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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909654/bone-substitutes-and-expanders-in-spine-surgery-a-review-of-their-fusion-efficacies
#1
Abhijeet Kadam, Paul W Millhouse, Christopher K Kepler, Kris E Radcliff, Michael G Fehlings, Michael E Janssen, Rick C Sasso, James J Benedict, Alexander R Vaccaro
STUDY DESIGN: A narrative review of literature. OBJECTIVE: This manuscript intends to provide a review of clinically relevant bone substitutes and bone expanders for spinal surgery in terms of efficacy and associated clinical outcomes, as reported in contemporary spine literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Ever since the introduction of allograft as a substitute for autologous bone in spinal surgery, a sea of literature has surfaced, evaluating both established and newly emerging fusion alternatives...
2016: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907130/environmental-nitrogen-losses-from-commercial-crop-production-systems-in-the-suwannee-river-basin-of-florida
#2
Rishi Prasad, George J Hochmuth
The springs and the Suwannee river of northern Florida in Middle Suwanee River Basin (MSRB) are among several examples in this planet that have shown a temporal trend of increasing nitrate concentration primarily due to the impacts of non-point sources such as agriculture. The rate of nitrate increase in the river as documented by Ham and Hatzell (1996) was 0.02 mg N L-1 y-1. Best management practices (BMPs) for nutrients were adopted by the commercial farms in the MSRB region to reduce the amounts of pollutants entering the water bodies, however the effectiveness of BMPs remains a topic of interest and discussion among the researchers, environmental administrators and policy makers about the loads of nitrogen entering into groundwater and river systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897192/pi3-kinase-inhibition-improves-vascular-malformations-in-mouse-models-of-hereditary-haemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#3
Roxana Ola, Alexandre Dubrac, Jinah Han, Feng Zhang, Jennifer S Fang, Bruno Larrivée, Monica Lee, Ana A Urarte, Jan R Kraehling, Gael Genet, Karen K Hirschi, William C Sessa, Francesc V Canals, Mariona Graupera, Minhong Yan, Lawrence H Young, Paul S Oh, Anne Eichmann
Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial serine-threonine kinase receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 9 and 10. Inactivating mutations in the ALK1 gene cause hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2), a disabling disease characterized by excessive angiogenesis with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Here we show that inducible, endothelial-specific homozygous Alk1 inactivation and BMP9/10 ligand blockade both lead to AVM formation in postnatal retinal vessels and internal organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in mice...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888424/export-of-non-point-source-suspended-sediment-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-from-sloping-highland-agricultural-fields-in-the-east-asian-monsoon-region
#4
Arif Reza, Jaesung Eum, Sungmin Jung, Youngsoon Choi, Jeffrey S Owen, Bomchul Kim
Excess sediment and nutrient export from agricultural fields with steep slopes is a major concern linked to surface water quality in Korea. In this study, the export of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) and their event mean concentrations (EMCs) in surface runoff from a highland mixed land use (61% forested, 30% cropped, 9% other) watershed were quantified. In 2007, the Korean Ministry of Environment (MoE) declared the study area as a priority region for non-point source (NPS) pollution management and initiated various best management practices (BMPs) in the study watershed...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885276/immunoregulation-by-members-of-the-tgf%C3%AE-superfamily
#5
WanJun Chen, Peter Ten Dijke
The transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily is encoded by 33 genes and includes TGFβ, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activins. Although TGFβ is well recognized as a crucial regulator of immune responses, the immunoregulatory functions of other TGFβ family members are less clear. However, recent evidence suggests that BMPs and activins have important roles in regulating immune responses. In this Review, we briefly outline the signalling pathways of the TGFβ superfamily and discuss new insights into the immunoregulatory functions of BMPs and activins in the context of infection, inflammation and cancer...
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883356/a-human-brain-microphysiological-system-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-study-neurological-diseases-and-toxicity
#6
David Pamies, Paula Barreras, Katharina Block, Georgia Makri, Anupama Kumar, Daphne Wiersma, Lenna Smirnova, Ce Zhang, Joseph Bressler, Kimberly M Christian, Georgina Harris, Guo-Li Ming, Cindy J Berlinicke, Kelly Kyro, Hongjun Song, Carlos A Pardo, Thomas Hartung, Helena T Hogberg
Human in-vitro models of brain neurophysiology are needed to investigate molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with neurological disorders and neurotoxicity. We have developed a reproducible iPSC-derived human 3D brain microphysiological system (BMPS), comprised of differentiated mature neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) that reproduce neuronal-glial interactions and connectivity. BMPS mature over eight weeks and show the critical elements of neuronal function: synaptogenesis and neuron-to-neuron (e...
