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Obesity antibiotic

Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
C Dessinioti, C Zisimou, V Tzanetakou, A Stratigos, C Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the use of systemic antibiotic treatment for hidradenitis supportive (HS). AIM: To investigate the effectiveness, safety and relapse rate of HS treated with a combination of daily oral clindamycin and rifampicin. METHODS: This was a prospective, hospital-based study of oral clindamycin 600 mg and rifampicin 600 mg daily for 12 weeks for treatment of HS. Patients were followed up for 1 year to monitor for relapse...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Sophie Thiemann, Nathiana Smit, Till Strowig
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse ecosystem containing thousands of microbial species, whose metabolic activity affects many aspects of human physiology. Large-scale surveys have demonstrated that an individual's microbiota composition is shaped by factors such as diet and the use of medications, including antibiotics. Loss of overall diversity and in some cases loss of single groups of bacteria as a consequence of antibiotic treatment in humans has been associated with enhanced susceptibility toward gastrointestinal infections and with enhanced weight gain and obesity in young children...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Jiqiao Yang, Qiuwen Tan, Qingyu Fu, Yaojie Zhou, Yuanyuan Hu, Shenli Tang, Yuting Zhou, Junhui Zhang, Juanjuan Qiu, Qing Lv
Gastrointestinal microbiome plays as a symbiont which provides protection effect against invading pathogens, aids in the immune system development, nutrient reclamation and absorption as well as molecule breakdown. And it may avert carcinogenesis through these biological activities. By now, studies have been carried out to elaborate the association between gastrointestinal microbiome and breast cancer. It has been implicated that breast cancer was substantially associated with estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent functions of gastrointestinal microbiome...
October 5, 2016: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Daniele Camboni, Matthaeus Zerdzitzki, Stephan Hirt, René Tandler, Michael Weyand, Christof Schmid
OBJECTIVES: A silicone interface at skin level of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) may reduce the risk of driveline (DL) exit site infections when compared with other materials (e.g. velour). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of DL exit site infection according to the presence of silicone or velour at the exit site with the redesigned INCOR, facilitating the positioning of silicone at the exit site. METHODS: The rate of DL exit site infection and overall survival were compared between the two groups (silicone group, n = 16/velour group, n = 24) with 1-year follow-up postimplantation...
October 4, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Sheo B Singh, Ling Kang, Andrea R Nawrocki, Dan Zhou, Margaret Wu, Stephen Previs, Corey Miller, Haiying Liu, Catherine D G Hines, Maria Madeira, Jin Cao, Kithsiri Herath, Liangsu Wang, David E Kelley, Cai Li, Hong-Ping Guan
OBJECTIVES: Platensimycin (PTM) is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+) with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) tone inhibited DNL and enhanced glucose oxidation, which in turn led to net reduction of liver triglycerides (TG), reduced ambient glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity...
2016: PloS One
Luiz Claudio Lopes Chaves, Isabela Klautau Leite Chaves Borges, Maíra Danielle Gomes de Souza, Ian Passos Silva, Lyz Bezerra Silva, Marcelo Alexandre Prado Magalhães, Allan Herbert Feliz Fonseca, Josemberg Marins Campos
Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in obese candidates for bariatric surgery and its role in the emergence of inflammatory lesions after surgery has not been well established. Aim: To identify the incidence of inflammatory lesions in the stomach after bariatric surgery and to correlate it with H. pylori infection. Methods: This is a prospective study with 216 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These patients underwent histopathological endoscopy to detect H...
2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Rishi Rattan, Casey J Allen, Robert G Sawyer, John Mazuski, Therese M Duane, Reza Askari, Kaysie L Banton, Jeffrey A Claridge, Raul Coimbra, Joseph Cuschieri, E Patchen Dellinger, Heather L Evans, Christopher A Guidry, Preston R Miller, Patrick J O'Neill, Ori D Rotstein, Michaela A West, Kimberley Popovsky, Nicholas Namias
A prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial found that four days of antibiotics for source-controlled complicated intra-abdominal infection resulted in similar outcomes when compared with a longer duration. We hypothesized that patients with specific risk factors for complications also had similar outcomes. Short-course patients with obesity, diabetes, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II ≥15 from the STOP-IT trial were compared with longer duration patients. Outcomes included incidence of and days to infectious complications, mortality, and length of stay...
