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fluoride water

Yogesh Patil, Panayiotis Bilalis, Georgios Polymeropoulos, Sarah R Almahdali, Nikos Hadjichristidis, Valentin O Rodionov
A well-defined amphiphilic miktoarm polymer incorporating poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks was synthesized via a combination of atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), iodine transfer radical polymerization (ITP), and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Morphology and self-assembly of this star polymer were examined in organic solvents and in water. The aggregates formed in water were found to possess unusual frustrated topology due to immiscibility of PS and PVDF...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Mahmood Yousefi, Mehdi Yaseri, Ramin Nabizadeh, Elham Hooshmand, Mohsen Jalilzadeh, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Ali Akbar Mohammadi
Hypertension is becoming a global epidemic for both rural and urban populations; it is a major public health challenge in Iran. Fluoride can be a risk factor for hypertension. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in two study areas to assess the relation of fluoride with blood pressure prevalence, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among different age groups in both sexes. The mean value of fluoride concentration in the drinking water from the four study villages varied from 0.68 to 10...
March 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam, Mahmood Yousefi, Ahmad Khosravi, Mehdi Yaseri, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mostafa Hadei, Ali Akbar Mohammadi, Zahrasadat Robati, Adel Mokammel
The presence of fluoride in drinking water can be either beneficial or harmful for human health, depending on its concentration. Most adverse effects of fluoride are observed at high concentrations (above 1.5 mg/L). This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of fluoride concentrations in drinking water on spontaneous abortion in two regions: one with low fluoride concentration and another with high fluoride concentration. The results showed that there is a relationship between the concentration of fluoride in drinking water and abortion, so that the risk of abortion increased at high concentrations of fluoride...
March 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Adimalla Narsimha
Fluoride beyond desirable amounts(0.6-1.5 mg/L) in groundwater is a major problem and fluorosis is a very dangerous and deadly disease affecting millions of people across the World (Bell and Ludwig, 1970; Adimalla and Venkatayogi, 2017; Narsimha and Sudarshan, 2013, 2017a, 2017b) [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. The investigated area is located in north-eastern part of Medak district, Telangana state and fluoride concentration in groundwater samples was measured by ion selective electrode method and its ranges from 0...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Joshua N Edokpayi, John O Odiyo, Elizabeth O Popoola, Titus A M Msagati
Background: Access to clean and safe drinking water is still a problem in developing countries and more pronounced in rural areas. Due to erratic supply of potable, rural dwellers often seek for an alternative source of water to meet their basic water needs. The objective of this study is to monitor the microbiological and physicochemical water quality parameters of Nzhelele River which is a major alternative source of drinking water to villages along its course in Limpopo province of South Africa...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
Zihan An, Fengying Dai, Chenjie Wei, Yiping Zhao, Li Chen
Membrane surface design is significant for the development and application of synthetic polymer hemodialysis membranes. In this study, the influence of zwitterionic cysteine on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane was investigated. The polydopamine layer was formed through dopamine self-polymerization on PVDF membrane surface, and then cysteine was covalent grafted onto the layer to improve the anti-biofouling property and hemocompatibility. The elementary composition of membrane surfaces was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Hong-Wei Wang, Jing Liu, Jing Zhao, Lin Lin, Wen-Peng Zhao, Pan-Pan Tan, Wei-Shun Tian, Bian-Hua Zhou
Our previous study indicated that excessive fluoride (F) induces ATP5J and ATP5H proactive expression by interfering cardiomyocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. This study aimed to investigate underlying mechanisms of F¯ induced damage to cardiomyocytes. A total of 100 mg/L F¯ was added to distilled water to treat Kunming mice for 70 days. Pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissues were observed under transmission electron microscope and light microscope. Content of ATP and ATP enzyme distributed in cardiomyocytes were determined by fluorescence and ATP enzyme staining...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Chong Wang, Yan Chen, Ram Kumar Manthari, Jundong Wang
