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Radial glial cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916527/dynamic-mrna-transport-and-local-translation-in-radial-glial-progenitors-of-the-developing-brain
#1
Louis-Jan Pilaz, Ashley L Lennox, Jeremy P Rouanet, Debra L Silver
In the developing brain, neurons are produced from neural stem cells termed radial glia [1, 2]. Radial glial progenitors span the neuroepithelium, extending long basal processes to form endfeet hundreds of micrometers away from the soma. Basal structures influence neuronal migration, tissue integrity, and proliferation [3-7]. Yet, despite the significance of these distal structures, their cell biology remains poorly characterized, impeding our understanding of how basal processes and endfeet influence neurogenesis...
November 30, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865053/neural-progenitor-cells-and-their-role-in-the-development-and-evolutionary-expansion-of-the-neocortex
#2
REVIEW
Takashi Namba, Wieland B Huttner
The evolutionary expansion of the mammalian brain, notably the neocortex, provides a platform for the higher cognitive abilities that characterize humans. Cortical expansion is accompanied by increased folding of the pial surface, which gives rise to a gyrencephalic (folded) rather than lissencephalic (unfolded) neocortex. This expansion reflects the prolonged and increased proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs). Distinct classes of NPCs can be distinguished based on either cell biological criteria (apical progenitors [APs], basal progenitors [BPs]) or lineage (primary progenitors and secondary progenitors)...
November 16, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836730/tenascin-c-in-the-matrisome-of-neural-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#3
REVIEW
Andreas Faissner, Lars Roll, Ursula Theocharidis
The extracellular matrix consists of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and complex glycan structures that form the matrisome. Increasing evidence points to important functional roles of the ECM during development, plasticity and regeneration of the CNS. In particular, the ECM is an important constituent of the molecular microenvironment of the neural stem cell niches. While substantial evidence suggests that growth factors, cytokines and morphogens play important regulatory roles in the niche, the biological significance of the ECM has been less well studied...
November 8, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807896/transient-cnp-expression-by-early-progenitors-causes-cre-lox-based-reporter-lines-to-map-profoundly-different-fates
#4
Reshmi Tognatta, Wenjing Sun, Sandra Goebbels, Klaus-Armin Nave, Akiko Nishiyama, Susanne Schoch, Leda Dimou, Dirk Dietrich
NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788240/mechanical-flexibility-reduces-the-foreign-body-response-to-long-term-implanted-microelectrodes-in-rabbit-cortex
#5
Harbaljit S Sohal, Gavin J Clowry, Andrew Jackson, Anthony O'Neill, Stuart N Baker
Micromotion between the brain and implanted electrodes is a major contributor to the failure of invasive microelectrodes. Movements of the electrode tip cause recording instabilities while spike amplitudes decline over the weeks/months post-implantation due to glial cell activation caused by sustained mechanical trauma. We compared the glial response over a 26-96 week period following implantation in the rabbit cortex of microwires and a novel flexible electrode. Horizontal sections were used to obtain a depth profile of the radial distribution of microglia, astrocytes and neurofilament...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785461/immature-neurons-and-radial-glia-but-not-astrocytes-or-microglia-are-altered-in-adult-cntnap2-and-shank3-mice-models-of-autism
#6
Elise C Cope, Brandy A Briones, Adam T Brockett, Susana Martinez, Pierre-Antoine Vigneron, Maya Opendak, Samuel S-H Wang, Elizabeth Gould
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with cognitive deficits and excessive anxiety. Neuroimaging studies have shown atypical structure and neural connectivity in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and striatum, regions associated with cognitive function and anxiety regulation. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in many behaviors that are disrupted in ASD, including cognition, anxiety, and social behaviors. Additionally, glial cells, such as astrocytes and microglia, are important for modulating neural connectivity during development, and glial dysfunction has been hypothesized to be a key contributor to the development of ASD...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730762/optimizing-a-multifunctional-microsphere-scaffold-to-improve-neural-precursor-cell-transplantation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-repair
#7
Nolan B Skop, Frances Calderon, Cheul H Cho, Chirag D Gandhi, Steven W Levison
Tissue engineering using stem cells is widely used to repair damaged tissues in diverse biological systems; however, this approach has met with less success in regenerating the central nervous system (CNS). In this study we optimized and characterized the surface chemistry of chitosan-based scaffolds for CNS repair. To maintain radial glial cell (RGC) character of primitive neural precursors, fibronectin was adsorbed to chitosan. The chitosan was further modified by covalently linking heparin using genipin, which then served as a linker to immobilize fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), creating a multifunctional film...
