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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092124/active-site-mapping-of-xylan-deconstructing-enzymes-with-arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides-produced-by-automated-glycan-assembly
#1
Deborah Senf, Colin Ruprecht, Goswinus de Kruijff, Sebastian Simonetti, Frank Schuhmacher, Peter Seeberger, Fabian Pfrengle
Xylan-degrading enzymes are crucial for the deconstruction of hemicellulosic biomass, making the hydrolysis products available for various industrial applications such as biofuel production. To determine the substrate specificities of these enzymes, we prepared a collection of complex xylan oligosaccharides by automated glycan assembly. Seven differentially protected building blocks provided the basis for the modular assembly of 2-substituted, 3-substituted, and 2-/3-substituted arabino- and glucuronoxylan oligosaccharides...
January 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089391/camsap3-dependent-microtubule-dynamics-regulates-golgi-assembly-in-epithelial-cells
#2
Jing Wang, Honglin Xu, Yuqiang Jiang, Mikiko Takahashi, Masatoshi Takeichi, Wenxiang Meng
The Golgi assembly pattern varies among cell types. In fibroblast cells, the Golgi apparatus concentrates around the centrosome that radiates microtubules; whereas in epithelial cells, whose microtubules are mainly noncentrosomal, the Golgi apparatus accumulates around the nucleus independently of centrosome. Little is known about the mechanisms behind such cell type-specific Golgi and microtubule organization. Here, we show that the microtubule minus-end binding protein Nezha/CAMSAP3 (calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 3) plays a role in translocation of Golgi vesicles in epithelial cells...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087613/systemic-and-mucosal-pre-administration-of-recombinant-helicobacter-pylori-neutrophil-activating-protein-prevents-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#3
Shuai Zhou, Yanmei Huang, Bingshao Liang, Hui Dong, Shuwen Yao, Yinshuang Chen, Yongqiang Xie, Yan Long, Sitang Gong, Zhenwen Zhou
PURPOSE: Previous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori infection and the frequency of allergic asthma. The neutrophil-activating protein (NAP) of Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a modulator possessing anti-Th2 inflammation activity. Here, we sought to determine whether systemic or mucosal pre-administration of recombinant Helicobacter pylori NAP (rNAP) could prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice. METHODS: Mice were exposed to purified rNAP through intraperitoneal injection or inhalation and then sensitized with ovalbumin...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075135/access-to-enantiopure-%C3%AE-hydrazino-acids-for-n-amino-peptide-synthesis
#4
Chang Won Kang, Matthew P Sarnowski, Yassin M Elbatrawi, Juan R Del Valle
Backbone N-Methylation of α-peptides has been widely employed to enhance the bioavailability and bioactivity of parent sequences. Heteroatomic peptide amide substituents have received less attention due, in part, to the lack of practical synthetic strategies. Here, we report the synthesis of α-hydrazino acids derived from 19 out of the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids and demonstrate their use in the solid-phase synthesis of N-amino peptide (NAP) derivatives.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074904/gd-iii-induced-supramolecular-hydrogelation-with-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-performance-for-enzyme-detection
#5
Yongquan Hua, Guojuan Pu, Caiwen Ou, Xiaoli Zhang, Ling Wang, Jiangtao Sun, Zhimou Yang, Minsheng Chen
Here we report a supramolecular hydrogel based on Gd(III)-peptide complexes with dramatically enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) performance. The hydrogelations were formed by adding Gd(III) ion to the nanofiber dispersion of self-assembling peptides naphthalene-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (Nap-GFFYGRGD) or naphthalene-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu (Nap-GFFYGRGE). We further showed that, by adjusting the molar ratio between Gd(III) and the corresponding peptide, the mechanical property of resulting gels could be fine-tuned...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063234/hadza-sleep-biology-evidence-for-flexible-sleep-wake-patterns-in-hunter-gatherers
#6
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla, Charles L Nunn
OBJECTIVES: Cross-cultural sleep research is critical to deciphering whether modern sleep expression is the product of recent selective pressures, or an example of evolutionary mismatch to ancestral sleep ecology. We worked with the Hadza, an equatorial, hunter-gatherer community in Tanzania, to better understand ancestral sleep patterns and to test hypotheses related to sleep segmentation. METHODS: We used actigraphy to analyze sleep-wake patterns in thirty-three volunteers for a total of 393 days...
