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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103577/association-of-rab5-overexpression-in-pancreatic-cancer-with-cancer-progression-and-poor-prognosis-via-e-cadherin-suppression
#1
Takamichi Igarashi, Kenichiro Araki, Takehiko Yokobori, Bolag Altan, Takahiro Yamanaka, Norihiro Ishii, Mariko Tsukagoshi, Akira Watanabe, Norio Kubo, Tadashi Handa, Yasuo Hosouchi, Masahiko Nishiyama, Tetsunari Oyama, Ken Shirabe, Hiroyuki Kuwano
Pancreatic cancer is a common type of cancer with poor prognosis worldwide. Postoperative survival depends on the existence of metastasis. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying cancer progression is important to improve prognosis. The RAS-associated protein RAB5 activates intracellular membrane trafficking, and RAB5 expression is correlated to progression and epithelial mesenchymal transition in various cancers.The expression of RAB5 and E-cadherin in 111 pancreatic cancer samples was investigated by immunohistochemical staining, and the relationship among RAB5 expression, clinicopathological factors, and E-cadherin expression was assessed...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102834/basis-of-catalytic-assembly-of-the-mitotic-checkpoint-complex
#2
Alex C Faesen, Maria Thanasoula, Stefano Maffini, Claudia Breit, Franziska Müller, Suzan van Gerwen, Tanja Bange, Andrea Musacchio
Accurate genome inheritance by daughter cells requires that sister chromatids in the mother attach to microtubules emanating from opposite poles of the mitotic spindle (bi-orientation). A surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors the microtubule attachment process, temporarily halting sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit until completion of bi-orientation1. SAC failure results in abnormal chromosome numbers (aneuploidy), a hallmark of many tumours. The HORMA domain protein MAD2 is a subunit of the SAC effector mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC)...
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102527/teratoma-of-the-sellar-region-a-case-report
#3
Wolfgang Saeger, Azadeh Ebrahimi, Rudi Beschorner, Hildegard Spital, Jürgen Honegger, Waldemar Wilczak
The case report describes a teratoma of the sellar region with a gland forming and an immature, relatively clear undifferentiated component without signs of anaplasia. Both components express TTF-1 indicating their presumable origin in the neurohypophysis as part of the circumventricular organs. The differential diagnosis includes pituitary adenoma and spindle cell oncocytoma with inclusion of Rathke's cleft cyst, pituitary blastoma, yolk sac tumor, and other germ cell tumors. The prognosis is the same as in the immature teratomas in the gonads, specifically unclear...
January 19, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102411/defect-driven-shapes-in-nematic-droplets-analogies-with-cell-division
#4
Marco Leoni, Oksana V Manyuhina, Mark J Bowick, M Cristina Marchetti
Building on the striking similarity between the structure of the spindle during mitosis in living cells and nematic textures in confined liquid crystals, we use a continuum model of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal droplets to examine the physical aspects of cell division. The model investigates the interplay between bulk elasticity of the microtubule assembly, described as a nematic liquid crystal, and surface elasticity of the cell cortex, modeled as a bounding flexible membrane, in controlling cell shape and division...
