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Obesity infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350379/metabolic-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-poland
#1
Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Anna Grzeszczuk, Paweł Rogalski, Mariusz Łucejko, Robert Flisiak
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is usually diagnosed based on presence of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein levels (HDL). Whether HIV is associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than general population remains unclear. AIM: Aim of the study was to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the population of HIV infected adults and its association with clinical, virological and biochemical features...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346119/the-role-of-tedizolid-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#2
Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, Almudena Burillo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tedizolid is a second-generation oxazolidinone with activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA isolates resistant to linezolid. Pivotal clinical trials showed that tedizolid at 200 mg once-daily for 6 days is not inferior to linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days in patients with SSTI. The comparison of adverse events is favorable to tedizolid under the circumstances of the clinical trials. This is a review of recent literature on tedizolid, its use in special populations and potential adverse effects...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340748/lack-of-level-i-evidence-on-how-to-prevent-infection-after-elective-shoulder-surgery
#4
Carola F Eck, Julie A Neumann, Orr Limpisvasti, Christopher R Adams
PURPOSE: Infection is a concern after all orthopedic procedures, including shoulder surgery. This systematic review of literature aimed to determine risk factors for infection as well as the availability and effectiveness of measures utilized to prevent infection after elective shoulder surgery. METHODS: An electronic database search was performed using MEDLINE (1950-October 2017), EMBASE (1980-October 2017), CINAHL (1982-October 2017), and the Cochrane database to identify studies reporting a risk factor or preventive measure for infection after shoulder surgery...
January 16, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333826/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#5
Gustavo Cediel, Johanna Pacheco-Acosta, Carlos CastiUo-Durdn
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D research suggests it has a role in disorders other than bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To update the information on vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pediatric clinical disorders. METHODS: Search in virtual libraries, giving priority to clinical and longitudinal studies and meta-analyses on VDD in the pediatric age group published in the past 20 years. The terms "vitamin D deficiency", "children and adolescents" (both in Spanish and English) were used as search descriptors...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328881/factors-affecting-the-virological-response-among-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-yemen
#6
Zaid Mutahar Mohammed Alezzi, Ayman Yosry Abd El Rehim, Waleed Fouad Fathallah, Mansour Ali Alamrani, Fouad Hezam Othman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly seen as a major public health problem, threat, and concern worldwide. In Yemen about 1.7% of the population is infected with chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to detect the predictors for response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in chronic HCV Yemeni patients. The study was conducted on 100 patients with chronic HCV who received Peg-IFN/RBV in the 48th Military Hospital in Sana'a Yemen, from 2011 to 2013. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigation, and abdominal ultrasonography...
January 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327298/the-impact-of-obesity-on-outcomes-for-patients-undergoing-mastectomy-using-the-acs-nsqip-data-set
#7
Mary Garland, Fang-Chi Hsu, Clancy Clark, Akiko Chiba, Marissa Howard-McNatt
PURPOSE: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 34.7% of females in the United States are obese (BMI ≥ 30) in 2014, compared to 32.5% in 2010. The previous research has demonstrated high BMI as an independent risk factor for surgical complications after breast surgery. As more patients become obese, we sought to examine whether increasing obesity had an effect on outcomes of women who underwent a unilateral mastectomy without breast reconstruction. METHODS: The study reviewed the 2007-2012 ACS-NSQIP database and identified all patients who underwent a unilateral mastectomy without reconstruction...
January 11, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326816/immune-checkpoint-inhibition-prospects-for-prevention-and-therapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Caryn L Elsegood, Janina Ee Tirnitz-Parker, John K Olynyk, George Ct Yeoh
The global prevalence of liver cancer is rapidly rising, mostly as a result of the amplified incidence rates of viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse and obesity in recent decades. Treatment options for liver cancer are remarkably limited with sorafenib being the gold standard for advanced, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma but offering extremely limited improvement of survival time. The immune system is now recognised as a key regulator of cancer development through its ability to protect against infection and chronic inflammation, which promote cancer development, and eliminate tumour cells when present...
