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Myrto Stylianou, Nicholas Murphy, Luis R Peraza, Sara Graziadio, Ruth Cromarty, Alison Killen, John T O' Brien, Alan J Thomas, Fiona E N LeBeau, John-Paul Taylor
OBJECTIVE: We investigated for quantitative EEG (QEEG) differences between Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) patients and healthy controls, and for QEEG signatures of cognitive fluctuations (CFs) in DLB. METHODS: We analysed eyes-closed, resting state EEGs from 18 AD, 17 DLB and 17 PDD patients with mild dementia, and 21 age-matched controls. Measures included spectral power, dominant frequency (DF), frequency prevalence (FP), and temporal DF variability (DFV), within defined EEG frequency bands and cortical regions...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Leander Jonckheere, Petra Schelstraete, Leen Van Simaey, Eva Van Braeckel, Julie Willekens, Sabine Van Daele, Frans De Baets, Mario Vaneechoutte
After antibiotic eradication treatment for a first ever Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation, the European consensus criteria (ECC) are widely used to assess colonization status with P. aeruginosa in CF-patients. We evaluated to what extent genotyping (GT) of subsequent P. aeruginosa isolates could predict/assess chronic colonization (CC), in comparison with the ECC. METHODS: Over a 14-year period, sputa were cultured from 80 CF-patients (age range: 2-51 years), from a first ever isolation of P...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Lisa Saiman, Juyan J Zhou, Xiaotong Jiang, Michael R Kosorok, Marianne S Muhlebach
OBJECTIVEIn 2013, the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation developed an updated guideline for infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices for CF. We sought to assess the adoption of specific recommendations by CF care centers.METHODSDirectors of the 277 CF care centers in the United States were asked to complete a confidential online survey regarding the adoption of selected IP&C recommendations. Selected recommendations were those we considered less likely to be incorporated into a center's written IP&C policies...
April 15, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Stephen P Newman
The repurposing of drug delivery by the pulmonary route has been applied to treatment and prophylaxis of an increasingly wide range of respiratory diseases. Repurposing has been most successful for the delivery of inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Repurposing utilizes the advantages that the pulmonary route offers in terms of more targeted delivery to the site of action, the use of smaller doses, and a lower incidence of side-effects...
April 10, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Daniel Bia, Cintia Galli, Yanina Zocalo, Rodolfo Valtuille, Sandra Wray, Franco Pessana, Edmundo I Cabrera-Fischer
Pulse wave velocity ratio (PWV-ratio), a measure of central-to-peripheral arterial stiffness gradient, is calculated as a quotient between carotid-femoral and carotid-radial PWV (cf-PWV/cr-PWV). This new index has been reported to be significantly associated with increased mortality in hemodialyzed patients. Since several reports showed differences in arterial stiffness regarding the pathway where the vascular access (VA) is, the purpose of this research was: a) to compare arterial stiffness values obtained in the left and right sides of the body in hemodialyzed and non-hemodialyzed patients, and b) to analyze PWV-ratio values obtained in the side of the body where the VA was placed and compare them to its contralateral intact side...
April 13, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
Shan F Brunel, Janet A Willment, Gordon D Brown, Graham Devereux, Adilia Warris
Aspergillus fumigatus infects up to 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and may play a role in progressive lung disease. As cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed in cells of the innate immune system, we hypothesised that impaired antifungal immune responses play a role in CF-related Aspergillus lung disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and monocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from CF patients and healthy volunteers. Live-cell imaging and colorimetric assays were used to assess antifungal activity in vitro ...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Sofia Almeida, Roger Marti, Ennio Vanoli, Stefan Abele, Simone Tortoioli
A novel and convenient one-pot sequential cascade method for the preparation of 2-trifluoromethylquinazolin-4(3 H)-ones is described. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was employed as inexpensive and readily available CF3 source, which in the presence of T3P was condensed with a variety of anthranilic acids and amines to provide the products in up to 75% yield. The protocol was proved to be robust on 80 g scale, and the synthetic versatility of the prepared quinazolinon-4-ones was demonstrated by derivatization to further useful building blocks...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ryan A Altman, Krishna Sharma, Lian G Rajewski, Paul Chester Toren, Michael J Baltezor, Mohan Pal, Somnath Narayan Karad
Opioid peptides are key regulators in cellular and intercellular physiological responses, and could be therapeutically useful for modulating several pathological conditions. Unfortunately, the use of peptide-based agonists to target centrally located opioid receptors is limited by poor physicochemical (PC), distribution, metabolic, and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) properties that restrict penetration across the blood-brain-barrier via passive diffusion. To address these problems, the present manuscript exploits fluorinated peptidomimetics to simultaneously modify PC and DMPK properties, thus facilitating entry into the central nervous system...
