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Rikkert J Nap, Estefania Gonzalez Solveyra, Igal Szleifer
When engineering nanomaterials for application in biological systems, it is important to understand how multivalent ions, such as calcium, affect the structural and chemical properties of polymer-modified nanoconstructs. In this work, a recently developed molecular theory was employed to study the effect of surface curvature on the calcium-induced collapse of end-tethered weak polyelectrolytes. In particular, we focused on cylindrical and spherical nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) in the presence of different amounts of Ca2+ ions...
April 13, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter, Shona L Halson
The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Xingru Hu, Chaohai Wang, Jiansheng Li, Rui Luo, Chao Liu, Xiuyun Sun, Jinyou Shen, Weiqing Han, Lianjun Wang
Developing novel coating materials for fast and sensitive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is highly desired but few achieved. In this work, a new material of metal-organic framework-derived hollow carbon nanocubes (HCNCs) was prepared as a fiber coating material for SPME. The HCNCs coated fiber (denoted as HCNCs-F) exhibited a better enrichment performance than solid carbon nanocubes (SCNCs) coated fiber (denoted as SCNCs-F) and commercial fibers based on the abundant active sites of the hollow structure, hydrophobic interactions and π-π interactions...
April 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanfeng Lv, Xiaoxiang Zhao, Lian Yang, Xian Zhang, Yujie Bai
The degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can generate AhR-binding compounds, exhibiting genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. In this investigation, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) from carp and anthracene (Ant) were coupled as antigen to establish an indirect competition ELISA (ic-ELISA) with an AhR-Ant antibody. A standard curve was determined for the ic-ELISA concerning detection range and limit. Also, the specificity, stability and the recovery of the ic-ELISA were checked. Results indicate that the ratio of antibody to antigen titer is 1:64000...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Soheil Saadat, Mojgan Karbakhsh, Mahnaz Saremi, Iraj Alimohammadi, Hassan Ashayeri, Mahsa Fayaz, Farideh Sadeghian, Reza Rostami
Background and aim: Driving after a night shift imposes a risk on health care professionals and other road users. The aim of this study was to measure psychomotor performance of driving of night shift nurses compared to day-shift nurses. Methods: Forty-seven volunteer female nurses working at Sina hospital in Tehran, Iran, with a call in all departments of hospital, participated in this study (23 night shift and 24 day shift nurses) in 2016. The tests included RT for simple reaction time, ATAVT for perceptual speed, LVT for visual orientation and ZBA for time anticipation...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
Guoqing Liu, Qin Ma, Ying Xu
Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) play important roles in both chromosome packaging and gene regulation in bacteria. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain elusive particularly for how NAPs contribute to chromosome packaging. We report here a characterization of the binding sites for several major NAPs in E. coli, namely H-NS, IHF, Fis, Dps and a non-NAP protein, FNR, in terms of the physical properties of their binding DNA. Our study shows that (i) as compared with flanking regions, the binding sites for IHF, Fis and FNR tend to have high intrinsic curvature, while no characterized pattern of intrinsic curvature distribution around those of H-NS and Dps; (ii) all the binding sites analyzed in this study except those of H-NS are characterized by high structural flexibility; (iii) the intrinsic curvature and flexibility at the binding sites for Fis and IHF are found to be coupled with the sequence specificity required in their binding, while the physical properties of the binding regions for both Dps and FNR are independent of sequence specificity...
