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Radial glial cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925561/nestin-expressing-cell-types-in-the-temporal-lobe-and-hippocampus-morphology-differentiation-and-proliferative-capacity
#1
Joan Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Thomas Jacques, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Pamela Thompson, Sanjay Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Nestin is expressed in immature neuroepithelial and progenitor cell types and transiently upregulated in proliferative neuroglial cells responding to acute brain injury, including following seizures. In 36 temporal lobe (TLobe) specimens from patients with TLobe epilepsy (age range 8-60 years) we studied the number, distribution and morphology of nestin-expressing cells (NEC) in the pes, hippocampus body, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporal cortex and pole compared with post mortem control tissues from 26 cases (age range 12 gestational weeks to 76 years)...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917843/rapgef2-a-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-for-rap1-small-gtpases-plays-a-crucial-role-in-adherence-junction-aj-formation-in-radial-glial-cells-through-erk-mediated-upregulation-of-the-aj-constituent-protein-expression
#2
Maged Ibrahim Farag, Yoko Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro Maeta, Tohru Kataoka
Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap1, characterized by possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domains and implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. We previously found that dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout mice exhibits severe defects in formation of apical surface adherence junctions (AJs) and localization of radial glial cells (RGCs). In this study, we analyze the underlying molecular mechanism by using primary cultures of RGCs established from the developing cerebral cortex...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887860/regulation-of-radial-glial-process-growth-by-glutamate-via-mglur5-trpc3-and-neuregulin-erbb4
#3
Lauri M Louhivuori, Pauli M Turunen, Verna Louhivuori, Venkatram Yellapragada, Tommy Nordström, Per Uhlén, Karl E Åkerman
Radial glial cells play an essential role through their function as guides for neuronal migration during development. Disruption of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) function retards the growth of radial glial processes in vitro. Neuregulins (NRG) are activated by proteolytic cleavage and regulate (radial) glial maintenance via ErbB3/ErbB4 receptors. We show here that blocking ErbB4 disrupts radial process extension. Soluble NRG acting on ErbB4 receptors is able to promote radial process extension in particular where process elongation has been impeded by blockade of mGluR5, the nonselective cation channel canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3), or matrix metalloproteases (MMP)...
September 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862741/radial-glia-in-the-ventral-telencephalon
#4
REVIEW
Miguel Turrero García, Corey Harwell
The ventral telencephalon is the developmental origin of the basal ganglia and the source of neuronal and glial cells that integrate into developing circuits in other areas of the brain. Radial glia in the embryonic subpallium give rise to an enormous diversity of mature cell types, either directly or through other transit-amplifying progenitors. Here, we review current knowledge about these subpallial neural stem cells and their progeny, focusing on the period of neurogenesis. We describe their cell biological features and the extrinsic and intrinsic molecular codes that guide their fate specification in defined temporal and spatial sequences...
September 1, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860983/radial-structure-scaffolds-convolution-patterns-of-developing-cerebral-cortex
#5
Mir Jalil Razavi, Tuo Zhang, Hanbo Chen, Yujie Li, Simon Platt, Yu Zhao, Lei Guo, Xiaoping Hu, Xianqiao Wang, Tianming Liu
Commonly-preserved radial convolution is a prominent characteristic of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Endeavors from multiple disciplines have been devoted for decades to explore the causes for this enigmatic structure. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to consistent cortical convolution patterns still remain poorly understood. In this work, inspired by prior studies, we propose and evaluate a plausible theory that radial convolution during the early development of the brain is sculptured by radial structures consisting of radial glial cells (RGCs) and maturing axons...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856727/cholesterol-regulates-polymodal-sensory-transduction-in-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#6
Monika Lakk, Oleg Yarishkin, Jackson M Baumann, Anthony Iuso, David Križaj
Over- and underexposure to cholesterol activates glia in neurodegenerative brain and retinal diseases but the molecular targets of cholesterol in glial cells are not known. Here, we report that disruption of unesterified membrane cholesterol content modulates the transduction of chemical, mechanical and temperature stimuli in mouse Müller cells. Activation of TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4), a nonselective polymodal cation channel was studied following the removal or supplementation of cholesterol using the methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) delivery vehicle...
August 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856389/structural-and-metabolic-changes-in-the-traumatically-injured-rat-brain-high-resolution-in-vivo-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-7%C3%A2-t
#7
Jing Li, Can Zhao, Jia-Sheng Rao, Fei-Xiang Yang, Zhan-Jing Wang, Jian-Feng Lei, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
PURPOSE: The understanding of microstructural and metabolic changes in the post-traumatic brain injury is the key to brain damage suppression and repair in clinics. METHODS: Ten female Wistar rats were traumatically injured in the brain CA1 region and above the cortex. Next, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) were used to analyze the microstructural and metabolic changes in the brain within the following 2 weeks...