September 2016: American Surgeon
Michal Mik, Maciej Berut, Radzislaw Trzcinski, Lukasz Dziki, Jaroslaw Buczynski, Adam Dziki
AIM: The objectives were to recognize the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery due to colorectal cancer and to assess the impact of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) and oral antibiotic prophylaxis (ABX) on SSIs. METHODS: Records from two colorectal centers were used. Risk factors of SSIs were categorized into patient-, disease-, and treatment-dependent. RESULTS: A group of 2240 patients was included. SSIs were noted in 364 patients (16...
September 20, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Frank J Gonzalez, Changtao Jiang, Andrew D Patterson
The gut microbiota is associated with metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, as shown by correlative studies and by transplant of microbiota from obese humans and mice into germ-free mice. Modification of the microbiota by treatment of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice with tempol or antibiotics resulted in decreased adverse metabolic phenotypes. This was owing to lower levels of the genera Lactobacillus and decreased bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. The decreased BSH resulted in increased levels of tauro-β-muricholic acid (MCA), a substrate of BSH and a potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist...
September 14, 2016: Gastroenterology
Kwesi B Mensah, Charles Ansah
UNLABELLED: Epidemiological studies show clearly that Caesarean birth, perinatal or neonatal irrational antibiotic use is strongly associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes in later life. Irrational use of antibiotics is a great global public health concern especially in developing economies like Ghana due to poor regulation on medicines. Unfortunately, this concern has been reduced to the fear of development of resistant organisms and the destruction of the world's limited range of antibiotics therapy at the expense of other insidious risks including the development of metabolic and atopic diseases...
June 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Araceli Muñoz-Garach, Cristina Diaz-Perdigones, Francisco J Tinahones
In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin...
September 12, 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
AbdelAzeem Hazem, Nabil F Bissada, Catherine Demko, Andre Paes, Lisa A Lang
PURPOSE: Obesity as a systemic risk factor associated with implant failure or other complications has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of implant failure and complications between obese and nonobese patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Charts from 220 partially edentulous patients with 321 implants were examined for demographic information, medical health history, diabetes, smoking, patient-reported height and weight, periodontal status (no, mild, moderate, or severe periodontitis), tooth number, date of the implant and prosthesis placement, and treatment notes pertinent to the complications or failure...
September 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Adrian Sh Ooi, David H Song
Implant-based procedures are the most commonly performed method for postmastectomy breast reconstruction. While donor-site morbidity is low, these procedures are associated with a higher risk of reconstructive loss. Many of these are related to infection of the implant, which can lead to prolonged antibiotic treatment, undesired additional surgical procedures, and unsatisfactory results. This review combines a summary of the recent literature regarding implant-related breast-reconstruction infections and combines this with a practical approach to the patient and surgery aimed at reducing this risk...
2016: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Robert Zura, Ze Xiong, Thomas Einhorn, J Tracy Watson, Robert F Ostrum, Michael J Prayson, Gregory J Della Rocca, Samir Mehta, Todd McKinley, Zhe Wang, R Grant Steen
Importance: Failure of bone fracture healing occurs in 5% to 10% of all patients. Nonunion risk is associated with the severity of injury and with the surgical treatment technique, yet progression to nonunion is not fully explained by these risk factors. Objective: To test a hypothesis that fracture characteristics and patient-related risk factors assessable by the clinician at patient presentation can indicate the probability of fracture nonunion. Design, Setting, and Participants: An inception cohort study in a large payer database of patients with fracture in the United States was conducted using patient-level health claims for medical and drug expenses compiled for approximately 90...
September 7, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Lindsay Kalan, Michael Loesche, Brendan P Hodkinson, Kristopher Heilmann, Gordon Ruthel, Sue E Gardner, Elizabeth A Grice
UNLABELLED: Chronic nonhealing wounds have been heralded as a silent epidemic, causing significant morbidity and mortality especially in elderly, diabetic, and obese populations. Polymicrobial biofilms in the wound bed are hypothesized to disrupt the highly coordinated and sequential events of cutaneous healing. Both culture-dependent and -independent studies of the chronic-wound microbiome have almost exclusively focused on bacteria, omitting what we hypothesize are important fungal contributions to impaired healing and the development of complications...
2016: MBio
Dorte Glintborg, Marianne Andersen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin resistance...
September 6, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Kelly R Reveles, Bryson M Duhon, Robert J Moore, Elizabeth O Hand, Crystal K Howell
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States. Antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are recommended in patients with associated risk factors; however, limited data exist to support these recommendations. Due to the changing epidemiology of MRSA, and the consequences of unnecessary antibiotic therapy, guidance regarding the necessity of empirical MRSA coverage in DFIs is needed...
2016: PloS One
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