie M Forgie, Danish S Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic administration of antibiotics preceding cesarean delivery is the most effective measure taken for preventing postpartum infection. While obese women are at greater risk for infection than non-obese women, evidence-based recommendations for modifying dosing in these women are limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese women undergoing cesarean delivery similarly reach adequate cefazolin concentrations within tissue and blood when weighing <120kg and dosed 2g versus weighing ≥120kg and dosed 3g...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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