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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031119/index-analysis-and-human-health-risk-model-application-for-evaluating-ambient-air-heavy-metal-contamination-in-chemical-valley-sarnia
#1
Richard Olawoyin, Linda Schweitzer, Kuangyuan Zhang, Oladapo Okareh, Kevin Slates
The impacts of air emissions as a consequence of industrial activities around communities of human habitation have been extensively reported. This study is the first to assess potential adverse human health effects in the Chemical Valley Sarnia (CVS) area, around the St. Clair River, using health risk models, ecological and pollution indices. Large quantities of particulate matters (PM) are generated from anthropogenic activities, which contain several heavy metals in trace quantities with potentially adverse effects to humans and environmental health...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031086/natural-iron-isotopes-influence-on-the-neutron-transport
#2
Martin Schulc, Bohumil Jánský, Davit Harutyunyan, Evžen Novák
As an iron is the main structural component of nuclear power plants as well as future fusion power plants, the validation of neutron incident data libraries of iron is a must. Presented paper fits into ongoing validation activities and presents measuring neutron leakage spectra in the 0.1-1.0MeV region from iron sphere of 100cm in diameter by hydrogen proportional detectors. The experimental result is compared with ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and CIELO nuclear data libraries. No library reasonably well describes whole region under study...
October 5, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029070/development-and-validation-of-an-lc-tandem-ms-assay-for-the-quantification-of-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-in-the-sputum-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#3
Katrien Forier, Virginie Van Heck, Mieke Carlier, Eva Van Braeckel, Sabine Van Daele, Frans De Baets, Petra Schelstraete, Filomeen Haerynck, Veronique Stove, Leen Van Simaey, Mario Vaneechoutte, Alain G Verstraete
Objectives: Antibiotic therapy is of vital importance for the control of infectious exacerbations in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, very little is known regarding the fraction of systemically administered antibiotics reaching the lower respiratory tract secretions. We developed and validated a method to measure the concentrations of piperacillin, ceftazidime, meropenem and aztreonam in CF sputum, and present the validation data. Methods: Ultra-performance LC coupled to tandem MS was used...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029057/patient-specific-modelling-of-regional-tobramycin-concentration-levels-in-airways-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-can-we-dose-once-daily
#4
Aukje C Bos, Johan W Mouton, Mireille van Westreenen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
Background: Inhaled tobramycin is important in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( Pa ) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, despite its use it fails to attenuate the clinical progression of CF lung disease. The bactericidal efficacy of tobramycin is known to be concentration-dependent and hence changing the dosing regimen from a twice-daily (q12h) inhalation to a once-daily (q24h) inhaled double dose could improve treatment outcomes. Objectives: To predict local concentrations of nebulized tobramycin in the airways of patients with CF, delivered with the small airway-targeting Akita ® system or standard PARI-LC ® Plus system, with different inspiratory flow profiles...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027575/transmission-modes-of-a-pesticide-degrading-symbiont-of-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#5
Zijun Guo, Yongyue Lu, Fan Yang, Ling Zeng, Guangwen Liang, Yijuan Xu
Symbionts are associated with many insects and play several multifunctional roles in insect-microorganism mutualistic relationships. The trichlorphon-degrading symbiont Citrobacter freundii (CF-BD) of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis was recently discovered; however, its intraspecies transmission pathway among flies remains unknown. Here, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), PCR detection, and a series of ingenious experiments to reveal that CF-BD was aggregated in rectal pads associated with the female ovipositor, and the CF-BD symbiont was vertically transmitted via egg surface contamination...