April 3, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Merel M Nap-van der Vlist, Marcella Burghard, H J Hulzebos, Wytze R Doeleman, Harry G M Heijerman, Cornelis K van der Ent, Sanne L Nijhof
BACKGROUND: With life expectancy increasing among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), the prevalence of complications such as fatigue is also expected to increase. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of severe fatigue among adults with CF and to identify factors associated with fatigue. METHODS: Adult patients with CF receiving treatment at a single center were invited to complete three questionnaires. We then studied the associations between fatigue and clinically measured parameters and between fatigue and patient-reported outcomes...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Satoko Ueno, Hiroshi Miyoshi, Yoko Maruyama, Mitsuhiro Morita, Shohei Maekawa
Neurons have well-developed membrane microdomains called "rafts" that are recovered as a detergent-resistant low-density membrane microdomain fraction (DRM). NAP-22 is one of the major protein components of neuronal DRM and localizes in the presynaptic region. In order to know the role of NAP-22 in the synaptic transmission, NAP-22 binding proteins in the cytosol were searched with an affinity screening with NAP-22 as a bait and several protein bands were detected. Using mass-analysis and western blotting, one of the main band of ∼90 kDa was identified as dynamin I...
March 28, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Vincent L'Allinec, Marielle Ernst, Mathieu Sevin-Allouet, Nathalie Testard, Béatrice Delasalle-Guyomarch, Benoit Guillon, Mikael Mazighi, Hubert Desal, Romain Bourcier
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulated patients (APs) are currently excluded from acute ischemic stroke reperfusion therapy with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA); however, these patients could benefit from mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Evidence for MT in this condition remains scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and efficacy of MT in APs. METHODS: We analyzed three patient groups from two prospective registries: APs with MT (AP-MT group), non-anticoagulated patients treated with MT (NAP-MT group), and non-anticoagulated patients treated with IV-rtPA and MT (NAP-IVTMT group)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Michael Murphy, Robert Stickgold, Mittie Elaine Parr, Cameron Callahan, Erin J Wamsley
Offline reactivation of task-related neural activity has been demonstrated in animals but is difficult to directly observe in humans. We sought to identify potential electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of offline memory processing in human subjects by identifying a set of characteristic EEG topographies ("microstates") that occurred as subjects learned to navigate a virtual maze. We hypothesized that these task-related microstates would appear during post-task periods of rest and sleep. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that one task-related microstate was increased in post-training rest and sleep compared to baseline rest, selectively for subjects who actively learned the maze, and not in subjects performing a non-learning control task...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anne M van Oers, Meike A Q Mutsaerts, Jan M Burggraaff, Walter K H Kuchenbecker, Denise A M Perquin, Carolien A M Koks, Ron van Golde, Eugenie M Kaaijk, Frank J Broekmans, Jan Peter de Bruin, Fulco van der Veen, Annemiek W Nap, Ed T C M Gondrie, Ben W J Mol, Henk Groen, Annemieke Hoek
BACKGROUND: Obesity in women of reproductive age has deleterious effects on reproductive and offspring health. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between the magnitude of periconceptional body-mass index (BMI) change and maternal and neonatal outcomes in obese infertile women who participated in the LIFEstyle study. The LIFEstyle study was a randomized controlled trial, evaluating if a six-month lifestyle intervention program prior to infertility treatment in obese infertile women improved birth rates, compared to prompt infertility treatment...
2018: PloS One
Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen J Kerr, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Suchada Chaivooth, Achara Teeraratkul, Sorakij Bhakeecheep, Sumet Ongwandee, Sombat Thanprasertsuk, Matthew G Law
BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up is a crucial indicator to evaluate the effective of HIV care and treatment program. We assessed the LTFU rate and associated factors of Thai HIV-infected patients who enrolled in the National AIDS program (NAP) for 2 periods: prior to (pre-ART) and after starting ART (ART-patients). METHODS: Thai HIV patients aged ≥ 15 years enrolled in NAP from 2008 to 2014. Vital status was ascertained by linkage with the National Death Registry...
March 27, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Adnan B Al-Hawash, Xiaoyu Zhang, Fuying Ma
Petroleum pollution inevitably occurs at any stage of oil production and exerts a negative impact on the environment. Some microorganisms can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs). Polluted sludge of Rumaila oil field was use to isolate the highly efficient hydrocarbon-degrading fungal strain. Aspergillus sp. RFC-1 was obtained and its degradation ability for petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated through surface adsorption, cell uptake, hydrophobicity, surface tension, biosurfactant production, and emulsification activity...
