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Tzu-Yin Lee, Pi-Chen Chang, Ing-Jy Tseng, Min-Huey Chung
The present study investigated the parameters of nocturnal sleep that mediate the relationship between morningness-eveningness preference and the sleep architecture of naps in university students. This study had a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design. The sleep architecture of 52 students invited to take an afternoon nap in the laboratory was recorded. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) was used to evaluate morningness-eveningness preference. An actigraph was used to collect students' nighttime sleep data in the week preceding the study...
2017: PloS One
Audrey Gabelle, Laure-Anne Gutierrez, Isabelle Jaussent, Sophie Navucet, Caroline Grasselli, Karim Bennys, Cécilia Marelli, Renaud David, Sandrine Andrieu, Claudine Berr, Bruno Vellas, Yves Dauvilliers
Objective: To identify self-reported sleep-wake disturbances that increase the risk of cognitive decline over 1-year follow-up in frail participants. Background: Risk factors for cognitive impairment need to be better identified especially at earliest stages of the pathogenesis. Sleep-wake disturbances may be critical factors to consider and were thus being assessed in this at-risk population for cognitive decline. Methods: Frail elderly participants aged ≥70 years were selected from a subsample of the Multi-domain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) for a sleep assessment (MAPT-sleep study) at 18-month follow-up (M18)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Steven R Hursh, Sean P A Drummond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Sleep
Shakeel Ahmad Khan, Farah Noreen, Sadia Kanwal, Ahsan Iqbal, Ghulam Hussain
In the present study, green synthesis and determination of the antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and photocatalytic properties of the resultant Cu-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NAPs) were carried out. A superficial method (solution combustion method) was employed for the synthesis of un-doped ZnO NAPs from aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum, and synthesis of Cu-doped ZnO NAPs from aqueous extracts of Clerodendrum infortunatum (M1 NAPs) and Clerodendrum inerme (M2 NAPs). The synthesized un-doped ZnO, M1 and M2 NAPs were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques like Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Rana Sagah Zadeh, Mardelle Shepley, Hessam Sadatsafavi, Arthur Hamie Owora, Ana C Krieger
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the behavioral and environmental strategies that healthcare workers view as helpful for managing sleepiness, improving alertness, and therefore optimizing workplace safety. BACKGROUND: Reduced alertness is a common issue in healthcare work environments and is associated with impaired cognitive performance and decision-making ability as well as increased errors and injuries. METHOD: We surveyed 136 healthcare professionals at a primary care clinic, an acute care hospital, and a mental health clinic...
January 1, 2017: HERD
Amber Cathey, Kelly K Ferguson, Thomas F McElrath, David E Cantonwine, Gerry Pace, Akram Alshawabkeh, Jose F Cordero, John D Meeker
Pregnant women and their fetuses represent susceptible populations to environmental contaminants. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among pregnant women may contribute to adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth. Multiple previous studies have assessed airborne sources of PAHs among pregnant women but few have measured urinary PAH metabolites which can capture total exposure through multiple routes. The aim of this study was to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing longitudinal urinary PAH metabolite concentrations over two time points in pregnancy cohorts in Boston (N = 200) and Puerto Rico (N = 50) to better understand exposure distributions throughout pregnancy and how they relate to demographic factors...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ariel A Williamson, Sonia L Rubens, Kristina E Patrick, Melisa Moore, Jodi A Mindell
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Community-based research indicates that Black preschoolers tend to have more bedtime difficulties and are at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to White preschoolers. This study examined differences in sleep patterns and problems by race among a clinical sample of Black and White preschoolers at an outpatient sleep clinic. METHODS: Data were collected from electronic medical records for 125 children ages 2-5 years (mean = 3...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Juhee Kim, Seunghun Hyun
The sorption of naphthalene (NAP) and 1-naphthoic acid (1-NAPA) onto giant Miscanthus-derived biochar was investigated in methanol volume fractions (fc) of 0-0.6 as a function of ionic composition (5mM CaCl2 and 10mM KCl) and liquid pH (2 and 7). The sorption onto biochar was nonlinear with 0.42≤N≤0.95; thus, a concentration-specific sorption constant (Km) was compared. The Km log linearly decreased with increasing fc, except for 1-NAPA from a CaCl2 mixture at pH7. Isotherm data was fitted with a cosolvency sorption model through which the slope (ασ) of the inverse log linear Km-fc plot and empirical constant (α) were obtained...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Vanessa Plantier, Frédéric Brocard
After a spinal cord injury (SCI), patients develop spasticity, a motor disorder characterized by hyperreflexia and stiffness of muscles. Spasticity results from alterations in motoneurons with an upregulation of their persistent sodium current (I NaP), simultaneously with a disinhibition caused by a reduction of expression of chloride (Cl(-)) co-transporters KCC2. Until recently the origin of alterations was unknown. After reviewing pathophysiology of spasticity, the manuscript relates our recent work showing a tight relationship between the calpain-dependent proteolysis of voltage-gated sodium channels, the upregulation of I NaP and spasticity following SCI...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Marian Wilson, Regan Permito, Ashley English, Sandra Albritton, Carlana Coogle, Hans P A Van Dongen
Hospitals are around-the-clock operations and nurses are required to care for patients night and day. The nursing shortage and desire for a more balanced work-to-home life has popularized 12-h shifts for nurses. The present study investigated sleep/wake cycles and fatigue levels in 22 nurses working 12-h shifts, comparing day versus night shifts. Nurses (11day shift and 11 night shift) were recruited from a suburban acute-care medical center. Participants wore a wrist activity monitor and kept a diary to track their sleep/wake cycles for 2 weeks...