cAMP response element modulator (CREM) is involved in regulating gene expression in normal spermatogenesis. The transcriptional activity of CREM is partly regulated by activator of CREM in the testis (ACT). To investigate the effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the gene and protein expression of CREM and ACT in the mouse testis, sexually mature male Kunming mice were exposed to 50, 100, or 150 mg/L NaF in their drinking water for 90 days. NaF reduced the sperm count and viability and increased the percentage of malformed sperm in a dose-dependent manner...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jicheng Yu, Jia Lu, Yong Kang
Chemical precipitation method was adopted to remove sulfate from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater and mixtures of Ca(OH)2 (CH) and NaAlO2 (SA) were used as precipitants. The mechanisms of sulfate removal were explored according to the experimental and simulated results. These showed that three kinds of precipitations, which were gypsum, ettringite and co-precipitation onto aluminum hydroxides, were formed when sulfate in water reacted with CH and SA. The optimum operation condition for removing sulfate was that the molar ratio of CH/SA was 2, the initial pH value 5, the precipitant dosage 15 g/L, the reaction time 20 min, and the reaction temperature 55 °C...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Roger Chafe, Rana Aslanov, Atanu Sarkar, Peter Gregory, Alex Comeau, Leigh Anne Newhook
Objective: To determine the association between drinking water quality and rates of type 1 diabetes in the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) population, which has one of the highest incidences of type 1 diabetes reported globally. Research design and methods: The study used a community-based, case-control design. We first calculated incidence rates of type 1 diabetes at the provincial, regional and community levels. The connection between incidence rates and components in public water supplies were then analyzed in three ways: to evaluate differences in water quality between communities with and without incident cases of type 1 diabetes, and to analyze the relationship between water quality and incidence rates of type 1 diabetes at both the community and regional levels...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Kejia Ji, Hongjie Xu, Xiaodong Ma, Jie Yin, Xuesong Jiang
Porous membranes with the uniform nanostructure and selective adsorption can realize molecular filtration with high flux, and raise great concern for its wide application in water treatment and industrial separation. Herein, a novel hyperbranched poly (ether amine)@poly (vinylidene fluoride) (hPEA@PVDF) porous membrane with the oriented nanostructure and selective adsorption of guest molecules was fabricated by firstly applying combined crystallization and diffusion (CCD) method for the functionalization of PVDF membrane...
March 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Idan Ashur, Hyla Allouche-Arnon, Amnon Bar-Shir
Inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have been extensively developed for a variety of uses. The ability to obtain high-resolution NMR signals from the core nuclei of NCs in solution could offer new opportunities in materials sciences and MR imaging. Here, we demonstrate that small, water-soluble 19F-ionic NCs can average out homonuclear dipolar interactions, enabling one to obtain high-resolution 19F-NMR signals in solution that reflect the MR properties of F- in the crystal core. Decorating 19F-NC surfaces with a biocompatible polyethylene-glycol coating maintains colloidal stability in water while preserving the NC high-resolution 19F-NMR properties, even after further functionalization...
March 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Fan Yang, Johnson Efome, Dipak Rana, Takeshi Matsuura, Christopher Lan
Among other applications, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are slowly gaining grounds as fillers for desalination composite membranes. In this study, superhydrophobic poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibrous membranes were fabricated with MOF (Iron-BTC) loading of up to 5 wt.% via electro-spinning on a nonwoven substrate. To improve attachment of nanofibers unto the substrate, a substrate pre-treatment method called 'solvent basing' was employed. Iron content in the nanofiber, measured by dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), increased proportionally with the increase of MOF concentration in the spinning dope, indicating a uniform distribution of MOF in the nanofiber...
