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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935198/obesity-in-america
#1
Raul J Rosenthal, John Morton, Stacy Brethauer, Samer Mattar, Eric De Maria, Jennifer K Benz, Jennifer Titus, David Sterrett
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity in America continues to grow significantly. Awareness and understanding of the disease of obesity and treatment options for it appear to be lacking among the general US population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify misperceptions in diagnosis and treatment of obesity, struggles Americans face in obtaining treatment, consequences of obesity, and perceived barriers to weight loss. SETTING: University hospital, United States...
August 12, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935188/liver-transplantation-for-nash-cirrhosis-is-not-performed-at-the-expense-of-major-post-operative-morbidity
#2
Eline H van den Berg, Rianne M Douwes, Vincent E de Meijer, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an emerging indication for liver transplantation (LT) and coexists with multiple comorbidities. Obese and cirrhotic patients experience more perioperative complications. Limited data exist about short-term complications after LT for NASH cirrhosis. AIM: Investigate short-term complications in patients transplanted for NASH cirrhosis. METHODS: Single center retrospective cohort study including patients >18years who underwent LT between 2009-2015...
August 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933703/longitudinal-study-of-falls-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-women-the-role-of-cognition
#3
Anjali Sharma, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Susan Holman, Michael W Plankey, Phyllis C Tien, Kathleen M Weber, Michelle Floris-Moore, Hector H Bolivar, David E Vance, Elizabeth T Golub, Marcia McDonnell Holstad, Michael T Yin
BACKGROUND: Although fracture rates are higher in HIV+ than HIV- women, whether HIV infection increases risk of falls is unclear. We determined the longitudinal occurrence and risk factors for falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and explored associations with cognitive complaints. METHODS: Recent (prior 6 months) self-reported falls were collected in 1816 (1250 HIV+; 566 HIV-) women over 24 months. Generalized estimating equation models using stepwise selection determined odds of any fall (vs...
September 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931072/high-prevalence-of-non-dipping-blood-pressure-and-vascular-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-south-africans-on-antiretrovirals
#4
M S Borkum, J M Heckmann, K Manning, J A Dave, N S Levitt, B L Rayner, N Wearne
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of tissue inflammation and accelerated vascular aging ('inflamm-aging'). Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms such as non-dipping may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in HIV infected individuals. However, little data exists on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and measures of vascular stiffness in the black African HIV infected population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of otherwise well, HIV infected outpatients on ART for >5 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930104/liver-transplantation-in-the-obese-cirrhotic-patient
#5
Erin K Spengler, Jacqueline G O'Leary, Helen S Te, Shari Rogal, Anjana A Pillai, Abdullah Al-Osaimi, Archita Desai, James N Fleming, Daniel Ganger, Anil Seetharam, Georgios Tsoulfas, Martin Montenovo, Jennifer C Lai
Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the transplant population, the optimal management of obese liver transplant candidates remains undefined. Setting strict body mass index cutoffs for transplant candidacy remains controversial, with limited data to guide this practice. Body mass index is an imperfect measure of surgical risk in this population, partly due to volume overload and variable visceral adiposity. Weight loss before transplantation may be beneficial, but it remains important to avoid protein calorie malnutrition and sarcopenia...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929035/porcine-urinary-bladder-matrix-for-management-of-infected-radiation-mastectomy-wound
#6
Yana Puckett, Theophilus Pham, Shirley McReynolds, Catherine A Ronaghan
We present a case report on the successful healing of a Pseudomonas infection wound in a 52-year-old female with morbid obesity, noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus and a history of tobacco use, who presented with Stage IIIA (T3, N2, Mo) infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to her bilateral skin-sparing total mastectomies with right axillary sentinel lymphadenectomy. She also had staged reconstruction with temporary breast implants and plans for deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps...