October 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730642/immunocytochemical-characterisation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-from-green-terror-cichlid-aequidens-rivulatus
#8
C M Wen, M M Chen, F H Nan, C S Wang
In this study, cultures of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPC) from the brain of green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus were established and various NSPCs were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. All of the NSPCs expressed brain lipid-binding protein, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, paired box 6 and sex determining region Y-box 2. The intensity and localisation of these proteins, however, varied among the different NSPCs. Despite being intermediate cells, NSPCs can be divided into radial glial cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and neuroblasts by expressing the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), OPC marker A2B5 and neuronal markers, including acetyl-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurofilament protein...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729849/hdac3-but-not-hdac2-mediates-visual-experience-dependent-radial-glia-proliferation-in-the-developing-xenopus-tectum
#9
Juanmei Gao, Hangze Ruan, Xianjie Qi, Yi Tao, Xia Guo, Wanhua Shen
Radial glial cells (RGs) are one of the important progenitor cells that can differentiate into neurons or glia to form functional neural circuits in the developing central nervous system (CNS). Histone deacetylases (HDACs) has been associated with visual activity dependent changes in BrdU-positive progenitor cells in the developing brain. We previously have shown that HDAC1 is involved in the experience-dependent proliferation of RGs. However, it is less clear whether two other members of class I HDACs, HDAC2 and HDAC3, are involved in the regulation of radial glia proliferation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693369/embryonic-origin-and-lineage-hierarchies-of-the-neural-progenitor-subtypes-building-the-zebrafish-adult-midbrain
#10
Sonya Galant, Giacomo Furlan, Marion Coolen, Lara Dirian, Isabelle Foucher, Laure Bally-Cuif
Neurogenesis in the post-embryonic vertebrate brain varies in extent and efficiency between species and brain territories. Distinct neurogenesis modes may account for this diversity, and several neural progenitor subtypes, radial glial cells (RG) and neuroepithelial progenitors (NE), have been identified in the adult zebrafish brain. The neurogenic sequences issued from these progenitors, and their contribution to brain construction, remain incompletely understood. Here we use genetic tracing techniques based on conditional Cre recombination and Tet-On neuronal birthdating to unravel the neurogenic sequence operating from NE progenitors in the zebrafish post-embryonic optic tectum...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662313/neuroprotective-effect-of-trem-2-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#11
Animesh Alexander Raha, James W Henderson, Simon R W Stott, Romina Vuono, Simona Foscarin, Robert P Friedland, Shahid H Zaman, Ruma Raha-Chowdhury
Neuroinflammation and activation of innate immunity are early events in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a rare mutation in the gene Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) has been associated with a substantial increase in the risk of developing late onset AD. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying this association, we investigated the RNA and protein expression of TREM2 in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Our findings suggest that TREM2 not only plays a critical role in inflammation, but is also involved in neuronal cell survival and in neurogenesis...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606337/mcidas-and-gemc1-lynkeas-specify-embryonic-radial-glial-cells
#12
Christina Kyrousi, Maria-Eleni Lalioti, Eleni Skavatsou, Zoi Lygerou, Stavros Taraviras
Ependymal cells are multiciliated cells located in the wall of the lateral ventricles of the adult mammalian brain and are key components of the subependymal zone niche, where adult neural stem cells reside. Through the movement of their motile cilia, ependymal cells control the cerebrospinal fluid flow within the ventricular system from which they receive secreted molecules and morphogens controlling self-renewal and differentiation decisions of adult neural stem cells. Multiciliated ependymal cells become fully differentiated at postnatal stages however they are specified during mid to late embryogenesis from a population of radial glial cells...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605455/multiple-intrinsic-factors-act-in-concert-with-lhx2-to-direct-retinal-gliogenesis
#13
Jimmy de Melo, Brian S Clark, Seth Blackshaw
Müller glia (MG) are the principal glial cell type in the vertebrate retina. Recent work has identified the LIM homeodomain factor encoding gene Lhx2 as necessary for both Notch signaling and MG differentiation in late-stage retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). However, the extent to which Lhx2 interacts with other intrinsic regulators of MG differentiation is unclear. We investigated this question by investigating the effects of overexpression of multiple transcriptional regulators that are either known or hypothesized to control MG formation, in both wildtype and Lhx2-deficient RPCs...
September 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601444/glycogen-serves-as-an-energy-source-that-maintains-astrocyte-cell-proliferation-in-the-neonatal-telencephalon
#14
Hitoshi Gotoh, Tadashi Nomura, Katsuhiko Ono
Large amounts of energy are required when cells undergo cell proliferation and differentiation for mammalian neuronal development. Early neonatal mice face transient starvation and use stored energy for survival or to support development. Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide that is formed by glucose, and serves as an astrocytic energy store for rapid energy requirements. Although it is present in radial glial cells and astrocytes, the role of glycogen during development remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that glycogen accumulated in glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)+ astrocytes in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596508/apical-polarization-of-svct2-in-apical-radial-glial-cells-and-progenitors-during-brain-development
#15
C Silva-Álvarez, K Salazar, P Cisternas, F Martínez, S Liour, N Jara, R Bertinat, F Nualart
During brain development, radial glial (RG) cells and the different progenitor subtypes are characterized by their bipolar morphology that includes an ovoid cell body and one or two radial processes that span across the developing cerebral wall. Different cells transport the reduced form of vitamin C, ascorbic acid (AA), using sodium-dependent ascorbic acid cotransporters (SVCT1 or SVCT2). SVCT2 is mainly expressed in the nervous system (CNS); however, its localization in the central nervous system during embryonic development along with the mechanism by which RG take up vitamin C and its intracellular effects is unknown...