March 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jaishabanu Ameeramja, Ekambaram Perumal
Fluorosis (fluoride toxicity) seems to be reduced by plant secondary metabolites. Tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE), a mixture of procyanidins and polyphenols, possesses numerous pharmacological activities. Regardless of its beneficial properties, the underlying molecular mechanism against chronic fluorosis in vivo is not known. Hence, the present study is aimed to investigate the efficacy of TSCE against fluoride (F- )-induced pulmonary toxicity in rats. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated with NaF (300 ppm in drinking water) and TSCE (100 mg/kg/bw by oral intubation) alone and in combination daily for 30 days...
March 5, 2018: Inflammation
Y S Cui, Q Zhong, W F Li, Z H Liu, Y Wang, C C Hou
Objective: To investigate the effects of fluoride exposure on the thyroid hormone level and intelligence in rats and to investigate the biomarkers of intellectual impairment induced by high fluoride exposure. Methods: A total of 24 clean healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (tap water containing 0.344 mg/L fluoride) and low-, medium-, and high-fluoride exposure groups (tap waters containing 10, 50, and 100 mg/L sodium fluoride, respectively). One male rat was cohabited with two female rats in the same group...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Lee-Yee Chong, Jan E Clarkson, Lorna Dobbyn-Ross, Smriti Bhakta
BACKGROUND: Slow-release fluoride devices have been investigated as a potentially cost-effective method of reducing dental caries in people with high risk of disease. This is the second update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2006 and previously updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different types of slow-release fluoride devices on preventing, arresting, or reversing the progression of carious lesions on all surface types of primary (deciduous) and permanent teeth...
March 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Abdul Ghaffar, Lina Zhang, Xiaoying Zhu, Baoliang Chen
Graphene oxide (GO) membranes are robust and continue to attract great attention due to their fascinating properties, despite their potential issues regarding stability and selectivity in aqueous-phase processing. That being said, however, the functional moieties of GO could be used for membrane surface modification, while ensuring simultaneous removal and recycling of industrial organic dyes. Herein, we present a versatile porous structured polyvinylidene fluoride-graphene oxide (PVdF-GO) nanofibrous membranes (NFMs), prepared by using simple and straightforward electrospinning approach for selective separation and filtration...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jeremy A Horst, Jason M Tanzer, Peter M Milgrom
We focus on scalable public health interventions that prevent and delay the development of caries and enhance resistance to dental caries lesions. These interventions should occur throughout the life cycle, and need to be age appropriate. Mitigating disease transmission and enhancing resistance are achieved through use of various fluorides, sugar substitutes, mechanical barriers such as pit-and-fissure sealants, and antimicrobials. A key aspect is counseling and other behavioral interventions that are designed to promote use of disease transmission-inhibiting and tooth resistance-enhancing agents...
April 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
Tasneem Gul Kazi, Kapil Dev Brahman, Hassan Imran Afridi, Faheem Shah, Mohammad Balal Arain
Fluoride in trace quantity is beneficial for human beings, serving to strengthen the apatite matrix of skeletal tissues and teeth, whereas high intake causes adverse impacts. In the present study, the effect of fluoride-contaminated drinking water of livestock on the milk samples of different cattle, belonging to a fluoride-endemic area (Tharparkar, Pakistan), was studied. In milk samples of different cattle (cows, camels, sheep, and goats), free and bound fluoride forms and its total (free (F- ) + bound (F- )) contents were measured by ion-selective electrode...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vijaykumar L Dhadge, Chitta Ranjan Medhi, Murchana Changmai, Mihir Kumar Purkait
A first of its kind hybrid electrocoagulation-filtration prototype unit was fabricated for the removal of fluoride, iron, arsenic and microorganisms contaminated drinking water. The unit comprised of 3 chambers, chamber A consisting of an inlet for the water to be treated and an outlet for the treated water along with one block of aluminum electrodes. Chamber B consisted of ceramic membrane filtration assembly at the bottom over a metallic support which filters the flocs so produced in chamber A and chamber C consisting of space to collect the treated water...
February 16, 2018: Chemosphere
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