January 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056423/epiisopiloturine-hydrochloride-an-imidazole-alkaloid-isolated-from-pilocarpus-microphyllus-leaves-protects-against-naproxen-induced-gastrointestinal-damage-in-rats
#7
Lucas A D Nicolau, Nathalia S Carvalho, Dvison M Pacífico, Larisse T Lucetti, Karoline S Aragão, Leiz M C Véras, Marcellus H L P Souza, José R S A Leite, Jand Venes R Medeiros
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of epiisopiloturine hydrochloride (EPI), an imidazole alkaloid, on NAP-induced gastrointestinal damage in rats. METHODS: Initially, rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (vehicle) or EPI (3, 10 and 30mg/kg, p.o. or i.p., groups 3-5, respectively) twice daily, for 2days. After 1h, NAP (80mg/kg, p.o.) was given. The control group received only vehicle (group 1) or vehicle+naproxen (group 2)...
January 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054931/life-expectancy-after-initiation-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-thailand
#8
Sirinya Teeraananchai, Suchada Chaivooth, Stephen J Kerr, Sorakij Bhakeecheep, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Achara Teeraratkul, Petchsri Sirinirund, Matthew G Law, Kiat Ruxrungtham
BACKGROUND: Access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has decreased mortality in HIV positive people. We aimed to estimate the expected additional years of life in HIV-positive Thai people after starting cART through the National AIDS Program (NAP), administered by the Thai National Health Security Office (NHSO). METHODS: The NHSO database collects characteristics of all Thai HIV-infected patients through the National AIDS Program, including linkage with the National Death Registry for vital status...
January 5, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052034/antidepressant-effect-of-recombinant-nt4-nap-aav-on-social-isolated-mice-through-intranasal-route
#9
Fei Liu, You-Ping Liu, Gang Lei, Peng Liu, Zheng Chu, Cheng-Ge Gao, Yong-Hui Dang
The purpose of the present study was to observe the depression-like behavior induced by social isolation; detect the antidepressant effect of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing NAP on social isolation mice by intranasal delivery. After construction of NT4-NAP/AAV, expression of NAP was confirmed in vitro. 3-week-old C57/BL mice were bred individually in cages as social isolation-rearing. Six weeks later, the first subset of mice underwent behavioral tests and western blot; the second was for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
December 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045699/agenda-for-sleep-research-in-older-adults-with-cancer-a-conference-report
#10
Ellyn E Matthews, Eileen Danaher Hacker, Julie L Otte, Grace E Dean
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are common but often neglected in older adults, particularly in the context of cancer. Underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and interventions frequently lack a clear scientific basis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report was to examine scientific content presented at a National Institutes of Health-sponsored U13 "Bedside to Bench" conference using a qualitative and iterative review procedure. Analysis of current scientific issues regarding sleep in older adults with cancer is needed to direct nurse scientists and clinicians toward research opportunities...
December 30, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043130/effect-of-extent-of-supersaturation-on-the-evolution-of-kinetic-solubility-profiles
#11
Yi Rang Han, Ping I Lee
Solubility limited compounds require enabling formulations such as amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) to increase the apparent solubility by dissolving to a concentration higher than the equilibrium solubility of the drug. This may lead to subsequent precipitation and thus the loss of the solubility advantage. Although higher supersaturation is known to result in faster precipitation, the overall effect of this faster precipitation on the bioavailability is not well understood. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the impact of extent of supersaturation (i...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038346/predicting-drowsy-driving-in-real-time-situations-using-an-advanced-driving-simulator-accelerated-failure-time-model-and-virtual-location-based-services
#12
Junhua Wang, Shuaiyi Sun, Shouen Fang, Ting Fu, Joshua Stipancic
This paper aims to both identify the factors affecting driver drowsiness and to develop a real-time drowsy driving probability model based on virtual Location-Based Services (LBS) data obtained using a driving simulator. A driving simulation experiment was designed and conducted using 32 participant drivers. Collected data included the continuous driving time before detection of drowsiness and virtual LBS data related to temperature, time of day, lane width, average travel speed, driving time in heavy traffic, and driving time on different roadway types...