November 24, 2016: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871412/role-of-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-on-hindfoot-arthrodesis
#7
REVIEW
Jeremy Hreha, Ethan S Krell, Christopher Bibbo
Despite advances in understanding bone healing physiology and surgical techniques, delayed union and nonunion still occur after the treatment of hindfoot arthrodesis. There is increasing appeal of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) owing to the innate osteoinductive abilities of BMPs. Effective treatment with BMPs has been shown in animal studies. Human clinical studies have also shown success. The only study investigating the use of recombinant human BMP (rhBMP)-2 in hindfoot arthrodesis found a significant increase in fusion rate...
December 2016: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865913/tio2-uv-based-photocatalytic-pretreatment-of-wheat-straw-for-biogas-production
#8
Merlin Alvarado-Morales, Panagiotis Tsapekos, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Gulfraz, Irini Angelidaki
The present study deals with the application of an advanced oxidation process combining UV irradiation in the presence of the photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an effective pretreatment method of wheat straw as means for increasing its biodegradability for increased biogas production by anaerobic digestion (AD). Especially attention was paid in oxidation of the lignin in straw, besides release the sugars from the lignocellulosic structure of straw. Specifically, four different TiO2 concentrations (0...
November 16, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863509/profibrotic-mediators-in-tendon-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
Wataru Morita, Sarah Jane Bothwell Snelling, Stephanie Georgina Dakin, Andrew Jonathan Carr
BACKGROUND: Tendon disease is characterized by the development of fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are key mediators in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the evidence for the expression of TGF-β, BMPs and CTGF along tendon disease progression and the response of tendon cells to these growth factors accordingly. METHOD: We conducted a systematic screen of the scientific literature using the Medline database...
November 18, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856416/regulation-and-function-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-in-colonic-injury-and-inflammation
#10
Tuo Ji, Hidehiko Takabayashi, Maria Mao, Xu Han, Xiang Xue, Jennifer C Brazil, Kathryn A Eaton, Yatrik M Shah, Andrea Todisco
The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis. We investigated the expression of BMP-4 and the localization and function of BMP signaling during colonic injury and inflammation. Wild type mice and mice expressing the β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene under the control of a BMP responsive element (BRE), BMP-4-β-gal/+ mice, and animals generated by crossing villin-Cre mice to mice with floxed alleles of BMP receptor 1A (villin-Cre;Bmpr1a(flox/flox)), were treated with DSS to induce colonic injury and inflammation...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842921/suppression-of-osteoblast-related-genes-during-osteogenic-differentiation-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#11
Yahya Açil, Amir Alexander Ghoniem, Aydin Gülses, Tobias Kisch, Felix Stang, Jörg Wiltfang, Matthias Gierloff
Recent studies indicated a lower osteogenic differentiation potential of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) compared to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of potent combinations of highly osteogenic bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in order to enhance the osteogenic differentiation potential of ASCs. Human ASCs were cultured for 10 days in the presence of osteogenic medium consisting of dexamethasone, ß-glycerophosphate and ascorbat-2-phosphate (OM) supplemented with BMP-2, BMP-6, BMP-9+IGF-2 and BMP-2,-6,-9 (day 1+2: 50 ng/ml, days 3-6: 100 ng/ml, days 7-10: 200 ng/ml)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836834/signaling-cross-talk-between-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-and-other-signaling-pathways
#12
Kunxin Luo
Cytokines of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family, including TGF-βs, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), activins, and Nodal, play crucial roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, as well as stem-cell self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation. Smad proteins are critical downstream mediators of these signaling activities. In addition to regulating the transcription of direct target genes of TGF-β, BMP, activin, or Nodal, Smad proteins also participate in extensive cross talk with other signaling pathways, often in a cell-type- or developmental stage-specific manner...
November 11, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836514/mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-several-types-of-spent-livestock-bedding-in-a-batch-leach-bed-reactor-substrate-characterization-and-process-performance
#13
S Riggio, M Torrijos, R Debord, G Esposito, E D van Hullebusch, J P Steyer, R Escudié
Spent animal bedding is a valuable resource for green energy production in rural areas. The properties of six types of spent bedding collected from deep-litter stables, housing either sheeps, goats, horses or cows, were compared and their anaerobic digestion in a batch Leach-Bed Reactor (LBR) was assessed. Spent horse bedding, when compared to all the other types, appeared to differ the most due to a greater amount of straw added to the litter and a more frequent litter change. Total solids content appeared to vary significantly from one bedding type to another, with consequent impact on the methane produced from the raw substrate...
