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Jeng-Haur Chen, Weiyi Xu, David N Sheppard
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated Cl(-) channel defective in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). The gating behaviour of CFTR is characterized by bursts of channel openings interrupted by brief, flickery closures, separated by long closures between bursts. Entry to and exit from an open burst is controlled by the interaction of ATP with two ATP-binding sites, sites 1 and 2 in CFTR. To understand better the kinetic basis of CFTR intraburst gating, we investigated the single-channel activity of human CFTR at different intracellular pH (pHi ) values...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Lars Libuda, Annett Hilbig, Seda Berber-Al-Tawil, Hermann Kalhoff, Mathilde Kersting
PURPOSE: Considering the low content in breast milk breastfed infants might be at particular risk for depleted iron stores after the first months of life. This study evaluates the association of the mode of milk feeding and the timing of complementary food (CF) introduction with parameters of iron status in term healthy infants in Germany. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, parents recorded all foods consumed by their infants from the age of 8 weeks onwards...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Sladjana Skopelja, B JoNell Hamilton, Jonathan D Jones, Mei-Ling Yang, Mark Mamula, Alix Ashare, Alex H Gifford, William F C Rigby
While respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently associates with chronic infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, no single factor predicts the extent of lung damage in CF. To elucidate other causes, we studied the autoantibody profile in CF and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, given the similar association of airway inflammation and autoimmunity in RA. Even though we observed that bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), carbamylated proteins, and citrullinated proteins all localized to the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are implicated in the development of autoimmunity, our study demonstrates striking autoantibody specificity in CF...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Elif Bilgic, Yusuke Watanabe, Dmitry Nepomnayshy, Aimee Gardner, Shimae Fitzgibbons, Iman Ghaderi, Adnan Alseidi, Dimitrios Stefanidis, John Paige, Neal Seymour, Katherine M McKendy, Richard Birkett, James Whitledge, Erica Kane, Nicholas E Anton, Melina C Vassiliou
BACKGROUND: Advanced laparoscopic suturing (LS) tasks were developed based on a needs assessment. Initial validity evidence has been shown. The purpose of this multicenter study was to determine expert proficiency benchmarks for these tasks. METHODS: 6 tasks were included: needle handling (NH), offset-camera forehand suturing (OF), offset-camera backhand suturing (OB), confined space suturing (CF), suturing under tension (UT), and continuous suturing (CS). Minimally invasive surgeons experienced in LS completed the tasks twice...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Aatekah Owais, Benjamin Schwartz, David G Kleinbaum, Parminder S Suchdev, A S G Faruque, Sumon K Das, Aryeh D Stein
The association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering is well-established. However, most of this evidence comes from cross-sectional studies. To prospectively assess the association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering, we interviewed pregnant women at 28-32 weeks' gestation and followed-up their offspring at postnatal months 3, 9, 16 and 24 months in rural Bangladesh. Using maternal recall over the past 24 hours, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 3 months, age at complementary feeding (CF) initiation, and receipt of minimum acceptable diet (MAD; as defined by WHO) at 9 months were assessed...
2016: PloS One
Xiaojie Liu, Yao Chen, Casey R Vickstrom, Yan Li, Andreu Viader, Benjamin F Cravatt, Qing-Song Liu
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) mediates retrograde synaptic depression including depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) and inhibition (DSI). 2-AG is degraded primarily by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is expressed in neurons and astrocytes. Using knockout mice in which MAGL is deleted globally or selectively in neurons or astrocytes, we investigated the relative contribution of neuronal and astrocytic MAGL to the termination of DSE and DSI in Purkinje cells (PCs) in cerebellar slices...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wenyue Li, Zhenyu Zhang, Yongbing Tang, Haidong Bian, Tsz-Wai Ng, Wenjun Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee
3D graphene-nanowall-decorated carbon felts (CF) are synthesized via an in situ microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method and used as positive electrode for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The carbon fibers in CF are successfully wrapped by vertically grown graphene nanowalls, which not only increase the electrode specific area, but also expose a high density of sharp graphene edges with good catalytic activities to the vanadium ions. As a result, the VRFB with this novel electrode shows three times higher reaction rate toward VO2(+)/VO(2+) redox couple and 11% increased energy efficiency over VRFB with an unmodified CF electrode...
April 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Hadiseh Dadras, Mohammad Reza Hayatbakhsh, William L Shelton, Amin Golpour
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of two dietary medicinal herbs, Rose hip (Rosa canina) and Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) supplementation on growth performance, haematological, biochemical parameters and innate immune response of in juvenile beluga, Huso huso. Fish (26.3 ± 0.4 g) were allocated into 15 tanks (20 fish per tank) and triplicate groups were fed a control diet or diets containing 1% and 2% of medicinal herbs, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and condition factor (CF) did not show significant differences (P > 0...