August 31, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855626/dual-roles-of-a%C3%AE-in-proliferative-processes-in-an-amyloidogenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
David Baglietto-Vargas, Elisabeth Sánchez-Mejias, Victoria Navarro, Sebastián Jimenez, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Angela Gómez-Arboledas, Maria Sánchez-Mico, Raquel Sánchez-Varo, Marisa Vizuete, José Carlos Dávila, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Javier Vitorica, Antonia Gutierrez
Alzheimer's disease is a major neurodegenerative disorder that leads to severe cognitive deficits in the elderly population. Over the past two decades, multiple studies have focused on elucidating the causative factors underlying memory defects in Alzheimer's patients. In this regard, new evidence linking Alzheimer's disease-related pathology and neuronal stem cells suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis impairment is an important factor underlying these cognitive deficits. However, because of conflicting results, the impact of Aβ pathology on neurogenesis/gliogenesis remains unclear...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836044/dentate-granule-progenitor-cell-properties-are-rapidly-altered-soon-after-birth
#9
Kenta Matsue, Shiori Minakawa, Taichi Kashiwagi, Keiko Toda, Toru Sato, Seiji Shioda, Tatsunori Seki
Neurogenesis occurs during the embryonic period and ceases soon after birth in the neocortex, but continues to occur in the hippocampus even in the adult. The embryonic neocortex has radial glia or progenitor cells expressing brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP), whereas the adult hippocampus has radial granule progenitor cells expressing BLBP and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the subgranular zone. We previously found that embryonic hippocampal granule progenitor cells express GFAP, but not BLBP, indicating that these cells are different from both embryonic neocortical and adult granule progenitor cells...
August 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828610/glutamine-glutamate-transporters-in-glial-cells-much-more-than-participants-of-a-metabolic-shuttle
#10
Angelina Rodríguez, Arturo Ortega
Glial glutamine and glutamate transporters play an important role in glial/neuronal interactions. An excellent model to establish the role of these membrane proteins is the cerebellum. The most abundant glutamatergic synapse in the central nervous system is present in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex, and it is entirely wrapped by Bergmann glial cells. The recycling of glutamate involves glutamate and glutamine transporters enriched in these radial glial processes. The functional properties of amino acid glial transporters allow, in an activity-dependent manner, the conformation of protein complexes important for the adequate support of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826723/zika-virus-encoded-ns2a-disrupts-mammalian-cortical-neurogenesis-by-degrading-adherens-junction-proteins
#11
Ki-Jun Yoon, Guang Song, Xuyu Qian, Jianbo Pan, Dan Xu, Hee-Sool Rho, Nam-Shik Kim, Christa Habela, Lily Zheng, Fadi Jacob, Feiran Zhang, Emily M Lee, Wei-Kai Huang, Francisca Rojas Ringeling, Caroline Vissers, Cui Li, Ling Yuan, Koeun Kang, Sunghan Kim, Junghoon Yeo, Yichen Cheng, Sheng Liu, Zhexing Wen, Cheng-Feng Qin, Qingfeng Wu, Kimberly M Christian, Hengli Tang, Peng Jin, Zhiheng Xu, Jiang Qian, Heng Zhu, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
Zika virus (ZIKV) directly infects neural progenitors and impairs their proliferation. How ZIKV interacts with the host molecular machinery to impact neurogenesis in vivo is not well understood. Here, by systematically introducing individual proteins encoded by ZIKV into the embryonic mouse cortex, we show that expression of ZIKV-NS2A, but not Dengue virus (DENV)-NS2A, leads to reduced proliferation and premature differentiation of radial glial cells and aberrant positioning of newborn neurons. Mechanistically, in vitro mapping of protein-interactomes and biochemical analysis suggest interactions between ZIKA-NS2A and multiple adherens junction complex (AJ) components...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820892/maternal-autoimmune-antibodies-alter-the-dendritic-arbor-and-spine-numbers-in-the-infragranular-layers-of-the-cortex
#12
Jeanelle Ariza, Jesus Hurtado, Haille Rogers, Raymond Ikeda, Michael Dill, Craig Steward, Donnay Creary, Judy Van de Water, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
An association between maternal IgG antibodies reactive against proteins in fetal brain and an outcome of autism in the child has been identified. Using a mouse model of prenatal intraventricular administration of autism-specific maternal IgG, we demonstrated that these antibodies produce behavioral alterations similar to those in children with ASD. We previously demonstrated that these antibodies bind to radial glial stem cells (RG) and observed an increase in the number of divisions of translocating RG in the developing cortex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814327/neocortical-sox9-radial-glia-generate-glutamatergic-neurons-for-all-layers-but-lack-discernible-evidence-of-early-laminar-fate-restriction
#13
E S Kaplan, K A Ramos-Laguna, A B Mihalas, R A M Daza, R F Hevner
Glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex are derived from embryonic neural stem cells known as radial glial progenitors (RGPs). Early RGPs, present at the onset of cortical neurogenesis, are classically thought to produce columnar clones of glutamatergic neurons spanning the cortical layers. Recently, however, it has been reported that a subset of early RGPs may undergo early commitment to upper layer neuron fates, thus bypassing genesis of deep layer neurons. However, the latter mode of early RGP differentiation was not confirmed in some other studies, and remains controversial...