November 8, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829744/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-signaling-periodontal-bone-regeneration-and-repair
#14
REVIEW
G Sai Anusuya, M Kandasamy, S A Jacob Raja, S Sabarinathan, P Ravishankar, Balu Kandhasamy
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors also known as cytokines and as metabologens. Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a group of pivotal morphogenetic signals, orchestrating tissue architecture throughout the body. The important functioning of BMP signals in physiology is emphasized by the multitude of roles for dysregulated BMP signaling in pathological processes. A study done wherein it was found that protein extracts from bone implanted into the animals at nonbone sites induced the formation of new cartilage and bone tissue...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828048/efficient-compressed-imaging-method-for-a-microsatellite-optical-camera
#15
Jin Li, Zilong Liu
Imaging integrated with compression is considered the holy grail of microsatellite photography because it improves the degree of integration of the camera system, removing the compression system, high capacity storage system, and high-speed image transmission system, which consume lots of resources of the satellite platform. In this paper, we propose an efficient compressed imaging method for remote sensing photography. We consider wavelet coefficients as pixels of a block-wise megapixel sensor (BMPS). We integrate the saliency information stage into the BMPS to perform compressed sampling (CS) in order to further improve imaging performance...
October 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819181/gene-therapy-for-bone-defects-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-animal-studies
#16
Riham Fliefel, Jan Kühnisch, Michael Ehrenfeld, Sven Otto
Craniofacial bone defects are challenging problems for maxillofacial surgeons over the years. With the development of cell and molecular biology, gene therapy is a breaking new technology with the aim of regenerating tissues by acting as a delivery system for therapeutic genes in the craniofacial region rather than treating genetic disorders. A systematic review was conducted summarizing the articles reporting gene therapy in maxillofacial surgery to answer the question: Was gene therapy successfully applied to regenerate bone in the maxillofacial region? Electronic searching of online databases was performed in addition to hand-search of the references of the included articles...
November 7, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818692/implant-composed-of-demineralized-bone-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-genetically-modified-with-adbmp2-adbmp7-for-the-regeneration-of-bone-fractures-in-ovis-aries
#17
Adelina A Hernandez-Hurtado, Gissela Borrego-Soto, Ivan A Marino-Martinez, Jorge Lara-Arias, Viktor J Romero-Diaz, Adalberto Abrego-Guerra, Jose F Vilchez-Cavazos, Guillermo Elizondo-Riojas, Herminia G Martinez-Rodriguez, Marcela A Espinoza-Juarez, Gloria C Lopez-Romero, Alejandro Robles-Zamora, Oscar F Mendoza Lemus, Rocio Ortiz-Lopez, Augusto Rojas-Martinez
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are inducible to an osteogenic phenotype by the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). This facilitates the generation of implants for bone tissue regeneration. This study evaluated the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of ADMSCs transduced individually and in combination with adenoviral vectors expressing BMP2 and BMP7. Moreover, the effectiveness of the implant containing ADMSCs transduced with the adenoviral vectors AdBMP2/AdBMP7 and embedded in demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was tested in a model of tibial fracture in sheep...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815243/bmp4-acts-as-a-dorsal-telencephalic-morphogen-in-a-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-culture-system
#18
Momoko Watanabe, Ernest S Fung, Felicia B Chan, Jessica S Wong, Margaret Coutts, Edwin S Monuki
The concept of a morphogen - a molecule that specifies two or more cell fates in a concentration-dependent manner - is paradigmatic in developmental biology. Much remains unknown, however, about the existence of morphogens in the developing vertebrate CNS, including the mouse dorsal telencephalic midline (DTM). Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are candidate DTM morphogens, and our previous work demonstrated BMP4 sufficiency to induce one DTM cell fate - that of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) - in a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) culture system...
November 4, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815159/expression-and-functional-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-bmps-in-cyclical-corpus-luteum-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#19
G Rajesh, Avishek Paul, S R Mishra, Jaya Bharati, Nipuna Thakur, Tanmay Mondal, Sanjhali Soren, S Harikumar, K Narayanan, V S Chouhan, Sadhan Bag, B C Das, G Singh, V P Maurya, G Taru Sharma, Mihir Sarkar
The role of growth factors in the modulation of ovarian function is an interesting area of research in reproductive biology. Recently, we have shown the expression and role of IGF, EGF, VEGF and FGF in the follicle and CL. Here, we report the presence of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) and their functional receptors in the corpus luteum (CL) of buffalo. The bubaline CL was classified into four stages according to the morphology and progesterone (P4) concentration. The qPCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry studies revealed that BMP2 and BMP Receptors (BMPR1A, BMPR1B and BMPR2) were significantly upregulated during the mid stage whereas BMP4 and BMP7 were upregulated during the early stage of CL (P<0...
November 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807065/clinical-and-therapeutic-implications-of-follistatin-in-solid-tumours
#20
REVIEW
Lei Shi, Jeyna Resaul, Sioned Owen, Lin Ye, Wen G Jiang
Follistatin (FST), as a single-chain glycosylated protein, has two major isoforms, FST288 and FST315. The FST315 isoform is the predominant form whilst the FST288 variant accounts for less than 5% of the encoded mRNA. FST is differentially expressed in human tissues and aberrant expression has been observed in a variety of solid tumours, including gonadal, gastric and lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Based on the current evidence, FST is an antagonist of transforming growth factor beta family members, such as activin and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
November 2016: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
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