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Golam M Khandaker, Christina Dalman, Nils Kappelmann, Jan Stochl, Henrik Dal, Kyriaki Kosidou, Peter B Jones, Håkan Karlsson
Importance: Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives: To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Marcella L Woud, Jan C Cwik, Simon E Blackwell, Birgit Kleim, Emily A Holmes, Dirk Adolph, Hui Zhang, Jürgen Margraf
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i...
2018: PloS One
Ju Lynn Ong, Amiya Patanaik, Nicholas I Y N Chee, Xuan Kai Lee, Jia-Hou Poh, Michael W L Chee
Study Objectives: Slow oscillations (SO) during sleep contribute to the consolidation of learned material. How the encoding of declarative memories during subsequent wakefulness might benefit from their enhancement during sleep is less clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of acoustically enhanced SO during a nap on subsequent encoding of declarative material. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy young adults were studied under two conditions: stimulation (STIM) and no stimulation (SHAM), in counter-balanced order following a night of sleep restriction (4h time-in-bed; TIB)...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
Delphine Oudiette, Pauline Dodet, Nahema Ledard, Emilie Artru, Inès Rachidi, Thomas Similowski, Isabelle Arnulf
Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Although several global/regional studies have detailed the high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban areas worldwide, unfortunately, Nepal has never been part of any global/regional regular monitoring plan. Despite few sporadic studies exist, the systematic monitoring and integrated concentration of PAHs in urban region of Nepal are lacking. In this study, the concentrations, sources, and health risk assessment of 16 PAHs in air (n = 34) were investigated in suspected source areas/more densely populated regions of Nepal...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Mieke van Aken, Joukje Oosterman, Tineke van Rijn, Magdalena Ferdek, Gé Ruigt, Tamas Kozicz, Didi Braat, Ard Peeters, Annemiek Nap
Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen-dependent disease in which pelvic pain is the dominant symptom. The negative effects of endometriosis on the life of women with this disease can be a cause of stress. Stress levels can be measured in different ways, mostly reflecting acute stress responses. Hair cortisol measurements are a reflection of long-term systematic cortisol levels. In this study a first attempt is made to measure cortisol levels in hair of endometriosis patients in comparison with healthy controls...
January 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Xiaolin Cao, Zejun Jiang, Shanshan Wang, Sihui Hong, Hui Li, Chao Zhang, Yong Shao, Yongxin She, Fen Jin, Maojun Jin, Jing Wang
UIO-66 crystals were explored for the first time to adsorb neonicotinoid insecticides in environmental water samples. HPLC coupled with tandem MS was used for quantification and determination of neonicotinoid insecticides. UiO-66 crystals was successfully synthesized by a simple constant-temperature bath method. Synthesized UiO-66 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry (NAP), which demonstrated a uniform particle size, a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and high thermostability...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Junxin Li, Michael V Vitiello, Nalaka S Gooneratne
Sleep patterns change with aging, independent of other factors, and include advanced sleep timing, shortened nocturnal sleep duration, increased frequency of daytime naps, increased number of nocturnal awakenings and time spent awake during the night, and decreased slow wave sleep. Most of these changes seem to occur between young and middle adulthood; sleep parameters remain largely unchanged among healthy older adults. The circadian system and sleep homeostatic mechanisms become less robust with normal aging...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Matthew C Camden, Alejandra Medina-Flintsch, Jeffrey S Hickman, James Bryce, Gerardo Flintsch, Richard J Hanowski
Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Ximena Omlin, Francesco Crivelli, Monika Näf, Lorenz Heinicke, Jelena Skorucak, Alexander Malafeev, Antonio Fernandez Guerrero, Robert Riener, Peter Achermann
Rocking movements appear to affect human sleep. Recent research suggested a facilitated transition from wake to sleep and a boosting of slow oscillations and sleep spindles due to lateral rocking movements during an afternoon nap. This study aimed at investigating the effect of vestibular stimulation on sleep onset, nocturnal sleep and its potential to increase sleep spindles and slow waves, which could influence memory performance. Polysomnography was recorded in 18 males (age: 20-28 years) during three nights: movement until sleep onset (C1), movement for 2 hours (C2), and one baseline (B) without motion...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaopeng Ji, Junxin Li, Jianghong Liu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The impact of midday napping on neurocognitive function in adolescents has not been well established. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-reported midday-napping behaviors and neurocognitive function in early adolescents. PARTICIPANTS: The sample was comprised of 363 early adolescents (12.00 ± 0.38 years old) from Jintan, China. METHODS: Midday napping, nighttime sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured by self-reported questionnaires...