July 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928207/a-perfect-storm-increased-colonization-and-failure-of-vaccination-leads-to-severe-secondary-bacterial-infection-in-influenza-virus-infected-obese-mice
#7
Erik A Karlsson, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Nicholas C van de Velde, Lee-Ann van de Velde, Beth Mann, Geli Gao, Jason Rosch, Elaine Tuomanen, Jon McCullers, Peter Vogel, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926404/metabolic-health-across-the-body-mass-index-spectrum-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-men
#8
Jordan E Lake, Xiuhong Li, Frank J Palella, Kristine M Erlandson, Dorothy Wiley, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa P Jacobson, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVES: In the general population, metabolic health (MH) often declines as body mass index (BMI) increases. However, some obese individuals maintain MH. HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with metabolic disturbances. We hypothesized that HIV-infected (HIV+) men on suppressive ART experience less MH than HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men across all BMI categories. DESIGN/METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of 1018 HIV+ and 1092 HIV- men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Poisson regression with robust variance determined associations between HIV serostatus and MH prevalence (defined as meeting 2 of 5 NCEP/ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria), adjusting for age, race, BMI category, smoking and hepatitis C virus infection status...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922254/obese-patients-undergoing-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-short-and-long-term-surgical-outcomes
#9
Nicholas P McKenna, Kellie L Mathis, Mohammad A Khasawneh, Eric J Dozois, David W Larson, John H Pemberton, Amy L Lightner
BACKGROUND: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the preferred surgical treatment for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis. Little is known about the impact of obesity on operative characteristics, short-term postoperative complications and long-term functional outcomes after IPAA. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients undergoing IPAA for chronic ulcerative colitis at a single tertiary referral center between January 2002 and August 2013 was performed...
August 23, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921781/valganciclovir-vgcv-followed-by-cytomegalovirus-cmv-hyperimmune-globulin-compared-to-vgcv-for-200-days-in-abdominal-organ-transplant-recipients-at-high-risk-for-cmv-infection-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study
#10
James N Fleming, David J Taber, Nicole A Weimert, Satish Nadig, John W McGillicuddy, Charles F Bratton, Prabhakar K Baliga, Kenneth D Chavin
BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antivirals against cytomegalovirus (CMV), use of CMV hyperimmune globulin has decreased. Although antiviral prophylaxis in patients at high risk for CMV is effective, many patients still have late infection, never developing antibodies sufficient to achieve immunity. Utilizing a combination of antiviral and CMV immunoglobulin G may allow patients to achieve immunity and decrease late CMV infections. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized, open-label, pilot study comparing valganciclovir (VGCV) prophylaxis for 200 days vs VGCV for 100 days followed by CMV HIG in abdominal transplant recipients at high risk for CMV...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915562/detecting-the-genetic-link-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-obesity-using-bioinformatics-analysis-of-gwas-data
#11
Qi-Shuai Zhuang, Hao Zheng, Xiao-Dan Gu, Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the major form of dementia in the elderly. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicate that obesity may act as a risk factor for AD, while the genetic link between the two conditions remains unclear. This bioinformatics analysis aimed to detect the genetic link between AD and obesity on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene, and pathway levels based on genome-wide association studies data. A total of 31 SNPs were found to be shared by AD and obesity, which were linked to 7 genes...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914835/-surgical-treatment-of-pain-syndrome-in-lumbar-spine-in-patients-with-obesity
#12
A G Aganesov, E G Gemdzhyan, A L Kheilo, K P Mikaelyan, M M Alexanyan
AIM: To analyze the reduction of pain severity, time of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, incidence of unintentional lesion of dura mater, infectious complications and hospital-stay after lumbar microdiscectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 104 patients aged 24-58 years (37 men and 67 women, mean age 45 years) who underwent lumbar microdiscectomy within January 2015 - June 2016. The main and control groups consisted of 48 and 56 patients with and without obesity respectively...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913358/central-modulation-of-neuroinflammation-by-neuropeptides-and-energy-sensing-hormones-during-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Alberto Camacho
Central nervous system (CNS) senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913357/the-association-of-uric-acid-calculi-with-obesity-prediabetes-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-hypertension
#14
Fang-Yeh Chu, Chih-Chun Chang, Pin-Hao Huang, Yi-Ning Lin, Po-Wen Ku, Jen-Tang Sun, Jung-Li Ho, Tzung-Hai Yen, Ming-Jang Su
OBJECTIVES: To disclose the link between the composition of urolithiasis, especially that of uric acid calculi, and obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had urinary calculi and underwent surgical treatment were registered in the study. The composition of urinary calculi was analyzed and correlated with clinical features and biomedical profiles of the patients before surgical intervention. RESULTS: A total of 666 patients with urolithiasis who underwent surgical management were registered and analyzed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913343/exacerbating-and-reversing-lysosomal-storage-diseases-from-yeast-to-humans