November 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325840/early-comparative-outcomes-of-unicompartmental-and-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-severely-obese-patients
#9
Zachary C Lum, David A Crawford, Adolph V Lombardi, Jason M Hurst, Michael J Morris, Joanne B Adams, Keith R Berend
BACKGROUND: Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) may have advantages over total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the setting of obesity. There has been no direct comparison between the two cohorts. This study compares outcomes and complications of severely obese patients undergoing medial UKA versus TKA. METHODS: Six hundred and fifty medial UKA and 1300 TKA were performed in patients with BMI >35kg/m2 (mean 41kg/m2) between 2007 and 2012. Pre- and postoperative ROM, Knee Society scores, perioperative factors, complications and reoperations were compared...
January 8, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325281/-value-of-hydrogen-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-the-determination-of-liver-triglyceride-in-patients-with-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-influencing-factors
#10
H J Qu, L Wang, P H Jin, Q Gao, J X Zhou, Y Song, J Wang, Y M Jiang, L Gong, G Y Chen, J P Ding, J P Shi
Objective: To investigate the value of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in determining the content of liver triglyceride in patients with fatty liver disease (FLD), as well as its influencing factors. Methods: A total of 124 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), or hepatitis B complicated by FLD who underwent liver biopsy in the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University were enrolled, and the clinical data, serological markers, FibroScan results, and (1)H-MRS results were collected...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323807/impact-of-obesity-on-cesarean-delivery-outcomes
#11
Andrew J Vegel, Dana M Benden, Andrew J Borgert, Kara J Kallies, Shanu N Kothari
BACKGROUND: The rate of cesarean delivery has increased over the last 2 decades. Obesity is a risk factor for complications during pregnancy and cesarean procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate cesarean delivery outcomes in patients with vs without obesity, and determine the impact of obesity on complications. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent a cesarean delivery from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed. Patients were grouped by body mass index (BMI) into obese (≥30kg/m²) and non-obese (<30kg/m²) cohorts for comparison...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322917/identification-of-natural-antimicrobial-peptides-from-bacteria-through-metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-high-throughput-transcriptome-data-of-taiwanese-oolong-teas
#12
Kai-Yao Huang, Tzu-Hao Chang, Jhih-Hua Jhong, Yu-Hsiang Chi, Wen-Chi Li, Chien-Lung Chan, K Robert Lai, Tzong-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), naturally encoded by genes and generally containing 12-100 amino acids, are crucial components of the innate immune system and can protect the host from various pathogenic bacteria and viruses. In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in the rapid growth of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms that often induce critical infection and pathogenesis. Recently, the advent of high-throughput technologies has led molecular biology into a data surge in both the amount and scope of data...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321421/a-fatal-case-of-super-super-obesity-bmi-80-in-a-patient-with-a-necrotic-soft-tissue-infection
#13
Toshihiko Yoshizawa, Kouhei Ishikawa, Hiroki Nagasawa, Ikuto Takeuchi, Kei Jitsuiki, Kazuhiko Omori, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Youichi Yanagawa
A 35-year-old man (height, 169 cm; body weight,240 kg; BMI, 84) visited the Department of Dermatology due to left leg pain and swelling. Focused enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the left leg ruled out complications of deep venous thrombosis. Surgical exploration of the left leg resulted in a diagnosis of necrotic soft tissue infection, but amputation was ruled out due to his weight. The patient ultimately died of multiple organ failure on the fourth day of hospitalization. A culture of the surgical material revealed Streptococcus dysgalactiae...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319579/how-big-is-too-big-pushing-the-obesity-limits-in-microsurgical-breast-reconstruction
#14
Jamie A Spitz, Perry S Bradford, Frank Aguilar, Sergey Y Turin, Marco F Ellis
PURPOSE: Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States, affecting nearly 79 million people. There have been promising results performing microvascular breast reconstruction in patients with obesity; however, the definition of obesity is often poorly defined or does not extend above a body mass index (BMI) of 35. Our goal was to examine outcomes of microvascular breast reconstruction in this questionably more risky population. METHODS: A retrospective review from 2013 to 2016 was performed of 2 surgeons' experience with abdominally based microvascular breast reconstructions...
