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fluoride water

R J Wierichs, S Westphal, J Lausch, H Meyer-Lueckel, M Esteves-Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the role of highly fluoridated dentifrice on remineralization characteristics of lowly and highly pre-demineralized enamel artificial caries lesions. METHODS: Bovine enamel specimens were prepared (pH 4.95; 21 days) and discriminated in either lowly [L] or highly [H] pre-demineralized artificial caries lesions. Specimens with a mean ΔZbaseline,L (95% CI) of 5120 (4995; 5245) vol.% × μm and a mean ΔZbaseline,H of 8187 (8036; 8339) vol...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Anshumali, Manish Kumar, Nikki Chanda, Abhay Kumar, Bijendra Kumar, Madavi Venkatesh
This study assessed the fluoride (F-) pollution in groundwater samples (n = 170) of tribal regions around Bailadila Iron Ore Mines [BIOM] Complex of Dantewada District, India. Weathering of carbonate and silicate clays were important geogenic sources of dissolved ions. A Piper diagram showed a Ca-HCO3 water type, with positive chloro-alkaline indices illustrating the occurrence of direct base-exchange reactions. The F- concentrations varied from 0.08 to 1.95 mg L-1 with a mean value of 0.9 ± 0.3 mg L-1...
January 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yun Chul Woo, Youngjin Kim, Minwei Yao, Leonard Demegilio Tijing, Juneseok Choi, Sangho Lee, Seunghyun Kim, Hokyong Shon
In this study, composite membranes were fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively-charged silica aerogel (SiA) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H - Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (FTCS) on a polyvinylidene fluoride phase inversion membrane, and interconnecting them with positively-charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via electrostatic interaction. The results showed that the PDDA-SiA-FTCS coated membrane had significantly enhanced the membrane structure and properties. New trifluoromethyl and tetrafluoroethylene bonds appeared at the surface of the coated membrane, which led to lower surface free energy of the composite membrane...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tao He, Mary Kay Anastasia, Marianne Zsiska, Teresa Farmer, Eva Schneiderman, Jeffery L Milleman
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a novel stannous fluoride dentifrice with zinc citrate on calculus inhibition using both in vitro and clinical models. METHODS: Each investigation tested a novel stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrice with zinc citrate as an anticalculus agent (Crest® Pro-Health™ smooth formula) compared to a negative control fluoride dentifrice. The in vitro study used the modified Plaque Growth and Mineralization Model (mPGM). Plaque biofilms were prepared and mineralized by alternate immersion of glass rods in human saliva and artificial mineralization solution...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
Amir Mirzaei, Laleh Yerushalmi, Zhi Chen, Fariborz Haghighat, Jianbo Guo
The presence of antibiotics in water bodies has received increasing attention since they are continuously introduced and detected in the environment and may cause unpredictable environmental hazards and risks. The photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by ZnO in the presence of fluoride ions (F-ZnO) was evaluated. The effects of operating parameters on the efficiency of SMX removal were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimum condition, i.e. photocatalyst dosage = 1...