October 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Walter Francesconi, Attila Szücs, Fulvia Berton, George F Koob, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Pietro Paolo Sanna
RATIONALE: Drugs of abuse can alter circuit dynamics by modifying synaptic efficacy and/or the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons. The juxtacapsular subdivision of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST) has unique connectivity that positions it to integrate cortical and amygdala inputs and provide feed-forward inhibition to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), among other regions. In this study, we investigated changes in the synaptic and intrinsic properties of neurons in the rat jcBNST during protracted withdrawal from morphine dependence using a combination of conventional electrophysiological methods and the dynamic clamp technique...
October 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Mohammad Najlah, Sally Freeman, Mouhamad Khoder, David Attwood, Antony D'Emanuele
The present study compares the use of high generation G3 and low generation G0 Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as drug carriers of naproxen (NAP), a poorly water soluble drug. Naproxen was conjugated to G3 in different ratios and to G0 in a 1:1 ratio via a diethylene glycol linker. A lauroyl chain (L), a lipophilic permeability enhancer, was attached to G3 and G0 prodrugs. The G3 and G0 conjugates were more hydrophilic than naproxen as evaluated by the measurement of partitioning between 1-octanol and a phosphate buffer at pH 7...
October 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Heyam F Dalky, AbuAlRub F Raeda, Aldalqamouni A Esraa
BACKGROUND: Night-shift work often results in sleep deprivation, and this in turn results in fatigue that jeopardizes both nurse and patient safety. Napping is considered a viable deterrent to fatigue, yet hospital administration has been slow to adopt napping. OBJECTIVES: To identify nurse managers' knowledge and approval of napping practices for nurses on night shifts. METHODOLOGY: Nurse managers at nine Jordanian hospitals (n = 129) were surveyed using an Arabic version of a questionnaire previously used in a Canadian study...
October 4, 2017: Nursing Forum
Alberto R Ramos, Jia Weng, Douglas M Wallace, Megan R Petrov, William K Wohlgemuth, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Jose S Loredo, Kathryn J Reid, Phyllis C Zee, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Sanjay R Patel
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between actigraphy-based measures of sleep and prevalent hypertension in a sample of US Latinos. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2,148 participants of the Sueño Sleep Ancillary Study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), who underwent 1 week of wrist actigraphy to characterize sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep fragmentation index, and daytime naps (≥ two naps of 15 minutes)...
September 29, 2017: Chest
Yuri Ushijima, Ryosuke L Ohniwa, Kazuya Morikawa
BACKGROUND: Bacterial nucleoid consists of genome DNA, RNA, and hundreds of nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs). Escherichia coli nucleoid is compacted towards the stationary phase, replacing most log-phase NAPs with the major stationary-phase nucleoid protein, Dps. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus nucleoid sustains the fiber structures throughout the growth. Instead, the Dps homologue, MrgA, expresses under oxidative stress conditions to clump the nucleoid, but the composition of the clumped nucleoid was elusive...
October 2, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Li Xue Liu, Qin Qin Li, Yun Zeng Zhang, Yue Hu, Jian Jiao, Hui Juan Guo, Xing Xing Zhang, Biliang Zhang, Wen Xin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Receiving nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes does not guarantee rhizobia an effective symbiosis with legumes. Here, variations in gene content were determined for three Sinorhizobium species showing contrasting symbiotic efficiency on soybeans. A nitrate-reduction gene cluster absent in S. sojae was found to be essential for symbiotic adaptations of S. fredii and S. sp. III. In S. fredii, the deletion mutation of the nap (nitrate reductase), instead of nir (nitrite reductase) and nor (nitric oxide reductase), led to defects in nitrogen-fixation (Fix(-) )...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Francesca Ginatempo, Pietro Pirina, Francesco Melis, Franca Deriu
It has been reported that during and/or after acute trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) a state of sedation, decreased attention and vigilance, with a tendency to fall asleep, occurs. Whether these effects are due to a hypnotic action of TNS is yet to be demonstrated. This pilot study investigates whether acute TNS affects the latency of sleep using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) in healthy subjects. MSLT was performed in 14 healthy subjects after 20 min of real- and a sham-TNS, delivered in two different sessions...
September 30, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Ting-Yu Kuo, Chung-Che Tsai, Hua-Wen Fu
Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has been widely used for studying the structure and function of proteins. A one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based multiple site-directed plasmid mutagenesis method with extended non-overlapping sequence at the 3' end of the primer increases the PCR amplification efficiency and the capacity of multi-site mutagenesis. Here, we introduced silent restriction sites in the primers used in this PCR-based SDM method by utilizing SDM-Assist software to generate mutants of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP), whose gene has low GC content...
2017: Biological Procedures Online
Jocelynn T Owusu, Christine M Ramsey, Marian Tzuang, Christopher N Kaufmann, Jeanine M Parisi, Adam P Spira
Background: Napping is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes among older adults. However, the association between particular napping characteristics (e.g., frequency, duration and whether naps were intentional) and daytime function is unclear. Methods: Participants were 2,739 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years from the nationally representative National Health and Aging Trends Study. Participants reported napping frequency and duration and whether naps were intentional versus unintentional...
August 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Yuya Nishida, Teppei Ikeya, Tsutomu Mikawa, Jin Inoue, Yutaka Ito, Yasunori Shintani, Ryoji Masui, Seiki Kuramitsu, Seiji Takashima
In prokaryotic cells, genomic DNA forms an aggregated structure with various nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs). The functions of genomic DNA are cooperatively modulated by NAPs, of which HU is considered to be one of the most important. HU binds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and serves as a structural modulator in the genome architecture. It plays important roles in diverse DNA functions, including replication, segregation, transcription and repair. Interestingly, it has been reported that HU also binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) regardless of sequence...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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