February 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319160/macrophage-plasticity-polarization-and-function-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Abbas Shapouri Moghaddam, Saeed Mohammadian, Hossein Vazini, Mahdi Taghadosi, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Fatemeh Mardani, Bita Seifi, Asadollah Mohammadi, Jalil Tavakol Afshari, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Macrophages are heterogeneous and their phenotype and functions are regulated by the surrounding micro-environment. Macrophages commonly exist in two distinct subsets: 1) Classically activated or M1 macrophages, which are pro-inflammatory and polarized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either alone or in association with Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ, GM-CSF and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α, and 2) Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages, which are anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory and polarized by Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316039/treatment-of-hcv-infection-in-poland-at-the-beginning-of-the-interferon-free-era-the-epiter-2-study
#16
Robert Flisiak, Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk, Ewa Janczewska, Agnieszka Staniaszek, Andrzej Gietka, Włodzimierz Mazur, Magdalena Tudrujek, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Teresa Belica-Wdowik, Barbara Baka-Ćwierz, Dorota Dybowska, Waldemar Halota, Beata Lorenc, Marek Sitko, Aleksander Garlicki, Hanna Berak, Andrzej Horban, Iwona Orłowska, Krzysztof Simon, Łukasz Socha, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew Deroń, Agnieszka Czauż-Andrzejuk, Jolanta Citko, Rafał Krygier, Anna Piekarska, Łukasz Laurans, Witold Dobracki, Jolanta Białkowska, Olga Tronina, Małgorzata Pawłowska
The aim of the EpiTer-2 study was to analyze patient characteristics and their medication for HCV infection in Poland at the beginning of the interferon-free era. Analysis of data of HCV infected patients treated during the initial period of availability of interferon-free regimens in Poland, who started therapy after 1 July 2015 and had available an efficacy evaluation report before 30 June 2017 was undertaken. A total of 2879 patients with chronic hepatitis C were entered, including 46% with liver cirrhosis...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315584/evaluation-of-extended-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-patients-undergoing-indicated-non-cosmetic-panniculectomy-at-the-time-of-gynecologic-surgery
#17
Jay R Patibandla, Christina N Kufel, Michael P Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Panniculectomy at time of gynecologic surgery is used to improve visualization and prevent major complications in morbidly obese patients. We examine the role of extended antibiotic prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infections (SSI), specifically based on patient risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, smoking). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of all women who underwent panniculectomy at the time of gynecologic surgery from September 2014 to March 2016 at a university-affiliated hospital...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313284/endocrinological-aspects-of-hiv-infection
#18
REVIEW
F S Mirza, P Luthra, L Chirch
PURPOSE: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer with effective antiretroviral therapies and are enjoying near normal life span. Therefore, they are encountering endocrine issues faced by the general population along with those specific to HIV infection. The purpose of this article is to review the common endocrine aspects of HIV infection, and the early detection and management strategies for these complications. METHODS: Recent literature on HIV and endocrine disease was reviewed...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311094/pharmacokinetics-of-telavancin-at-fixed-doses-in-normal-body-weight-and-obese-classes-i-ii-and-iii-adult-subjects
#19
Kristen L Bunnell, Manjunath P Pai, Monica Sikka, Susan C Bleasdale, Eric Wenzler, Larry H Danziger, Keith A Rodvold
A recommended total body weight (TBW) dosing strategy for telavancin may not be optimal in obese patients. The primary objective of this study was to characterize and compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) of telavancin across four body size groups: normal to overweight and obesity classes I, II, and III. Healthy adult subjects (n=32) received a single, weight-stratified, fixed dose of 500 mg (n=4), 750 mg (n=8) or 1000 mg (n=20) of telavancin. Noncompartmental PK analyses revealed subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 had a higher volume of distribution (16...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309743/population-based-and-animal-study-on-the-effects-of-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-the-regulation-of-host-glucose-homeostasis
#20
Qiong Duan, Lu Xiong, Chaonan Liao, Zhenzhen Liu, Yi Xiao, Ruixue Huang, Ting Tan, Yanhao Ouyang, Jinxing Cai, Meifang Xiao, Huilan Xu, Zihua Chen, Lizhang Chen, Tianlun Yang, He Huang
Although parasitic infection affects the glucose homeostasis of mice, only few studies have integrated epidemiological and animal data to determine the effect of Schistosoma japonicum infection on mice metabolism. The current study assessed the effects of S. japonicum infection on blood glucose and other metabolic parameters in both patients and animal models of chronic schistomiasis. A total of 2,183 patients with chronic schistosomiasis and age- and gender-matched individuals without schistosomiasis (n = 1,798) were enrolled in this study...
January 5, 2018: Acta Tropica
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