January 11, 2018: Water Research
Qianyu Liu, Shaobin Huang, Yongqing Zhang, Shuaifei Zhao
We use activated carbon (AC) and titanium oxide (TiO2) nanomaterials as the additives to prepare four polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based ultrafiltration membranes by nonsolvent induced phase separation. The surface properties (pore size, porosity, hydrophilicity and roughness) of the membranes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy. The chemical properties of the membranes are evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection and X-ray diffraction...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Loic Charbonnière, Aline Nonat, Tao Liu, Franck Camerel, Olivier Jeannin
In the presence of fluoride anions, the [LnL(H2O)]+ complexes, based on the coordination of a lanthanide (Ln) cation into the cavity of a C2v symmetrical cyclen based ligand L, self-assemble in water to form [(LnL)2F]+ dimers. The crystal structures of the Yb hydrated monomer and of the fluorinated dimer are reported and analyzed to unravel the impact of the cumulative effect of weak hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions in the supramolecular assembly. The assembly is stable over a broad range of pH (3 to 8)...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Rong Song, Shengke Yang, Haiyang Xu, Zongzhou Wang, Yangyang Chen, Yanhua Wang
The adsorption behavior and mechanism for the uptake of fluoride ions by untreated and desugared reed residues (roots, stems and leaves) were studied through adsorption experiments, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and surface area analysis. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of untreated and desugared reeds followed the order: desugared roots 2136 mg/kg > desugared leaves 1825 mg/kg > desugared stems 1551 mg/kg > untreated roots 191 mg/kg > untreated stems 175 mg/kg > untreated leaves 150 mg/kg, so adsorption capacity of desugared reeds was larger than that of the untreated reeds...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Keiichi Fukushi, Yuki Fujita, Junpei Nonogaki, Jun-Ichi Tsujimoto, Takanari Hattori, Hideyuki Inui, Vladimir P Beškoski, Hiroki Hotta, Mitsuru Hayashi, Takeshi Nakano
We developed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect UV detection for the determination of fluoride (F-) in seawater using transient isotachophoresis (tITP) as an on-line concentration procedure. A method of correcting sample salinity effects was also proposed so that F- concentrations were obtained using a calibration graph. The proposed method is simple: it requires no sample pretreatment aside from dilution. The following optimum conditions were established: background electrolyte (BGE), 5 mM 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC) adjusted to pH 3...
January 9, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Fang Yu, Yanmei Zhou, Kunxia Cao, Wenli Gao, Bin Gao, Li Sun, Shengjian Liu, Lin Wang, Yanting Ding
The toxic effects of eight common ionic liquids (ILs) on wheat seedlings was evaluated with specific emphasis on the influence of concentration range, anion species and cation chain length of ILs. The growth of wheat seeds was significantly inhibited by ILs, especially under higher concentration, presence of the fluoride anion and the longer alkyl chain length of the cation. The modified biochar (PB-K-N) efficiently removed the ILs from aqueous solutions, the order of the adsorption capacities was as follows: [Bmim]OAc [Bmim]C7H5O2 [Bmim]BF4 [Bmim]Br, [Domim]Br [BPy]Br [Omim]Br [Bmim]Br [Emim]Br...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Sweta Binod Kumar, Hardik Trivedi, Narshibhai Rameshbhai Baraiya, Soumya Haldar
The prime requirement for marine water studies is a competent sampling device that can collect water samples perfectly without any contamination to avoid false analysis. The present study demonstrates the design and operation of a cost-effective novel water sampler, which collects contamination-free water from any desired depths of seawater. The sampler is also fitted with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with improved property for concentration of diversified bacteria. To test the efficiency of the designed sampler under field conditions, the differential depth water sampler (DDWS) was deployed at two coastal sampling stations to collect water samples from various depths...
January 8, 2018: Analyst
Jonathan E Creeth, Ritu Karwal, Anderson T Hara, Domenick T Zero
This study aimed to determine the effect of zinc ions and F concentration in a dentifrice on remineralization of early caries lesions in situ and on resistance to subsequent demineralization. This was a single-center, 6-period, 6-product, blinded (examiner, subject, analyst), randomized (n = 62), crossover study. Products (all NaF) were: 0, 250, 1,150 and 1,426 ppm F (dose-response controls), "Zn-A" (0.3% ZnCl2, 1,426 ppm F), and "Zn-B" (as Zn-A, with high-foaming surfactants) in a conventional silica base...
January 5, 2018: Caries Research
M M Patil, Bhavana B Lakhkar, Shailaja S Patil
Fluoride was identified to have caries preventive properties and was widely used for fluoridation of water since 1940, especially in developed countries. After this there was sudden increase in the use of fluorides in food items and in oral medicinal products like toothpastes and mouth washes. Inadvertent use of above has lead to increase in fluorosis as a public health problem. In many places high fluorides are naturally present in earth crust leading to high water fluoride content increasing the risk of fluorosis...