April 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Graciela Rodríguez-Sevilla, Charlotte Rigauts, Eva Vandeplassche, Lisa Ostyn, Ignacio Mahíllo-Fernández, Jaime Esteban, Concepción Pérez-Jorge Peremarch, Tom Coenye, Aurélie Crabbé
Mycobacterium abscessus lung infection is a major health problem for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Understanding the in vivo factors that influence the outcome of therapy may help addressing the poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo antibiotic efficacy. We evaluated the influence of interspecies interactions and lung epithelial cells on antibiotic efficacy. Therefore, single and dual species biofilms of M. abscessus and a major CF pathogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were cultured on a plastic surface or on in vivo-like three-dimensional (3-D) lung epithelial cells, and the activity of antibiotics (colistin, amikacin, clarithromycin, ceftazidime) in inhibiting biofilm formation was evaluated...
April 10, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
F Rastmanesh, S Safaie, A R Zarasvandi, M Edraki
The ecological health of rivers has often been threatened in urbanized catchments due to the expansion of industrial activities and the population growth. Khorramabad River which flows through Khorramabad city, west of Iran, is an example of such settings. The river water is used for agricultural purposes downstream. In this study, the effect of Khorramabad city on heavy metal and metalloid (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and As) loads in Khorramabad River sediments was investigated. To evaluate sediment pollution and potential adverse biological effects, surface sediment samples were collected at selected locations along the river and were characterized for their geochemical properties...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Fangqing Liu, Yi Zhuang, Mingliang Guo, Yongjun Chen, Jinchun Tu, Lei Ding
CuCo₂O₄ anchored on Cu foam (CuCo₂O₄/CF) with polycrystalline features was fabricated by a mild process based on solvothermal reaction and subsequent calcination in this work. The structure and morphology of the obtained materials were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. According to the above analysis, the morphology of the CuCo₂O₄ was nanosheet arrays. Meanwhile, the CuCo₂O₄ was grown on Cu foam successfully...
April 8, 2018: Sensors
Omair Arshad, Izabella Gadawska, Beheroze Sattha, Hélène C F Côté, Anthony Y Y Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Increased cell-free DNA levels are associated with poor health outcomes, and cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) has proinflammatory properties. Given that HIV infection is associated with chronic inflammation, we investigated the relationship between cf-mtDNA and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the context of HIV infection. We also optimized separation of cell-free plasma from blood. SETTING: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we collected blood, demographic information, and clinical data from 99 HIV-infected and 103 HIV-uninfected adults and children enrolled in the Children and Women: AntiRetrovirals and Markers of Aging pan-Canadian (CARMA) cohort...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Matthew T Carlson
Language-specific restrictions on sound sequences in words can lead to automatic perceptual repair of illicit sound sequences. As an example, no Spanish words begin with /s/-consonant sequences ([#sC]), and where necessary (e.g., foreign loanwords) [#sC] is repaired by inserting an initial [e], (e.g. foreign loanwords, cf., esnob, from English snob). As a result, Spanish speakers tend to perceive an illusory [e] before [#sC] sequences. Interestingly, this perceptual illusion is weaker in early Spanish-English bilinguals, whose other language, English, allows [#sC]...