#15
REVIEW
Tamayanthi Rajakumar, Andrew B Munkacsi, Stephen L Sturley
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) arise from monogenic deficiencies in lysosomal proteins and pathways and are characterized by a tissue-wide accumulation of a vast variety of macromolecules, normally specific to each genetic lesion. Strategies for treatment of LSDs commonly depend on reduction of the offending metabolite(s) by substrate depletion or enzyme replacement. However, at least 44 of the ~50 LSDs are currently recalcitrant to intervention. Murine models have provided significant insights into our understanding of many LSD mechanisms; however, these systems do not readily permit phenotypic screening of compound libraries, or the establishment of genetic or gene-environment interaction networks...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912105/high-bmi-and-male-sex-as-risk-factor-for-increased-short-term-renal-impairment-in-living-kidney-donors-retrospective-analysis-of-289-consecutive-cases
#16
Lukas W Unger, Joy Feka, Philipp Sabler, Susanne Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Georg Györi, Michael Hofmann, Christoph Schwarz, Thomas Soliman, Georg Böhmig, Alexander Kainz, Andreas Salat, Gabriela A Berlakovich
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation represents the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, nephrectomy bears certain short- as well as long-term risks for the healthy, voluntary donor. As obesity is increasing and is a known risk factor for surgical complications, we wanted to assess the impact of BMI on perioperative complication rates and renal function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed patients undergoing living donor kidney nephrectomy at our institution...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911036/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-upregulates-the-expression-of-lymphoid-chemokines-and-promotes-the-formation-of-gastric-lymphoid-follicles-after-helicobacter-suis-infection
#17
Wen-Jun Zhao, Zi-Bin Tian, Shan-Shan Yao, Ya-Nan Yu, Cui-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Yu Li, Tao Mao, Xue Jing, Xue-Li Ding, Ruo-Ming Yang, Ya-Qian Liu, Shuai-Qing Zhang, Lin Yang
Helicobacter suis colonizes the stomachs of a variety of animals, including humans, and is more likely than other Helicobacter species to induce gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory state in which the induction of a chemokine network contributes to a variety of diseases. However, the effect of obesity on the development of gastric MALT in the presence of H. suis infection remains unclear. Here, we reveal that high-fat-diet-induced obesity upregulates the expression of lymphoid chemokines in the stomach and accelerates the H...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910134/eosinophilic-and-non-eosinophilic-asthma
#18
Tara F Carr, Amir A Zeki, Monica Kraft
Asthma can be subdivided into eosinophilic or non-eosinophilic phenotypes based on the inflammatory cellular patterns seen in sputum, blood, and airway tissue compartments. However, this level of stratification does not always produce robust clinical phenotypes as there is considerable overlap across these phenotypes when viewed from the perspective of "eosinophilia". Multiple proposed subphenotypes of asthma have instead been described within both the eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic groups. An endotype is the mechanism driving a subphenotype including those associated with eosinophilia such as early-onset allergic asthma, with and without obesity, aspirin sensitive asthma and late-onset eosinophilic asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis, and exercise-induced asthma...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904522/endoscopic-pilonidal-sinus-treatment-long-term-results-of-a-prospective-series
#19
Gabriella Giarratano, Claudio Toscana, Mostafa Shalaby, Oreste Buonomo, Giuseppe Petrella, Pierpaolo Sileri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pilonidal sinus is a common problem in the sacrococcygeal region, especially in obese, sedentary young men. The ideal surgical solution is still under debate, and there is a high rate of recurrence. In the present study, we analyzed the long-term results of a video-assisted minimally invasive technique for the treatment of sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment (EPSiT). METHODS: From October 2013 through November 2015, a total of 77 consecutive patients (69 Males and 8 Females, median age: 23 y) were referred to our colorectal units...
July 2017: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903508/effect-of-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-dasabuvir-and-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-regimens-on-survival-compared-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-persons-results-from-erchives
#20
Adeel Ajwad Butt, Peng Yan, Tracey G Simon, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra
Background: Interferon-based regimens are associated with a substantial survival benefit for persons infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Survival data with direct-acting antiviral agents are not available. We conducted this study to quantify the effect of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir (PrOD) and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) regimens upon mortality. Methods: In the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), a well-established national cohort of HCV-infected Veterans, we identified HCV-infected persons initiated on PrOD or LDV/SOF, excluding those with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, hepatocellular carcinoma, or missing HCV RNA or FIB-4 scores...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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