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Radial glial cell

Fu-Sheng Chou, Pei-Shan Wang
Neuronal migration during fetal brain development is a well-coordinated process between the migrating neurons and their substrates, the basal processes of the radial glial cells (RGCs). The progeny-progenitor relationship between the migrating neurons and the RGCs in the developing fetal brain may make interpretations of the results difficult, because the variable in question may affect both the RGCs and the migrating neurons in different ways. A transplantation assay combining migrating cells and the scaffolding tissue from two different sources may circumvent this issue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vanessa Donega, Guillaume Marcy, Quentin Lo Giudice, Stefan Zweifel, Diane Angonin, Roberto Fiorelli, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sylvie Rival-Gervier, Muriel Koehl, Denis Jabaudon, Olivier Raineteau
Progenitors of cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu progenitors) are usually thought to switch fate before birth to produce astrocytes. We used fate-mapping approaches to show that a large fraction of Glu progenitors persist in the postnatal forebrain after closure of the cortical neurogenesis period. Postnatal Glu progenitors do not accumulate during embryonal development but are produced by embryonal radial glial cells that persist after birth in the dorsal subventricular zone and continue to give rise to cortical neurons, although with low efficiency...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Yona Goldshmit, Ghil Jona, Eran Schmukler, Shira Solomon, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Angela Ruban
Neurotrauma causes immediate elevation of extracellular glutamate levels, which creates excitotoxicity and facilitates inflammation, glial scar formation and consequently neuronal death. Finding factors that reduce the inflammatory response, glial scar formation and increase neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth, are of major importance for improving the outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we evaluated a new treatment aiming to remove CNS glutamate into the systemic blood circulation by intravenous administration of blood glutamate scavengers (BGS) such as recombinant enzyme glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (rGOT1) and its co-substrate...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Diana Vidovic, Raul Ayala Davila, Richard M Gronostajski, Tracey J Harvey, Michael Piper
BACKGROUND: Radial glial stem cells within the developing nervous system generate a variety of post-mitotic cells, including neurons and glial cells, as well as the specialised multi-ciliated cells that line the walls of the ventricular system, the ependymal cells. Ependymal cells separate the brain parenchyma from the cerebrospinal fluid and mediate osmotic regulation, the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, and the subsequent dispersion of signalling molecules via the co-ordinated beating of their cilia...
February 16, 2018: Neural Development
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Michael Piper
Measuring the mean duration of synthesis-phase (T s ) and of the total cell-cycle (T c ) within progenitor cell populations can provide important insights into the biology governing these cells. Rather than a passive process that shows little variability across cellular contexts, the cell-cycle is instead highly regulated. For example, in the rodent forebrain, T s is selectively lengthened in radial glial progenitor cells undergoing symmetric versus asymmetric division. This lengthening is thought to minimize the potential for copying errors that can occur during DNA replication...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
Olga Zueva, Maleana Khoury, Thomas Heinzeller, Daria Mashanova, Vladimir Mashanov
Background: Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Results: Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Catherine H H Hor, Eyleen L K Goh
Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism reveals down-regulation of N-cadherin in the Rab23-deficient neurons, which is a cell adhesion protein previously known to modulate radial migration...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Min Xu, Xiaoning Han, Rui Liu, Yanjun Li, Cui Qi, Zhongzhou Yang, Chunjie Zhao, Jun Gao
3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is crucial for the development of the dentate gyrus (DG), the first gateway receiving afferent inputs from the entorhinal cortex. However, the role of PDK1 in DG development is unclear. In the present study, by crossing Pdk1fl/fl mice with the Emx1-cre line, we identified that the ablation of PDK1 disrupted the development of DG via decreasing the proliferation, and increasing the differentiation of dentate neural progenitor cells, downregulating AKT activity and upregulating GSK3β signaling...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Siraj K Zahr, Guang Yang, Hilal Kazan, Michael J Borrett, Scott A Yuzwa, Anastassia Voronova, David R Kaplan, Freda D Miller
The mechanisms instructing genesis of neuronal subtypes from mammalian neural precursors are not well understood. To address this issue, we have characterized the transcriptional landscape of radial glial precursors (RPs) in the embryonic murine cortex. We show that individual RPs express mRNA, but not protein, for transcriptional specifiers of both deep and superficial layer cortical neurons. Some of these mRNAs, including the superficial versus deep layer neuron transcriptional regulators Brn1 and Tle4, are translationally repressed by their association with the RNA-binding protein Pumilio2 (Pum2) and the 4E-T protein...