February 1, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Sonia Kiran, Zijuan Hai, Zhanling Ding, Lin Wang, Yaling Liu, Huafeng Zhang, Gaolin Liang
Etoposide is a cancer-targeting drug but an overdose of etoposide leads to immunosuppression in patients. Therefore, the development of a new strategy to enhance its anticancer effect, while in the meantime alleviating its adverse effects, is important but challenging. In this work, with the assistance of a hydrogelator precursor Nap-Phe-Phe-Tyr(H2PO3)-OH (1P), etoposide phosphate (EP) was subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-triggered assembly, which obviously enhanced its anticancer efficacy in vitro and in vivo...
February 1, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Daniel L Gustafson, Dawn L Duval, Daniel P Regan, Douglas H Thamm
Pet dogs are becoming increasingly recognized as a population with the potential to inform medical research through their treatment for a variety of maladies by veterinary health professionals. This is the basis of the One Health initiative, supporting the idea of collaboration between human and animal health researchers and clinicians to study spontaneous disease processes and treatment in animals to inform human health. Cancer is a major health burden in pet dogs, accounting for approximately 30% of deaths across breeds...
January 26, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nanfu Deng, Taylor P Kohn, Larry I Lipshultz, Alexander W Pastuszak
BACKGROUND: More than 21 million Americans and nearly 20% of the U.S. workforce are shift workers. Non-standard shift work, defined as work that falls outside of 6 am-6 pm, can lead to poor diet, exercise, and sleep habits that lead to decreased productivity, increased workplace accidents, and a variety of negative health outcomes. AIM: To investigate the associations between shift work exposure and chronic medical conditions such as metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disturbances, and depression as well as urologic complications including hypogonadism, male infertility, lower urinary tract symptoms, and prostate cancer with a focus on the effects of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) on the severity of these negative health outcomes...
January 19, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Ibrahim Ethem Yaylali, Safa Kurnaz, Yasar Meric Tunca
INTRODUCTION: This prospective, single-center, single-blind, randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate whether maintaining apical patency (AP) during endodontic treatment increases postoperative pain in molar teeth with necrotic pulp and apical periodontitis. METHODS: Three hundred twenty qualified patients between 21 and 45 years of age were randomized into 1 of 2 groups (the AP group and the nonapical patency [NAP] group) using a series of random numbers in a 1:1 ratio...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Cinzia Arzilli, Mariangela Cerasuolo, Francesca Conte, Valentina Bittoni, Claudia Gatteschi, Benedetta Albinni, Fiorenza Giganti, Gianluca Ficca
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a learning task on the characteristics of a subsequent daytime nap. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight subjects were administered a control nap (C) and one preceded by a cognitive training session (TR). RESULTS: Relative to C, TR naps showed significantly increased sleep duration with decreased sleep latency, as well as significantly increased sleep efficiency due to reduced awakening frequency...
January 25, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Tai-Yen Chen, Yu-Shan Cheng, Pei-San Huang, Peng Chen
Dynamic protein-DNA interactions constitute highly robust cellular machineries to fulfill cellular functions. A vast number of studies have focused on how DNA-binding proteins search for and interact with their target DNA segments and on what cellular cues can regulate protein binding, for which protein concentration is a most obvious one. In contrast, how protein unbinding could be regulated by protein concentration has evaded attention because protein unbinding from DNA is typically a unimolecular reaction and thus concentration independent...
January 25, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Balázs Barna, Katalin Gémes, Mónika Domoki, Dóra Bernula, Györgyi Ferenc, Balázs Bálint, István Nagy, Attila Fehér
Plant nucleosome assembly protein-related proteins (NRPs) are histone chaperons involved in nucleosome turnover. Despite this basic cellular function, the Arabidopsis nrp1-1 nrp2-1 knock out mutant has been reported to exhibit only mild seedling root phenotypes and to significantly affect the expression of only few hundred genes Zhu et al. (2006). Here we report that NRP loss-of-function as well as the ectopic overexpression of At NRP1 significantly affected the growth, development, and the pathogen response of Arabidopsis plants under short day conditions...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Virginia S Lioy, Axel Cournac, Martial Marbouty, Stéphane Duigou, Julien Mozziconacci, Olivier Espéli, Frédéric Boccard, Romain Koszul
As in eukaryotes, bacterial genomes are not randomly folded. Bacterial genetic information is generally carried on a circular chromosome with a single origin of replication from which two replication forks proceed bidirectionally toward the opposite terminus region. Here, we investigate the higher-order architecture of the Escherichia coli genome, showing its partition into two structurally distinct entities by a complex and intertwined network of contacts: the replication terminus (ter) region and the rest of the chromosome...
January 10, 2018: Cell
Christy Costanian, Peri Abdullah, Nita Sawh, Ara Nagapatan, Hala Tamim
OBJECTIVES: Adequate sleep in childhood is important for healthy development. No information exists on the predictors of night-time sleep among toddlers in Canada. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and to identify factors associated with sleeping <11 consecutive hours per night among children aged 1-2 years in Canada. METHODS: Data from the cross sectional Survey of Young Canadians (SYC) 2010 were used. The biological mother reported on toddlers' sleep duration at night...
January 22, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
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