March 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Ahmed Naitabdi, Anthony Boucly, François Rochet, Robert Fagiewicz, Giorgia Olivieri, Fabrice Bournel, Rabah Benbalagh, Fausto Sirotti, Jean-Jacques Gallet
The investigation of nanocatalysts under ambient pressure by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gives access to a wealth of information on their chemical state under reaction conditions. Considering the paradigmatic CO oxidation reaction, a strong synergistic effect on CO catalytic oxidation was recently observed on a partly dewetted ZnO(0001)/Pt(111) single crystal surface. In order to bridge the material gap, we have examined whether this inverse metal/oxide catalytic effect could be transposed on supported ZnPt nanocatalysts deposited on rutile TiO2(110)...
March 26, 2018: Nanoscale
Klára Horváth, Kim Plunkett
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
Emily J Gomez, Sandra Montgomery, Kevin Alby, Diana P Robinson, Sylvester S Roundtree, Deborah Blecker-Shelly, Kaede V Sullivan
We compared the performance of algorithmic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis with four molecular tests in children. Stool samples in patients 1-18 years old were tested with an algorithm (C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) reflexed to illumigene C. difficile); AmpliVue C. difficile (ACD); Lyra Direct C. difficile (Lyra); BD MAX C diff (BDM); and Xpert C. difficile (XCD). The gold standard was positivity by two tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 99%, 93%, 97% for the algorithm; 21%, 99%, 78%, 87% for QCC's toxin component; 94%, 99%, 94%, 99% for ACD; 88%, 99%, 94%, 98% for Lyra; 94%, 100%, 100%, 99% for BDM, and 94%, 99%, 94% and 99% for XCD...
February 25, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Cassandra L Pattinson, Simon S Smith, Sally L Staton, Stewart G Trost, Karen J Thorpe
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between sleep parameters and weight status in a large sample of preschool children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from the Effective Early Educational Experiences for children (E4Kids) study were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: 1111 children aged 3 to 6 years from Queensland and Victoria, Australia. MEASUREMENTS: General linear modeling, with adjustment for significant control variables, assessed the impact of night sleep duration, total sleep duration, napping frequency, sleep timing (onset, offset and midpoint), and severity of sleep problems on standardized body mass index (BMI z score)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Yujie He, Alette A M Langenhoff, Rob N J Comans, Nora B Sutton, Huub H M Rijnaarts
Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nitrification can play an important role in biodegradation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in aerobic zones of constructed wetlands (CWs). This study used an enrichment culture originating from CW sediment to study the effect of DOM and nitrification on aerobic biodegradation of seven PhACs. The enriched culture degraded caffeine (CAF), metoprolol (MET), naproxen (NAP), and ibuprofen (IBP) with a consistent biodegradability order of CAF>MET>NAP>IBP...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Per Davidson, Ingegerd Carlsson, Peter Jönsson, Mikael Johansson
The aim of this study was to examine how a daytime nap affected the consolidation of fear learning. Participants first underwent fear conditioning during which they were exposed to a large and a small circle. One of these was repeatedly paired with an electric shock (making it the CS+), whereas the other circle was never paired with the shock (the CS-). After a delay interval containing either a nap or wake, participants again viewed the CS+ and the CS- intermixed with eight novel circles that varied in size between the two stimuli seen before, as well as a blue triangle that served as a novel stimulus without prior fear relevance...
March 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Shuang Luo, Lingwei Gao, Zongsu Wei, Richard Spinney, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Wei-Ping Hu, Liyuan Chai, Ruiyang Xiao
Hydroxyl radical (• OH) based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) are effective for removing non‒steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during water treatment. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation kinetics of naproxen (NAP), a representative NSAID, with a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. The second-order rate constant (k) of• OH oxidation of NAP was measured to be (4.32 ± 0.04) × 109  M-1  s-1 , which was in a reasonable agreement with transition state theory calculated k value (1...
March 5, 2018: Water Research
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