April 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Diego Castanera, Matteo Belvedere, Daniel Marty, Géraldine Paratte, Marielle Lapaire-Cattin, Christel Lovis, Christian A Meyer
Background: Minute to medium-sized (footprint length (FL) less than 30 cm) tridactyl dinosaur tracks are the most abundant in the Late Jurassic tracksites of Highway A16 (Reuchenette Formation, Kimmeridgian) in the Jura Mountains (NW Switzerland). During excavations, two morphotypes, one gracile and one robust, were identified in the field. Furthermore, two large-sized theropod ichnospecies ( Megalosauripus transjuranicus and Jurabrontes curtedulensis ) and an ornithopod-like morphotype (Morphotype II) have recently been described at these sites...
2018: PeerJ
Yucheng Du, Shihao Zhang, Jinshu Wang, Junshu Wu, Hongxing Dai
Niobium oxide nanowire-deposited carbon fiber (CF) samples were prepared using a hydrothermal method with amorphous Nb2 O5 ·nH2 O as precursor. The physical properties of the samples were characterized by means of numerous techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Michelle E Wood, Rebecca E Stockwell, Graham R Johnson, Kay A Ramsay, Laura J Sherrard, Timothy J Kidd, Joyce Cheney, Emma L Ballard, Peter O'Rourke, Nassib Jabbour, Claire E Wainwright, Luke D Knibbs, Peter D Sly, Lidia Morawska, Scott C Bell
The airborne route is a potential pathway in the person-to-person transmission of bacterial strains among cystic fibrosis (CF) populations. In this cross-sectional study, we investigate the physical properties and survival of common non- Pseudomonas aeruginosa CF pathogens generated during coughing. We conclude that Gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus are aerosolised during coughing, can travel up to 4 m and remain viable within droplet nuclei for up to 45 min. These results suggest that airborne person-to-person transmission is plausible for the CF pathogens we measured...
April 7, 2018: Thorax
Iolo Doull
The number of published articles on Cystic Fibrosis (CF) continues to increase year on year. The evidence base for small molecule therapies in CF has continued to expand, with evidence for lumacaftor/ivacaftor in younger patients and longer-term evidence in adults, and pivotal studies on tezacaftor/ivacaftor. There were reports on emerging CFTR mutation agnostic therapies, and new evidence for long standing therapies.
March 15, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Yuxiang Ma, Xin Zheng, Hongyun Zhao, Wenfeng Fang, Yang Zhang, Jieying Ge, Lu Wang, Weicong Wang, Ji Jiang, Shaokun Chuai, Zhou Zhang, Wanhong Xu, Xiao Xu, Pei Hu, Li Zhang
INTRODUCTION: AC0010 is a mutation-selective, third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). This first-in-human phase I trial determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase II dose (RP2D), schedule, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of AC0010 in patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC and acquired resistance to the first-generation EGFR-TKI. METHODS: Patients received escalating daily doses of AC0010 (50 to 600 mg) throughout 28-day cycles...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Andre Critsinelis, Chitaru Kurihara, Nastasya Volkovicher, Masashi Kawabori, Tadahisa Sugiura, Marcos Manon, Suwei Wang, Andrew B Civitello, Jeffrey A Morgan
BACKGROUND: The use of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVAD) to treat advanced heart failure is increasing. While risk score such as MELD and the HeartMate II Risk Score require the use of INR, many patients are on anticoagulation prior to CF-LVAD implantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease-eXcluding INR (MELD-XI) scoring system to predict clinical outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure who undergo CF-LVAD implantation...
April 4, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Melisa Sanchez, Vanina Andrea Fontana, Camila Galotto, Maite Cambiasso, Cristian Sobarzo, Lucrecia Calvo, Juan Carlos Calvo, Elisa Cebral
Male chronic alcohol abuse causes testicular failure and infertility. We analyzed the effects of moderate sub-chronic alcohol intake on sperm morphology, capacitation, fertilization and sperm head decondensation. CF-1 male mice were administered 15% ethanol in drinking water for 15 days; control mice received ethanol-free water. Similar patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation were observed in capacitated spermatozoa of control and treated males. Percentage of hyperactivation (H) and spontaneous (SAR) and progesterone-induced (IAR) acrosome reaction significantly decreased at 120 and 150 minutes of capacitation in treated males compared to controls (H: 14...
April 6, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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