October 20, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Meredith C Fidler, Jack Beusmans, Paul Panorchan, Frederick Van Goor
Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport by acting directly on CFTR to increase its channel gating activity, has been evaluated in patients with different CFTR mutations. Several previous analyses have reported no statistical correlation between change from baseline in ppFEV1 and reduction in sweat chloride levels for individuals treated with ivacaftor. The objective of the post hoc analysis described here was to expand upon previous analyses and evaluate the correlation between sweat chloride levels and absolute ppFEV1 changes across multiple cohorts of patients with different CF-causing mutations who were treated with ivacaftor...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Helen L Barr, Nigel Halliday, David A Barrett, Paul Williams, Douglas L Forrester, Daniel Peckham, Kate Williams, Alan R Smyth, David Honeybourne, Joanna L Whitehouse, Edward F Nash, Jane Dewar, Andrew Clayton, Alan J Knox, Miguel Cámara, Andrew W Fogarty
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection is associated with poor outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) and early diagnosis is challenging, particularly in those who are unable to expectorate sputum. Specific P. aeruginosa 2-alkyl-4-quinolones are detectable in the sputum, plasma and urine of adults with CF, suggesting that they have potential as biomarkers for P. aeruginosa infection. AIM: To investigate systemic 2-alkyl-4-quinolones as potential biomarkers for pulmonary P...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Sandra Costa-Böddeker, Philipp Hoelzmann, Lê Xuân Thuyên, Hoang Duc Huy, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Otto Richter, Antje Schwalb
Enrichment of heavy metals was assessed in the Thi Vai Estuary and in the Can Gio Mangrove Forest (SE, Vietnam). Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in water and in sediments were measured. Total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and C/N ratios were determined. Cu and Cr values were higher than threshold effect level of toxicity, while Ni exceeded probable effect level, indicating the risk of probable toxicity effects. Enrichment factors (EF), contamination factor (CF) and Geo-accumulation index (I-geo) were determined...
October 20, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yuan Liu, Monica Vela, Tanya Rudakevych, Christopher Wigfield, Edward Garrity, Milda R Saunders
BACKGROUND: Since 2005, the Lung Allocation Score (LAS) has prioritized patient benefit and post-transplant survival, reducing waitlist to transplant time to <200 days and decreasing mortality on the waitlist. A current challenge is the wait for the waitlist-the time between the patient's transplant-eligible diagnosis and waitlist registration. METHODS: We investigated whether sociodemographic (age, sex, race, insurance, marital status, median household income) and clinical (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] percent of predicted, body mass index, depression/anxiety, alcohol/substance misuse, absolute/relative contraindications) factors influenced referral and waitlist registration...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Michael V Gavalas, Alexander Breskin, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Andrew Eisenberger, Francesco Castagna, Ryan T Demmer, Margaret Flannery, A Reshad Garan, Koji Takeda, Hiroo Takayama, Yoshifumi Naka, Veli K Topkara, Paolo C Colombo
BACKGROUND: Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is the standard measure for detection of hemolysis and thus surveillance for device thrombosis in patients on continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) support. Significant hemolysis has been defined as LDH ≥600 IU/L. However, LDH testing requires phlebotomy, precluding frequent home monitoring. Simple dipstick urinalysis (UA) for urine hemoglobin (U-Hb) overcomes this limitation. This study correlated U-Hb and LDH levels and evaluated the performance of UA for detection of significant hemolysis in patients with CF-LVADs...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Susan P Wolfe, Michael Wilschanski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
David J Koss, Glynn Jones, Anna Cranston, Heidi Gardner, Nicholas M Kanaan, Bettina Platt
Post-mortem investigations of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) have largely failed to provide unequivocal evidence in support of the original amyloid cascade hypothesis, which postulated deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates to be the cause of a demented state as well as inductive to tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Conflicting evidence suggests, however, that Aβ plaques and NFTs, albeit to a lesser extent, are present in a substantial subset of non-demented individuals. Hence, a range of soluble tau and Aβ species has more recently been implicated as the disease-relevant toxic entities...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Adèle Coriati, Évelyne Labrèche, Marjolaine Mailhot, Hortensia Mircescu, Yves Berthiaume, Annick Lavoie, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF) is partially secondary to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Our aim was to establish a Vit D3 supplementation protocol that will increase 25(OH)D to the recommended level (30 ng/mL). METHODS: Retrospective study of 200 patients (≥18 years) conducted from February 2007 to June 2014 at the CF clinic of the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal. Vit D3 supplementation protocol was 1600 IU/day or 10,000 IU/week during the summer (May 1st to October 31st) and 3200 IU/day or 20,000 IU/week during the winter (November 1st to April 30th), in addition to the 1200 IU/day included in multivitamins...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Dany P Moualeu-Ngangue, Tsu-Wei Chen, Hartmut Stützel
Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Jeeyeon Kim, Miesha Farahmand, Colleen Dunn, Zoe Davies, Eric Frisbee, Carlos Milla, Jeffrey J Wine
Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates...
2016: PloS One
Ashleigh A McGirr, Kevin L Schwartz, Upton Allen, Melinda Solomon, Beate Sander
Background Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at higher risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which can lead to a decline in lung function. A monoclonal antibody, palivizumab (PMB), effectively prevents RSV hospitalizations; however, the high cost of PMB, approximately C$10,000 per patient per RSV season, limits its widespread use. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PMB prophylaxis in CF children less than 2 years of age from the Canadian healthcare payer's perspective. Methods In 2014, a Markov cohort model of CF disease and infant RSV infections in the Canadian setting was developed based on literature data...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Oriana Brea, Ines Corral Perez, Otilia Mo, Manuel Yañez, Ibon Alkorta, Jose Elguero
Through the use of high-level ab initio and density functional calculations we have shown that 1,8-diBeX-naphthalene (X = H, F, Cl, CN, CF₃, C(CF₃)₃) derivatives behave as anion sponges, very much as 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene derivatives behave as proton sponges. The electron deficient nature of the BeX substituents, which favors strong charge transfer from the anion towards the former, results into anion affinities which are among the largest ones reported in the literature for single neutral molecules...
October 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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