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Radial glial cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#1
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#2
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#3
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325060/pathophysiological-analyses-of-leptomeningeal-heterotopia-using-gyrencephalic-mammals
#4
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Naoki Kobayashi, Natsu Uda, Miwako Hirota, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia (LGH) is a focal malformation of the cerebral cortex and frequently found in patients with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying LGH formation are still largely unclear because of difficulties in obtaining brain samples from human TD patients. Recently, we established a new animal model for analyzing cortical malformations of human TD by utilizing our genetic manipulation technique for gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. Here we investigated the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the formation of LGH using our TD ferrets...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305158/tbr2-antagonizes-retinoic-acid-dependent-neuronal-differentiation-by-repressing-zfp423-during-corticogenesis
#5
Luca Massimino, Lisbeth Flores-Garcia, Bruno Di Stefano, Gaia Colasante, Cecilia Icoresi-Mazzeo, Mattia Zaghi, Bruce A Hamilton, Alessandro Sessa
During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2...
January 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304341/a-coated-sponge-toward-neonatal-brain-repair
#6
Orly Reiner, Tamar Sapir
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Jinnou et al. (2018) identify a limited time window wherein neonatal brain injuries may be treated through neuroblast migration toward the injury site on radial glial fibers. Implanting a sponge coated with an adhesive factor in the injured neonatal brain supports the migration of neuroblasts and improves functional recovery.
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288341/brain-lipid-binding-protein-mediates-the-proliferation-of-human-glioblastoma-cells-by-regulating-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-in-vitro
#7
Wei Tian, Jinhong Shi, Jianbing Qin, Guohua Jin, Xiao Han, Haoming Li
Brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) is highly expressed in the radial glial cells (RGCs) of the central nervous system (CNS), in glioblastomas, and, in vitro, in U251 cells. In this report, we have demonstrated that increased BLBP expression in glioblastoma is associated with poor survival and used a double-vector CRISPR/Cas9 lentiviral system to deplete endogenous BLBP from U251 cells, we found that loss of BLBP induced cell growth inhibition and S-phase arrest. Moreover, an increase in P53 and a decrease in p-ERK1/2 were observed after BLBP depletion, suggesting a potential mechanism by which loss of BLBP results in growth inhibition...
December 29, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276142/radial-glial-fibers-promote-neuronal-migration-and-functional-recovery-after-neonatal-brain-injury
#8
Hideo Jinnou, Masato Sawada, Koya Kawase, Naoko Kaneko, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Takuya Miyamoto, Takumi Kawaue, Takaki Miyata, Yasuhiko Tabata, Toshihiro Akaike, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Itsuki Ajioka, Shinji Saitoh, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation...
December 14, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232670/some-galeomorph-sharks-express-a-mammalian-microglia-specific-protein-in-radial-ependymoglia-of-the-telencephalon
#9
Skirmantas Janušonis
Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), also known as allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1), is a highly conserved cytoplasmic scaffold protein. Studies strongly suggest that Iba1 is associated with immune-like reactions in all Metazoa. In the mammalian brain, it is abundantly expressed in microglial cells and is used as a reliable marker for this cell type. The present study used multiple-label microscopy and Western blotting to examine Iba1 expression in the telencephalon of 2 galeomorph shark species, the swellshark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) and the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci), a member of an ancient extant order...
December 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225571/heterogenic-distribution-of-aromatic-l-amino-acid-decarboxylase-neurons-in-the-rat-spinal-cord
#10
Li-Qun Ren, Meng Chen, Hans Hultborn, Sen Guo, Yifan Zhang, Mengliang Zhang
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and certain trace amines and is present in a variety of organs including the brain and spinal cord. It is previously reported that in mammalian spinal cord AADC cells (called D-cells) were largely confined to a region around the central canal and that they do not produce monoamines. To date, there has not been a detailed description of their distribution and morphology in mammals. In the present study this issue is systematically investigated using immunohistochemistry...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218861/comparative-expression-patterns-of-sox2-and-sox19-genes-in-the-forebrain-of-developing-and-adult-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#11
Xoana Taboada, Ana Viñas, Fátima Adrio
The turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, belongs to the flatfishes (order Pleuronectiformes), which display substantial asymmetry of the olfactory organs and forebrain. Sox genes code for SRY-related HMG domain-bearing transcription factors involved in various developmental processes. Group B1 Sox genes as Sox2 and Sox19 appear to play major roles in neural development. Here, we characterized by in situ hybridization the developmental expression of Sox2 and Sox19 genes in metamorphic and postmetamorphic specimens and young adults of both sexes...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211732/the-mouse-jhy-gene-regulates-ependymal-cell-differentiation-and-ciliogenesis
#12
Hilmarie Muniz-Talavera, Jennifer V Schmidt
During the first postnatal week of mouse development, radial glial cells lining the ventricles of the brain differentiate into ependymal cells, undergoing a morphological change from pseudostratified cuboidal cells to a flattened monolayer. Concomitant with this change, multiple motile cilia are generated and aligned on each nascent ependymal cell. Proper ependymal cell development is crucial to forming the brain tissue:CSF barrier, and to the establishment of ciliary CSF flow, but the mechanisms that regulate this differentiation event are poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210929/optic-disc-edema-in-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-autoantibody-positive-meningoencephalitis
#13
John J Chen, Allen J Aksamit, Andrew McKeon, Sean J Pittock, Brian G Weinshenker, Jacqueline A Leavitt, Padraig P Morris, Eoin P Flanagan
BACKGROUND: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibody-positive meningoencephalitis is a newly described entity characterized by a corticosteroid-responsive meningoencephalomyelitis. Some patients with GFAP autoantibody-positive meningoencephalitis have been found to have optic disc edema, which has previously not been well characterized. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational case series of Mayo Clinic patients found to have GFAP-IgG and optic disc edema from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2016...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194577/cerebral-cortex-development-an-outside-in-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Gulistan Agirman, Loic Broix, Laurent Nguyen
The cerebral cortex is a complex structure that contains different classes of neurons distributed within six layers and regionally organized into a highly specialized area. Cortical layering arises during embryonic development in an inside-out manner as forebrain progenitors proliferate and generate distinct waves of interneurons and projection neurons. Radial glial cells (RGCs) derive from neuroepithelial cells and are the founding cortical progenitors. At the onset of corticogenesis, RGCs expand their pool by proliferative divisions...