January 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102363/smarca4-inactivating-mutations-increase-sensitivity-to-aurora-kinase-a-inhibitor-vx-680-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancers
#5
Vural Tagal, Shuguang Wei, Wei Zhang, Rolf A Brekken, Bruce A Posner, Michael Peyton, Luc Girard, TaeHyun Hwang, David A Wheeler, John D Minna, Michael A White, Adi F Gazdar, Michael G Roth
Mutations in the SMARCA4/BRG1 gene resulting in complete loss of its protein (BRG1) occur frequently in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Currently, no single therapeutic agent has been identified as synthetically lethal with SMARCA4/BRG1 loss. We identify AURKA activity as essential in NSCLC cells lacking SMARCA4/BRG1. In these cells, RNAi-mediated depletion or chemical inhibition of AURKA induces apoptosis and cell death in vitro and in xenograft mouse models. Disc large homologue-associated protein 5 (HURP/DLGAP5), required for AURKA-dependent, centrosome-independent mitotic spindle assembly is essential for the survival and proliferation of SMARCA4/BRG1 mutant but not of SMARCA4/BRG1 wild-type cells...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102069/tuning-the-morphologies-of-mno-c-hybrids-by-space-constraint-assembly-of-mn-mofs-for-high-performance-li-ion-batteries
#6
Dan Sun, Yougen Tang, Delai Ye, Jun Yan, Haoshen Zhou, Haiyan Wang
Morphology controllable fabrication of electrode materials is of great significance but is still a major challenge for high performance Li ion batteries. Herein, we propose a novel space constraint assembly approach to tune the morphology of Mn(terephthalic acid) (PTA)-MOF, in which benzonic acid was employed as a modulator to adjust the available MOF assembly directions. As a result, Mn(PTA)-MOFs with microquadrangulars, microflakes, and spindle-like microrods morphologies have been achieved. MnO/C hybrids with preserved morphologies were further obtained by self-sacrificial and thermal transformation of Mn(PTA)-MOFs...
January 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101582/aurka-dlgap5-tpx2-kif11-and-ckap5-five-specific-mitosis-associated-genes-correlate-with-poor-prognosis-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#7
Marc A Schneider, Petros Christopoulos, Thomas Muley, Arne Warth, Ursula Klingmueller, Michael Thomas, Felix J F Herth, Hendrik Dienemann, Nikola S Mueller, Fabian Theis, Michael Meister
The growth of a tumor depends to a certain extent on an increase in mitotic events. Key steps during mitosis are the regulated assembly of the spindle apparatus and the separation of the sister chromatids. The microtubule-associated protein Aurora kinase A phosphorylates DLGAP5 in order to correctly segregate the chromatids. Its activity and recruitment to the spindle apparatus is regulated by TPX2. KIF11 and CKAP5 control the correct arrangement of the microtubules and prevent their degradation. In the present study, we investigated the role of these five molecules in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101574/nek2-serves-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Gang Li, Yanping Zhong, Qingrong Shen, Yi Zhou, Xiaofang Deng, Cuiping Li, Jiagui Chen, Ying Zhou, Min He
Never in mitosis gene A (NIMA)-related kinase 2 (NEK2) is a microtubule-associated protein that regulates spindle assembly in human cells and is overexpressed in various malignancies. However, the role of NEK2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains undetermined. We performed RNA-seq of the HCC cell line SMMC-7721 and the normal liver cell line HL-7702 using the Ion Proton System. NEK2 expression was detected using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in two cell lines and 5 matched HCC and adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101375/aurora-a-promotes-the-establishment-of-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-by-priming-the-haspin-aurora-b-feedback-loop-in-late-g2-phase
#9
Fazhi Yu, Ya Jiang, Lucy Lu, Mimi Cao, Yulong Qiao, Xing Liu, Dan Liu, Terry Van Dyke, Fangwei Wang, Xuebiao Yao, Jing Guo, Zhenye Yang
Aurora-A kinase functions mainly in centrosome maturation, separation and spindle formation. It has also been found to be amplified or overexpressed in a range of solid tumors, which is linked with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Importantly, Aurora-A inhibitors are being studied in a number of ongoing clinical trials. However, whether and how Aurora-A has a role in the regulation of the mitotic checkpoint is controversial. Additionally, the function of nuclear-accumulated Aurora-A in late G2 phase is not clear...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101355/undifferentiated-carcinoma-of-the-gallbladder-with-endothelial-differentiation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Yoshitaka Furuya, Kenzo Hiroshima, Takashi Wakahara, Harutoshi Akimoto, Hironobu Yanagie, Kenichi Harigaya, Hiroshi Yasuhara
Undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder is a rare cancer type with a poor prognosis. The present study described a case of undifferentiated gallbladder carcinoma of the spindle- and giant-cell type, according to the 2010 World Health Organization classification. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that the tumor consisted of dense interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped cells. No evidence of cartilaginous, osseous or rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation was observed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that spindle- and polygonal-shaped cells of the undifferentiated carcinoma were positive for cytokeratin AE1/3, vimentin and vascular endothelial growth factor...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100662/zika-virus-causes-supernumerary-foci-with-centriolar-proteins-and-impaired-spindle-positioning
#11
Benita Wolf, Fodé Diop, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Coralie Busso, Dorothée Missé, Pierre Gönczy
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. Although ZIKV can impair cell cycle progression and provoke apoptosis, which probably contributes to disease aetiology through depletion of neural progenitor cells, additional cellular mechanisms may be important. Here, we investigated whether ZIKV infection alters centrosome number and spindle positioning, because such defects are thought to be at the root of inherited primary autosomal recessive microcephaly (MCPH). In addition to HeLa cells, in which centrosome number and spindle positioning can be well monitored, we analysed retinal epithelial cells (RPE-1), as well as brain-derived microglial (CHME-5) and neural progenitor (ReN) cells, using immunofluorescence...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100633/automated-mitotic-spindle-tracking-suggests-a-link-between-spindle-dynamics-spindle-orientation-and-anaphase-onset-in-epithelial-cells
#12
Matthew Larson, William Bement
Proper spindle positioning at anaphase onset is essential for normal tissue organization and function. Here we develop automated spindle tracking software and apply it to characterize mitotic spindle dynamics in the Xenopus laevis embryonic epithelium. We find that metaphase spindles first undergo a sustained rotation that brings them on-axis with their final orientation. This sustained rotation is followed by a set of striking, stereotyped rotational oscillations that bring the spindle into near contact with the cortex and then move it rapidly away from the cortex...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099333/sarcomatoid-carcinoma-of-the-common-bile-duct-a-case-report
#13
Shuisheng Zhang, Jia Jia, Xiaoning Bi, Qinglong Jiang, Yajie Zhao, Yingtai Chen, Quan Xu, Zhongmin Lan, Jianwei Zhang, Zhihui Zhang, Chengfeng Wang
RATIONALE: Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an extremely rare lesion in the common bile duct (CBD). PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the distal CBD in a 51-year-old woman who presented with jaundice and abdominal pain. Whipple's operation was performed successfully. Microscopically, the tumor was a poorly differentiated carcinoma containing a component of sarcoma-like differentiation. The tumor cells displayed spindle-shaped nuclei with occasional mitotic figures...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099079/lymphangioleiomyomatosis-a-monogenic-model-of-malignancy
#14
Vera P Krymskaya, Francis X McCormack
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade, metastasizing neoplasm that arises from an unknown source, spreads via the lymphatics, and targets the lungs. All pulmonary structures become infiltrated with benign-appearing spindle and epithelioid cells (LAM cells) that express smooth-muscle and melanocyte-lineage markers, harbor mTOR-activating mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, and recruit abundant stromal cells. Elaboration of lymphangiogenic growth factors and matrix remodeling enzymes by LAM cells enables their access to lymphatic channels and likely drives the cystic lung remodeling that often culminates in respiratory failure...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098238/expression-of-the-novel-maternal-centrosome-assembly-factor-wdr8-is-required-for-vertebrate-embryonic-mitoses
#15
Daigo Inoue, Manuel Stemmer, Thomas Thumberger, Thomas Ruppert, Felix Bärenz, Joachim Wittbrodt, Oliver J Gruss