December 27, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034808/studying-of-crystal-growth-and-overall-crystallization-of-naproxen-from-binary-mixtures
#13
E Kaminska, O Madejczyk, M Tarnacka, K Jurkiewicz, K Kaminski, M Paluch
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to investigate the molecular dynamics and phase transitions in binary mixtures composed of naproxen (NAP) and acetylated saccharides: maltose (acMAL) and sucrose (acSUC). Moreover, the application of BDS method and optical microscopy enabled us to study both crystallization kinetics and crystal growth of naproxen from the solid dispersions with the highest content of modified carbohydrates (1:5 weight ratio). It was found that the activation barriers of crystallization estimated from dielectric measurements are completely different for both studied herein mixtures...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024642/a-theranostic-prodrug-based-on-fret-for-real-time-drug-release-monitoring-in-response-to-biothiols
#14
Yinyang Hu, Fang Zeng
The clinical applications of tradition prodrug are restricted to a certain extent due to its some defects such as side effects, low selectivity and single function. Herein, we designed a theranostic strategy based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The theranostic prodrug was constructed with an anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT), a cleavable linker based on disulfide bonds (SS) and a fluorophore naphthalimide derivative (NAP). For this drug delivery and reporting system (NAP-SS-CPT), FRET occurs between CPT (energy donor) and NAP (energy receptor); and upon cellular uptake by GSH-overexpressing cancer cells, disulfide bonds could be successfully cleaved by the high concentration of GSH, and FRET process was interrupted to achieve dual fluorescence response and specifically release of CPT...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012089/orexin-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Claudio Liguori
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent age-related dementia. It prevalently causes cognitive decline, although it is frequently associated with secondary behavioral disturbances. AD neurodegeneration characteristically produces a remarkable destruction of the sleep-wake cycle, with diurnal napping, nighttime arousals, sleep fragmentation, and REM sleep impairment. It was recently hypothesized that the orexinergic system was involved in AD pathology. Accordingly, recent papers showed the association between orexinergic neurotransmission dysfunction, sleep impairment, and cognitive decline in AD...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011580/replication-fork-passage-drives-asymmetric-dynamics-of-a-critical-nucleoid-associated-protein-in-caulobacter
#16
Rodrigo Arias-Cartin, Genevieve S Dobihal, Manuel Campos, Ivan V Surovtsev, Bradley Parry, Christine Jacobs-Wagner
In bacteria, chromosome dynamics and gene expression are modulated by nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), but little is known about how NAP activity is coupled to cell cycle progression. Using genomic techniques, quantitative cell imaging, and mathematical modeling, our study in Caulobacter crescentus identifies a novel NAP (GapR) whose activity over the cell cycle is shaped by DNA replication. GapR activity is critical for cellular function, as loss of GapR causes severe, pleiotropic defects in growth, cell division, DNA replication, and chromosome segregation...
December 23, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004492/relationship-between-maternal-mindfulness-and-anxiety-1%C3%A2-month-after-childbirth
#17
Natsuki Yamamoto, Takashi Naruse, Mahiro Sakai, Satoko Nagata
AIM: To investigate the relationship between maternal mindfulness and maternal anxiety 1 month after childbirth. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used, featuring anonymous questionnaires that were completed between July and December 2014 at two Japanese hospitals. The participants (n = 151) completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (Japanese version) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form X (Japanese version). The data analysis was carried out by using a hierarchical multiple regression...
December 22, 2016: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995665/changes-in-sleep-duration-and-recreational-screen-time-among-canadians-1998-2010
#18
Judith A Leech
It is commonly claimed that sleep duration has declined in recent years - over a period coinciding with a marked increase in personal electronics and communications use. The aim of this study was to assess change in sleep duration among Canadians from 1998 to 2010, and examine any associations with non-work-related screen time. The analysis uses population-representative data from Statistics Canada's General Social Survey cycles of 1998 and 2010; the respective samples numbered 10 749 and 15 390 individuals...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995615/afternoon-napping-and-cognition-in-chinese-older-adults-findings-from-the-china-health-and-retirement-longitudinal-study-baseline-assessment
#19
Junxin Li, Pamela Z Cacchione, Nancy Hodgson, Barbara Riegel, Brendan T Keenan, Mathew T Scharf, Kathy C Richards, Nalaka S Gooneratne
OBJECTIVES: To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: China. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). MEASUREMENTS: Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988169/the-effects-of-spacing-naps-and-fatigue-on-the-acquisition-and-retention-of-laparoscopic-skills
#20
Edward N Spruit, Guido P H Band, Kristiaan B van der Heijden, Jaap F Hamming
BACKGROUND: Earlier research has shown that laparoscopic skills are trained more efficiently on a spaced schedule compared to a massed schedule. The aim of the study was to estimate to what extent the spacing interval, naps, and fatigue influenced the effectiveness of spacing laparoscopy training. METHODS: Overall 4 groups of trainees (aged 17-41y; 72% female; Nmassed = 40; Nbreak = 35; Nbreak-nap = 37; Nspaced = 37) without prior experience were trained in 3 laparoscopic tasks using a physical box trainer with different scheduling interventions...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
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