September 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571065/aquaporin-4-in-astroglial-cells-in-the-cns-and-supporting-cells-of-sensory-organs-a-comparative-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Corinna Gleiser, Andreas Wagner, Petra Fallier-Becker, Hartwig Wolburg, Bernhard Hirt, Andreas F Mack
The main water channel of the brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is one of the classical water-specific aquaporins. It is expressed in many epithelial tissues in the basolateral membrane domain. It is present in the membranes of supporting cells in most sensory organs in a specifically adapted pattern: in the supporting cells of the olfactory mucosa, AQP4 occurs along the basolateral aspects, in mammalian retinal Müller cells it is highly polarized. In the cochlear epithelium of the inner ear, it is expressed basolaterally in some cells but strictly basally in others...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569418/dystroglycan-suppresses-notch-to-regulate-stem-cell-niche-structure-and-function-in-the-developing-postnatal-subventricular-zone
#17
Freyja K McClenahan, Himanshu Sharma, Xiwei Shan, Christopher Eyermann, Holly Colognato
While the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate neural stem cell quiescence in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ), the function of ECM in the developing SVZ remains unknown. Here, we report that the ECM receptor dystroglycan regulates a unique developmental restructuring of ECM in the early postnatal SVZ. Dystroglycan is furthermore required for ependymal cell differentiation and assembly of niche pinwheel structures, at least in part by suppressing Notch activation in radial glial cells, which leads to the increased expression of MCI, Myb, and FoxJ1, transcriptional regulators necessary for acquisition of the multiciliated phenotype...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568284/zika-virus-disrupts-phospho-tbk1-localization-and-mitosis-in-human-neuroepithelial-stem-cells-and-radial-glia
#18
Marco Onorati, Zhen Li, Fuchen Liu, André M M Sousa, Naoki Nakagawa, Mingfeng Li, Maria Teresa Dell'Anno, Forrest O Gulden, Sirisha Pochareddy, Andrew T N Tebbenkamp, Wenqi Han, Mihovil Pletikos, Tianliuyun Gao, Ying Zhu, Candace Bichsel, Luis Varela, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Steven Lisgo, Yalan Zhang, Anze Testen, Xiao-Bing Gao, Jernej Mlakar, Mara Popovic, Marie Flamand, Stephen M Strittmatter, Leonard K Kaczmarek, E S Anton, Tamas L Horvath, Brett D Lindenbach, Nenad Sestan
The mechanisms underlying Zika virus (ZIKV)-related microcephaly and other neurodevelopment defects remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation and characterization, including single-cell RNA-seq, of neocortical and spinal cord neuroepithelial stem (NES) cells to model early human neurodevelopment and ZIKV-related neuropathogenesis. By analyzing human NES cells, organotypic fetal brain slices, and a ZIKV-infected micrencephalic brain, we show that ZIKV infects both neocortical and spinal NES cells as well as their fetal homolog, radial glial cells (RGCs), causing disrupted mitoses, supernumerary centrosomes, structural disorganization, and cell death...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564458/a-comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-astrocytes-differentiation-from-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#19
Marco Magistri, Nathalie Khoury, Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza, Dmitry Velmeshev, Jae K Lee, Silvio Bicciato, Pantelis Tsoulfas, Mohammad Ali Faghihi
Astrocytes are a morphologically and functionally heterogeneous population of cells that play critical roles in neurodevelopment and in the regulation of central nervous system homeostasis. Studies of human astrocytes have been hampered by the lack of specific molecular markers and by the difficulties associated with purifying and culturing astrocytes from adult human brains. Human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with self-renewal and multipotent properties represent an appealing model system to gain insight into the developmental genetics and function of human astrocytes, but a comprehensive molecular characterization that confirms the validity of this cellular system is still missing...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554447/neural-stem-cells-secrete-factors-facilitating-brain-regeneration-upon-constitutive-raf-erk-activation
#20
Yong-Hee Rhee, Sang-Hoon Yi, Joo Yeon Kim, Mi-Yoon Chang, A-Young Jo, Jinyoung Kim, Chang-Hwan Park, Je-Yoel Cho, Young-Jin Choi, Woong Sun, Sang-Hun Lee
The intracellular Raf-Erk signaling pathway is activated during neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, and neuronal and astrocytic differentiation. A key question is how this signal can evoke multiple and even opposing NSC behaviors. We show here, using a constitutively active Raf (ca-Raf), that Raf-Erk activation in NSCs induces neuronal differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. By contrast, it causes NSC proliferation and the formation of astrocytes in an extrinsic autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, treatment of NSCs with medium (CM) conditioned in ca-Raf-transduced NSCs (Raf-CM; RCM) became activated to form proliferating astrocytes resembling radial glial cells (RGCs) or adult-type NSCs...
2016: Scientific Reports
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