January 3, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Noèlia Carbó, Javier López Carrero, F Javier Garcia-Castillo, Isabel Tormos, Estela Olivas, Elisa Folch, Miguel Alcañiz Fillol, Juan Soto, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, M Carmen Martínez-Bisbal
The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the quantitative analysis of quality parameters in spring water is proposed here. The electronic voltammetric tongue consisted of a set of four noble electrodes (iridium, rhodium, platinum, and gold) housed inside a stainless steel cylinder. These noble metals have a high durability and are not demanding for maintenance, features required for the development of future automated equipment. A pulse voltammetry study was conducted in 83 spring water samples to determine concentrations of nitrate (range: 6...
December 25, 2017: Sensors
Pengrui Jin, Chuan Huang, Jiaxiang Li, Yadong Shen, Liao Wang
The wetting of hollow fibre membranes decreases the performance of the liquid-gas membrane contactor for CO2 capture in biogas upgrading. To solve this problem, in this work, a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibre membrane for a liquid-gas membrane contactor was coated with a superhydrophobic layer composed of a combination of hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by the method of spray deposition. A rough layer of SiO2 deposited on the PVDF membrane resulted in an enhanced surface hydrophobicity...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Maya Ramesh, N Malathi, K Ramesh, Rita Mary Aruna, Sarah Kuruvilla
Background: High levels of fluoride in the drinking water, especially ground water, results in skeletal fluorosis which involves the bone and major joints. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis to compare with dental fluorosis in an endemically fluorosed population in the District of Salem, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Institutional ethical clearance was obtained. A total of 206 patients who reported to the Department of Hematology for blood investigations were the participants in this study...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Amanuel Kidane Andegiorgish, Bizen Weldmicheal Weldemariam, Meron Mehari Kifle, Filmon Gebreysus Mebrahtu, Henos Keflom Zewde, Micheal Gebregziabhir Tewelde, Mohammed Anwar Hussen, Winta Kesete Tsegay
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases of childhood in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries in Eritrea. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among 12 years old school children in Eritrea. METHODS: A school based cross sectional study was conducted among 225 twelve years old students in two selected schools...
December 29, 2017: BMC Oral Health
Yuanqing Li, William A Mitch
This study evaluates an electrochemical system to treat the halogenated pesticides, fipronil, permethrin and bifenthrin, in urban runoff. Compared to the poor sorption capacity of metal-based electrodes, granular activated carbon (GAC)-based electrodes could sorb halogenated pesticides, permitting electrochemical degradation to occur over longer timescales than reactor hydraulic residence times. In a dual-cell configuration, a cathode constructed of loose GAC containing sorbed pesticides was separated from the anode by an ion exchange membrane to prevent chloride transport and oxidation to chlorine at the anode...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Sufyan Garoushi, Pekka K Vallittu, Lippo Lassila
This study aimed to evaluate and compare certain mechanical properties, Vickers-hardness, water sorption, fluoride-release, shrinkage-stress and wear of five commercial fluoride-releasing restorative materials (Dyract, CompGlass, BEAUTIFIL II, ACTIVARestorative, and GC Fuji II LC), in relation to their microstructural characteristics. Mechanical properties were determined for each material following ISO standards. A wear test was conducted with 15,000 chewing cycles using a dual-axis chewing simulator. Daily fluoride-release was measured during the first 10 days by using a fluoride ion selective electrode...
December 27, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
Jiatai Gu, Haihong Gu, Qiong Zhang, Yonghuan Zhao, Ni Li, Jie Xiong
HYPOTHESIS: In general, microporous membranes with waterproofness, breathability, and oil-water separation performance are prepared from hydrophobic raw materials and demonstrated to exhibit an interconnected porous structure. Hence, constructing porous and gradient-structured composite membranes by integrating robust hydrophobic/lipophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and breathable polyurethane (PU) microporous membranes could help realize a selective separation process. EXPERIMENT: Here, novel polyvinylidene fluoride-carbon nanotube/polyurethane/polyvinylidene fluoride-carbon nanotube (PVDF-CNT/PU/PVDF-CNT) sandwich-structured microporous membranes were fabricated by sequential electrospinning...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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