October 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026486/martin-s-equation-as-the-most-suitable-method-for-estimation-of-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-levels-in-korean-adults
#6
Mijeong Kang, Jongwoo Kim, Seon Yeong Lee, Kyunam Kim, Junehyung Yoon, Hongseok Ki
BACKGROUND: Friedewald equation is the most widely used method for estimating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. However, due to potential over- or underestimation, many studies have used a modified equation. This study aimed to compare estimates by 4 different equations to directly measured LDL-C concentrations in order to propose the most appropriate method for LDL-C estimation in the Korean population. METHODS: We studied data of 4,350 subjects that included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and LDL-C concentrations that had been measured at one university hospital in Seoul...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026381/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-association-between-age-and-gender-and-prescribed-minimum-benefit-chronic-disease-list-conditions-among-south-africans-with-concomitant-hypertension-diabetes-and-dyslipidaemia
#7
Johanita Burger, Martie Lubbe, Jan Serfontein, Suria Ellis
BACKGROUND: Prescribed Minimum Benefit Chronic Disease List (PMB CDL) conditions are a regulated list of conditions most common to South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association between PMB CDL conditions and age and gender among patients with concomitant hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients (n = 17 866) with a prescription containing at least one co-prescribed antilipemics, antihypertensive and antidiabetic (identified using the MIMS Desk Reference)...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025979/the-melatonin-receptor-agonist-piromelatine-ameliorates-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-chronically-stressed-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Jun Zhou, Deng Wang, Xiaohong Luo, Xu Jia, Maoxing Li, Laudon Moshe, Ruxue Zhang, Zhengping Jia
Modern lifestyle factors (high-caloric food rich in fat) and daily chronic stress are important risk factors for metabolic disturbances. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the subsequent excess production of glucocorticoids (GCs) in response to chronic stress (CS) leads to increases in metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance (IR). Melatonin (MLT), which protects several regulatory components of the HPA axis from GC-induced deterioration, might improve glucose homeostasis...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025964/false-positive-newborn-screening-for-cystic-fibrosis-and-health-care-use
#9
Robin Z Hayeems, Fiona A Miller, Marian Vermeulen, Beth K Potter, Pranesh Chakraborty, Christine Davies, June C Carroll, Felix Ratjen, Astrid Guttmann
OBJECTIVES: Evidence is mixed regarding the impact of false-positive (FP) newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) results on health care use. Using cystic fibrosis (CF) as an example, we determined the association of FP NBS results with health care use in infants and their mothers in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all infants with FP CF results (N = 1564) and screen-negative matched controls (N = 6256) born between April 2008 and November 2012 using linked health administrative data...
October 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024093/remarkably-high-stability-of-late-actinide-dioxide-cations-extending-chemistry-to-pentavalent-berkelium-and-californium
#10
Phuong Diem Dau, Monica Vasiliu, Kirk Peterson, David Dixon, John K Gibson
Actinyl chemistry is extended beyond Cm to BkO2+ and CfO2+ via transfer of an O atom from NO2 to BkO+ or CfO+, establishing a surprisingly high lower limit of 73 kcal/mol for the dissociation energies, D[O-(BkO+)] and D[O-(CfO+)]. DFT and CCSD(T) computations are in accord with the observed reactions, and characterize the dioxide ions as linear pentavalent actinyls, these being the first Bk and Cf species with oxidation states above IV. Computations of actinide dioxide cations AnO2+ for An = Pa to Lr reveal an unexpected minimum for D[O-(CmO+)]...
October 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023445/identifying-direct-contacts-between-protein-complex-subunits-from-their-conditional-dependence-in-proteomics-datasets
#11
Kevin Drew, Christian L Müller, Richard Bonneau, Edward M Marcotte
Determining the three dimensional arrangement of proteins in a complex is highly beneficial for uncovering mechanistic function and interpreting genetic variation in coding genes comprising protein complexes. There are several methods for determining co-complex interactions between proteins, among them co-fractionation / mass spectrometry (CF-MS), but it remains difficult to identify directly contacting subunits within a multi-protein complex. Correlation analysis of CF-MS profiles shows promise in detecting protein complexes as a whole but is limited in its ability to infer direct physical contacts among proteins in sub-complexes...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022198/gene-disruption-in-scedosporium-aurantiacum-proof-of-concept-with-the-disruption-of-sodc-gene-encoding-a-cytosolic-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase
#12
Victoire Pateau, Bienvenue Razafimandimby, Patrick Vandeputte, Christopher R Thornton, Thomas Guillemette, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Sandrine Giraud
Scedosporium species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a large variety of infections in humans. An increasing occurrence was observed in patients with underlying conditions such as immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. Indeed, the genus Scedosporium ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the respiratory tracts of the CF patients. To date, there is very scarce information on the pathogenic mechanisms, at least in part because of the limited genetic tools available. In the present study, we successfully developed an efficient transformation and targeted gene disruption approach on the species Scedosporium aurantiacum...