January 26, 2018: Neuron
Keiu Kask, Laura Tikker, Katrin Ruisu, Sirje Lulla, Eva-Maria Oja, Riho Meier, Raivo Raid, Teet Velling, Tambet Tõnissoo, Margus Pooga
Autosomal recessive disorders such as Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, Walker-Warburg syndrome, and the muscle-eye-brain disease are characterized by defects in the development of patient's brain, eyes, and skeletal muscles. These syndromes are accompanied by brain malformations like type II lissencephaly in the cerebral cortex with characteristic overmigrations of neurons through the breaches of the pial basement membrane. The signaling pathways activated by laminin receptors, dystroglycan and integrins, control the integrity of the basement membrane, and their malfunctioning may underlie the pathologies found in the rise of defects reminiscent of these syndromes...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Naoki Kobayashi, Natsu Uda, Miwako Hirota, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia (LGH) is a focal malformation of the cerebral cortex and frequently found in patients with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying LGH formation are still largely unclear because of difficulties in obtaining brain samples from human TD patients. Recently, we established a new animal model for analyzing cortical malformations of human TD by utilizing our genetic manipulation technique for gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. Here we investigated the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the formation of LGH using our TD ferrets...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Luca Massimino, Lisbeth Flores-Garcia, Bruno Di Stefano, Gaia Colasante, Cecilia Icoresi-Mazzeo, Mattia Zaghi, Bruce A Hamilton, Alessandro Sessa
During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2...
January 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
Orly Reiner, Tamar Sapir
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Jinnou et al. (2018) identify a limited time window wherein neonatal brain injuries may be treated through neuroblast migration toward the injury site on radial glial fibers. Implanting a sponge coated with an adhesive factor in the injured neonatal brain supports the migration of neuroblasts and improves functional recovery.
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Wei Tian, Jinhong Shi, Jianbing Qin, Guohua Jin, Xiao Han, Haoming Li
Brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) is highly expressed in the radial glial cells (RGCs) of the central nervous system (CNS), in glioblastomas, and, in vitro, in U251 cells. In this report, we have demonstrated that increased BLBP expression in glioblastoma is associated with poor survival and used a double-vector CRISPR/Cas9 lentiviral system to deplete endogenous BLBP from U251 cells, we found that loss of BLBP induced cell growth inhibition and S-phase arrest. Moreover, an increase in P53 and a decrease in p-ERK1/2 were observed after BLBP depletion, suggesting a potential mechanism by which loss of BLBP results in growth inhibition...
December 29, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Hideo Jinnou, Masato Sawada, Koya Kawase, Naoko Kaneko, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Takuya Miyamoto, Takumi Kawaue, Takaki Miyata, Yasuhiko Tabata, Toshihiro Akaike, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Itsuki Ajioka, Shinji Saitoh, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation...
December 14, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
Skirmantas Janušonis
Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), also known as allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1), is a highly conserved cytoplasmic scaffold protein. Studies strongly suggest that Iba1 is associated with immune-like reactions in all Metazoa. In the mammalian brain, it is abundantly expressed in microglial cells and is used as a reliable marker for this cell type. The present study used multiple-label microscopy and Western blotting to examine Iba1 expression in the telencephalon of 2 galeomorph shark species, the swellshark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) and the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci), a member of an ancient extant order...
December 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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