The assembly of the first centrosome occurs upon fertilisation when male centrioles recruit pericentriolar material (PCM) from the egg cytoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the proper assembly of centrosomes during early embryogenesis remain obscure. We identify Wdr8 as a novel maternally essential protein that is required for centrosome assembly during embryonic mitoses of medaka (Oryzias latipes). By CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout, maternal/zygotic Wdr8-null (m/zWdr8(-/-)) blastomeres exhibit severe defects in centrosome structure that lead to asymmetric division, multipolar mitotic spindles and chromosome alignment errors...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097678/aberrant-tyrosinase-expression-in-an-atypical-fibroxanthoma-a-case-report
#16
Amy Weiss, Vijay Vanchinathan, Eun Ji Kwon
Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a histologic mimicker of a variety of spindle cell neoplasms and careful microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation is critical in establishing the correct diagnosis. Here we report the histologic and immunohistochemical work-up of a 1 cm nodule involving the left dorsal hand of a 66-year-old patient. Light microscopy revealed fascicles of spindled and pleomorphic cells within the dermis demonstrating increased mitotic activity occurring in the background of sun-damaged skin...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095623/xenopus-as-a-model-for-studies-in-mechanical-stress-and-cell-division
#17
REVIEW
G A Stooke-Vaughan, L A Davidson, S Woolner
We exist in a physical world, and cells within biological tissues must respond appropriately to both environmental forces and forces generated within the tissue to ensure normal development and homeostasis. Cell division is required for normal tissue growth and maintenance, but both the direction and rate of cell division must be tightly controlled to avoid diseases of over-proliferation such as cancer. Recent studies have shown that mechanical cues can cause mitotic entry and orient the mitotic spindle, suggesting that physical force could play a role in patterning tissue growth...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095610/uveal-schwannoma-in-a-brown-eyed-dog
#18
Todd L Marlo, Elizabeth A Giuliano, Cecil P Moore, Gillian C Shaw, Leandro B C Teixeira
An eleven-year-old, female spayed Boxer dog was diagnosed with a uveal schwannoma (formerly known as the spindle cell tumor of the blue-eyed dog or SCTBED) despite having a uniformly brown iris. The patient presented to emergency for ocular discomfort, and the right globe was subsequently enucleated due to glaucoma and submitted for histopathology. Upon histopathologic evaluation, a uveal schwannoma was diagnosed and confirmed with immunohistochemical staining. Complete metastatic evaluation 1 and 6 months after initial presentation did not reveal evidence of metastasis, and the dog remains systemically healthy...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095398/aurora-b-expression-modulates-paclitaxel-response-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Ahmed Sk Al-Khafaji, Michael Pa Davies, Janet M Risk, Michael W Marcus, Maria Koffa, John R Gosney, Richard J Shaw, John K Field, Triantafillos Liloglou
BACKGROUND: Taxanes are mitotic poisons widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, little is known about potential molecular modulators of response to these compounds. Aurora B (AURKB) is a critical regulator of the mitotic spindle assembly, previously shown overexpressed in NSCLC. Here we investigated the hypothesis that AURKB expression modulates the efficacy of taxanes in NSCLC cells. METHODS: AURKB mRNA expression was determined by qPCR in 132 frozen NSCLC tissues and nine NSCLC cell lines...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095202/interpretation-of-the-precision-matrix-and-its-application-in-estimating-sparse-brain-connectivity-during-sleep-spindles-from-human-electrocorticography-recordings
#20
Anup Das, Aaron L Sampson, Claudia Lainscsek, Lyle Muller, Wutu Lin, John C Doyle, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Terrence J Sejnowski
The correlation method from brain imaging has been used to estimate functional connectivity in the human brain. However, brain regions might show very high correlation even when the two regions are not directly connected due to the strong interaction of the two regions with common input from a third region. One previously proposed solution to this problem is to use a sparse regularized inverse covariance matrix or precision matrix (SRPM) assuming that the connectivity structure is sparse. This method yields partial correlations to measure strong direct interactions between pairs of regions while simultaneously removing the influence of the rest of the regions, thus identifying regions that are conditionally independent...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
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