August 16, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790015/retinoic-acid-controls-early-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#14
Carole Haushalter, Laure Asselin, Valérie Fraulob, Pascal Dollé, Muriel Rhinn
A tight regulation of neuron production is required to generate a functional cerebral cortex and is achieved by a proper balance between proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells. Though the vitamin A (retinol) active derivative retinoic acid (RA) has been implicated as one of the signals acting during mammalian forebrain neurogenesis, its function at the onset of neurogenesis as well as during establishment of cortical layers and neuronal subtypes remains elusive. One limitation is that murine mutants for genes encoding key enzymes involved in RA synthesis die during early embryonic development...
August 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728023/persistent-expression-of-vcam1-in-radial-glial-cells-is-required-for-the-embryonic-origin-of-postnatal-neural-stem-cells
#15
Xiao-Ling Hu, Guo Chen, Sanguo Zhang, Jiangli Zheng, Jun Wu, Qing-Ran Bai, Yue Wang, Ji Li, Huanhuan Wang, Han Feng, Jia Li, Xicai Sun, Qijun Xia, Fan Yang, Jing Hang, Chang Qi, Timothy N Phoenix, Sally Temple, Qin Shen
During development, neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo transitions from neuroepithelial cells to radial glial cells (RGCs), and later, a subpopulation of slowly dividing RGCs gives rise to the quiescent adult NSCs that populate the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Here we show that VCAM1, a transmembrane protein previously found in quiescent adult NSCs, is expressed by a subpopulation of embryonic RGCs, in a temporal and region-specific manner. Loss of VCAM1 reduced the number of active embryonic RGCs by stimulating their premature neuronal differentiation while preventing quiescence in the slowly dividing RGCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724733/early-evolution-of-radial-glial-cells-in-bilateria
#16
Conrad Helm, Anett Karl, Patrick Beckers, Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow, Elke Ulbricht, Ioannis Kourtesis, Heidrun Kuhrt, Harald Hausen, Thomas Bartolomaeus, Andreas Reichenbach, Christoph Bleidorn
Bilaterians usually possess a central nervous system, composed of neurons and supportive cells called glial cells. Whereas neuronal cells are highly comparable in all these animals, glial cells apparently differ, and in deuterostomes, radial glial cells are found. These particular secretory glial cells may represent the archetype of all (macro) glial cells and have not been reported from protostomes so far. This has caused controversial discussions of whether glial cells represent a homologous bilaterian characteristic or whether they (and thus, centralized nervous systems) evolved convergently in the two main clades of bilaterians...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694754/using-curcumin-to-prevent-structural-and-behavioral-changes-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-sleep-deprivation-in-rats
#17
Ali Noorafshan, Fatemeh Karimi, Saied Karbalay-Doust, Ali Mohammad Kamali
Sleep Deprivation (SD) is known to result in a range of neurological consequences in chronically-afflicted subjects. Curcumin, a natural substance, has neuroprotective properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) of SD rats. Male rats were arbitrarily assigned to nine groups, including control, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), olive oil, SD, SD+curcumin, SD+olive oil, grid, grid+curcumin, and grid+olive oil groups. SD was induced by a multiplatform box containing water...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674667/-glial-and-stem-cell-expression-of-murine-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-in-the-embryonic-and-perinatal-nervous-system
#18
Jantzen C Collette, Lisha Choubey, Karen Müller Smith
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) are involved in the development and function of multiple organs and organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). FGF signaling via FGFR1, one of the three FGFRs expressed in the CNS, stimulates proliferation of stem cells during prenatal and postnatal neurogenesis and participates in regulating cell-type ratios in many developing regions of the brain. Anomalies in FGFR1 signaling have been implicated in certain neuropsychiatric disorders...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583079/lateral-cortical-cdca7-expression-levels-are-regulated-by-pax6-and-influence-the-production-of-intermediate-progenitors
#19
Yu-Ting Huang, John O Mason, David J Price
BACKGROUND: We studied whether regulation of Cdca7 (Cell division cycle associated 7) expression by transcription factor Pax6 contributes to Pax6's cellular actions during corticogenesis. The function of Cdca7 in mediating Pax6's effects during corticogenesis has not been explored. Pax6 is expressed by radial glial progenitors in the ventricular zone of the embryonic cortical neuroepithelium, where it is required for the development of a normal complement of Tbr2-expressing intermediate progenitor cells in the subventricular zone...
June 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562601/multifunctional-glial-support-by-semper-cells-in-the-drosophila-retina
#20
Mark A Charlton-Perkins, Edward D Sendler, Elke K Buschbeck, Tiffany A Cook
Glial cells play structural and functional roles central to the formation, activity and integrity of neurons throughout the nervous system. In the retina of vertebrates, the high energetic demand of photoreceptors is sustained in part by Müller glia, an intrinsic, atypical radial glia with features common to many glial subtypes. Accessory and support glial cells also exist in invertebrates, but which cells play this function in the insect retina is largely undefined. Using cell-restricted transcriptome analysis, here we show that the ommatidial cone cells (aka Semper cells) in the Drosophila compound eye are enriched for glial regulators and effectors, including signature characteristics of the vertebrate visual system...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
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