October 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020072/correcting-for-tissue-nitrogen-excretion-in-multiple-breath-washout-measurements
#13
Mica Kane, Jonathan H Rayment, Renee Jensen, Reginald McDonald, Sanja Stanojevic, Felix Ratjen
Nitrogen excreted from body tissues impacts the calculation of multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBWN2) outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tissue N2 on MBWN2 outcomes in both healthy subjects and patients with CF and to assess whether it is possible to correct for tissue N2. The contribution of tissue N2 to MBWN2 outcomes was estimated by comparing MBWN2-derived functional residual capacity (FRCN2) to FRC measured by body plethysmography (FRCpleth) and by comparing MBW outcome measures derived from MBWN2 and sulfur hexafluoride MBW (MBWSF6)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020009/genome-sequences-of-lower-great-lakes-microcystis-sp-reveal-strain-specific-genes-that-are-present-and-expressed-in-western-lake-erie-blooms
#14
Kevin Anthony Meyer, Timothy W Davis, Susan B Watson, Vincent J Denef, Michelle A Berry, Gregory J Dick
Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis are increasing worldwide. In the Laurentian Great Lakes they pose major socioeconomic, ecological, and human health threats, particularly in western Lake Erie. However, the interpretation of "omics" data is constrained by the highly variable genome of Microcystis and the small number of reference genome sequences from strains isolated from the Great Lakes. To address this, we sequenced two Microcystis isolates from Lake Erie (Microcystis aeruginosa LE3 and M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019873/reconstruction-left-atrium-and-isolation-pulmonary-veins-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-using-single-contact-force-catheter-with-zero-x-ray-exposure-a-consort-study
#15
Jian Qiang Zhang, Rong Hui Yu, Jia Bing Liang, De Yong Long, Cai Hua Sang, Chang Sheng Ma, Jian Zeng Dong
BACKGROUND: Conventional ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is associated with radiation risks for patients and laboratory staff. Three-dimensional (3D) mapping system capable of showing contact force (CF) and direction of catheter tip may compensate for nonfluoroscopic safety issues. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of zero x-ray exposure during reconstruction left atrium (LA) and ablation. METHODS: Single, CF catheter, and 3D mapping system were used to reconstruct LA and isolate pulmonary veins (PV) in all patients...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018773/activity-of-bacteriophages-in-removing-biofilms-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#16
Stephanie A Fong, Amanda Drilling, Sandra Morales, Marjolein E Cornet, Bradford A Woodworth, Wytske J Fokkens, Alkis J Psaltis, Sarah Vreugde, Peter-John Wormald
Introduction:Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are prevalent amongst chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) sufferers. Many P. aeruginosa strains form biofilms, leading to treatment failure. Lytic bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect, replicate within, and lyse bacteria, causing bacterial death. Aim: To assess the activity of a phage cocktail in eradicating biofilms of ex vivo P.aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients. Methods: P. aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients with and without cystic fibrosis (CF) across three continents were multi-locus sequence typed and tested for antibiotic resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018439/neutrophils-from-patients-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-display-reduced-chemotaxis-to-cxcr2-ligands
#17
Maaike Cockx, Mieke Gouwy, Véronique Godding, Kris De Boeck, Jo Van Damme, Mieke Boon, Sofie Struyf
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), cystic fibrosis (CF), and chronic obstructive airway disease are characterized by neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs. In CF and chronic obstructive airway disease, improper functioning of neutrophils has been demonstrated. We hypothesized that the pulmonary damage in PCD might be aggravated by abnormal functioning neutrophils either as a primary consequence of the PCD mutation or secondary to chronic inflammation. We analyzed chemotactic responses and chemoattractant receptor expression profiles of peripheral blood neutrophils from 36 patients with PCD, 21 healthy children and 19 healthy adults...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017318/environmental-aspects-of-use-of-recycled-carbon-fibre-composites-in-automotive-applications
#18
Fanran Meng, Jon McKechnie, Thomas Turner, Kok Hoong Wong, Stephen J Pickering
The high cost and energy intensity of virgin carbon fibre manufacture provides an opportunity to recover substantial value from carbon fibre reinforced plastic wastes. In this study, we assess the life cycle environmental implications of recovering carbon fibre and producing composite materials as substitutes for conventional and proposed lightweight materials in automotive applications (e.g., steel, aluminium, virgin carbon fibre). Key parameters for the recycled carbon fibre materials, including fibre volume fraction and fibre alignment, are investigated to identify beneficial uses of recycled carbon fibre in the automotive sector...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017247/a-17-year-nationwide-study-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-bloodstream-infections-among-patients-in-the-united-states-veterans-health-administration
#19
Nadim G El Chakhtoura, Elie Saade, Brigid M Wilson, Federico Perez, Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Robert A Bonomo
Background: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are a group of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria rarely reported in patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) or immunocompromising conditions. We investigated Bcc bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a cohort of non-CF patients from the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods: Using VHA databases, we identified patients with Bcc BSI at facilities nationwide from 1999 through 2015. We ascertained clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes and identified factors associated with 30-day mortality in logistic regression analysis...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016769/safety-and-efficiency-of-porous-tip-contact-force-catheter-for-drug-refractory-symptomatic-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-results-from-the-smart-sf-trial
#20
Larry A Chinitz, Daniel P Melby, Francis E Marchlinski, Craig Delaughter, Robert S Fishel, George Monir, Anshul M Patel, Douglas N Gibson, Charles A Athill, Lee Ming Boo, Robert Stagg, Andrea Natale
Aims: THERMOCOOL SMARTTOUCH® SF Catheter is a new contact-force (CF)-sensing catheter with 56-hole porous tip designed for improved cooling and reduced fluid delivery compared with a standard 6-hole open-irrigated catheter. The SMART SF study examined the periprocedural safety, acute effectiveness, and procedural efficiency of the catheter for drug-refractory symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) ablation. Methods and results: The prospective, open-label, non-randomized SMART-SF was conducted at 17 US sites...
August 9, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
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