November 30, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193473/autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-in-chinese-patients-a-retrospective-study
#15
Youming Long, Junyan Liang, Huiming Xu, Qingmei Huang, Jie Yang, Cong Gao, Wei Qiu, Shaopeng Lin, Xiaohui Chen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of an autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy. METHODS: Data from 19 patients with positive GFAP-IgG in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The main disease manifestations included myelitis (68.4%), headache (63.2%), abnormal vision (63.2%), fever (52.6%), ataxia (36.8%), psychosis (31.6%), dyskinesia (15...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175489/diffusion-tensor-imaging-identifies-presymptomatic-axonal-degeneration-in-the-spinal-cord-of-als-mice
#16
Rodolfo G Gatto, Weiguo Li, Richard L Magin
Extensive pathological evidence indicates that axonal degeneration represents an early and critical event in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Unfortunately, few MRI studies have focused in the early detection of white matter (WM) alterations in the spinal cord region. To unveil these WM changes, we performed high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and correlated the results with histological analysis of adjacent slices taken from the spinal cords of presymptomatic mice. The DTI studies demonstrated a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) as well as axial diffusivities (AD) and an increase in radial diffusivity (RD), predominantly at lower segments of the spinal cord...
November 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169694/vitamin-e-can-improve-behavioral-tests-impairment-cell-loss-and-dendrite-changes-in-rats-medial-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-acceptable-daily-dose-of-aspartame
#17
Ali Rafati, Ali Noorafshan, Mahboubeh Jahangir, Leila Hosseini, Saied Karbalay-Doust
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used in about 6000 sugar-free products. Aspartame consumption could be associated with various neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aspartame onmedial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) as well as neuroprotective effects of vitamin E. The rats were divided into seven groups, including distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), and low (acceptable daily dose) and high doses of aspartame (40 and 200mg/kg/day) respectively, with or without vitamin E consumption, for 8 weeks...
November 21, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163067/the-baf45d-protein-is-preferentially-expressed-in-adult-neurogenic-zones-and-in-neurons-and-may-be-required-for-retinoid-acid-induced-pax6-expression
#18
Chao Liu, Ruyu Sun, Jian Huang, Dijuan Zhang, Dake Huang, Weiqin Qi, Shenghua Wang, Fenfen Xie, Yuxian Shen, Cailiang Shen
Adult neurogenesis is important for the development of regenerative therapies for human diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) through the recruitment of adult neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are characterized by the capacity to generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. To identify key factors involved in manipulating the adult NSC neurogenic fate thus has crucial implications for the clinical application. Here, we report that BAF45D is expressed in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, and the central canal (CC) of the adult spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145015/glial-control-of-neurogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Sven Falk, Magdalena Götz
Glial cells are central components of all neurogenic niches in the embryonic as well as in the adult central nervous system. While neural stem cells (NSCs) themselves exhibit glial features the behavior of NSCs is also strongly influenced by niche glial cells. Recently, studies have begun to uncover a large variety of glial cell-extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors that play crucial roles in the control of NSCs and the regulation of the cellular output from the neurogenic niches. In this review, we focus on mechanisms underlying the formation of adult NSCs by embryonic radial glia cells, discuss the influence of niche glia cells on adult NSCs and examine how the neurogenic potential of glial cells is controlled...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138282/trajectory-analysis-unveils-reelin-s-role-in-the-directed-migration-of-granule-cells-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#20
Shaobo Wang, Bianka Brunne, Shanting Zhao, Xuejun Chai, Jiawei Li, Jeremie Lau, Antonio Virgilio Failla, Bernd Zobiak, Mirjam Sibbe, Gary L Westbrook, David Lutz, Michael Frotscher
Reelin controls neuronal migration and layer formation. Previous studies in reeler mice deficient in Reelin focused on the result of the developmental process in fixed tissue sections. It has remained unclear whether Reelin affects the migratory process, migration directionality or migrating neurons guided by the radial glial scaffold. Moreover, Reelin has been regarded as an attractive signal, since newly generated neurons migrate toward the Reelin-containing marginal zone. Conversely, Reelin might be a stop signal, since migrating neurons in reeler, but not in wild-type mice, invade the marginal zone...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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