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Psychiatric diagnosis

Harish Thippeswamy, Geetha Desai, Prabha Chandra
Postpartum severe mental illness (SMI) often presents with risks to mother-infant dyad and requires early assessment and interventions. The access to psychiatric care in low and middle income countries is complex. Help-seeking patterns in women with postpartum SMI has not been studied adequately. Hence, the present study was undertaken to examine the help-seeking pattern and reasons for delay in seeking psychiatry services among postpartum women with SMI. Successive patients with a diagnosis of postpartum SMI were recruited over a period of 2 years...
March 21, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Zhong Sheng Goh, Konstadina Griva
Psychiatric disorders commonly co-exist with the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Research on depression and CKD has increased to a great extent. Multiple studies have demonstrated that depression is more prevalent in CKD and that end-stage renal disease is a robust risk factor for adverse outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality, yet these are often underdiagnosed or untreated. This review provides a selective overview on the prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in patients with CKD and across renal replacement therapies, the factors most consistently associated with symptoms of distress and their clinical implications...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Abhishekl Agarwal, Sakshi Batra, Rajendra Prasad, Anand Verma, Abdul Q Jilani, Surya Kant
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the few respiratory diseases which is associated with a number of comorbidities. Psychiatric disease like depression is a very important comorbidity of COPD because it decreases the feeling of wellbeing in the patient and also interferes with the compliance with medication thereby increasing the risk of hospitalization in the COPD patient. A cross-sectional study was done for two years in the department of pulmonary medicine at Era's Lucknow medical college and hospital, Lucknow...
March 19, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Caroline M Nievergelt, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Shareefa Dalvie, Michael A Hauser, Rajendra A Morey, Alicia K Smith, Monica Uddin
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a traumatic event is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Heritability estimates from twin studies as well as from recent molecular data (single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability) indicate moderate to high heritability, yet robust genetic variants for PTSD have not yet been identified and the genetic architecture of this polygenic disorder remains largely unknown. To date, fewer than 10 large-scale genome-wide association studies of PTSD have been published, with findings that highlight the unique challenges for PTSD genomics, including a complex diagnostic entity with contingency of PTSD diagnosis on trauma exposure and the large genetic diversity of the study populations...
February 2, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Marc L Martel, Lauren R Klein, Andrew J Lichtenheld, Allan M Kerandi, Brian E Driver, Jon B Cole
BACKGROUND: Altered mental status is a commonly evaluated problem in the ED. Ethanol intoxication is common, and prehospital history may bias emergency physicians to suspect this as the cause of altered mental status. Quantitative ethanol measurement can rapidly confirm the diagnosis, or if negative, prompt further evaluation. Our objective was to identify the etiologies of altered mental status in ED patients initially presumed to be intoxicated with ethanol but found to have negative quantitative ethanol levels...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: I review the historical antecedents of the two key features of the bereavement exclusion (BE) for major depression (MD) criteria initially proposed in DSM-III: (i) a context-dependent approach to the evaluation of MD which required that the diagnosis be given only when course, symptoms and signs are 'out of proportion' to experienced adversities, and (ii) bereavement is the sole adversity for which this context-dependent approach should be utilized. METHODS: A review of 49 textbook and review articles on depression or melancholia published 1880-1960...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Anupama V, Poornima Bhola, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta
BACKGROUND: Social cognition deficits have been implicated in the affect regulation and interpersonal difficulties seen in borderline personality disorder (BPD). The study examined patterns of social cognition abilities, using self-report and task-based measures, among individuals diagnosed with BPD. METHODS: The sample included a clinical group of 20 patients diagnosed with BPD and 20 age and gender-matched control group participants from the community with no psychiatric diagnosis...
March 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
İsmail Akaltun, Tayfun Kara, Soner Sertan Kara, Hamza Ayaydın
Toxoplasma gondii infection may be associated with psychiatric disorders due to its neurological effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between tic disorders in children and adolescents and Anti-Toxoplasma IgG. 43 children diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome(TS) and 87 with chronic motor or vocal tic disorder(CMVTD), and 130 healthy volunteers, all aged 7-18, were enrolled. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody levels obtained from blood specimens were investigated. Toxoplasma IgG positivity was determined in 16(37...
March 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Kristoffer H Madsen, Laerke G Krohne, Xin-Lu Cai, Yi Wang, Raymond C K Chan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is capable of estimating functional activation and connectivity in the human brain, and lately there has been increased interest in the use of these functional modalities combined with machine learning for identification of psychiatric traits. While these methods bear great potential for early diagnosis and better understanding of disease processes, there are wide ranges of processing choices and pitfalls that may severely hamper interpretation and generalization performance unless carefully considered...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Min Li, Jia Liu, Huan Yi, Li Xu, Xiufeng Zhong, Fuhua Peng
BACKGROUND: Wolfram syndrome (WS), caused by mutations of the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene on chromosome 4p16.1, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus (DI), neuro-psychiatric disorders, hearing deficit, and urinary tract anomalies. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a 11-year-old Chinese boy who presented with visual loss, was suspected with optic neuritis (ON) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and referred to our department for further diagnosis...
March 17, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Buğra Çetin, Hüseyin Güleç, Hayal Ergin Toktaş, Özgür Ulutaş, Seda Güleç Yılmaz, Turgay İsbir
We aimed to investigate the changes in the objective and subjective sleep variables during painful episodes of fibromyalgia and post-episode period, and to evaluate the impact of the sleep variables on the current clinical, psychological, and immunologic parameters. Thirty-one consecutive patients who were referred to the Erenköy Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Polyclinic with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia were evaluated before and in the sixth week of the acute pain treatment. The sleep variables were measured by polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale...
March 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jayashri Kulkarni, Natalie Thomas, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Emorfia Gavrilidis, Jasmin Grigg, Raelene Tan, Jacinta Cheng, Amelia Arnold, Caroline Gurvich
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex, severe and highly stigmatised psychiatric illness. Several lines of evidence highlight the causal link between chronic stress, glucocorticoid response to stress and glutamatergic overactivity as a key event in the pathophysiology of BPD. Therefore, molecular mechanisms capable of regulating glutamate excitotoxicity represent novel and potentially promising treatment targets. Memantine-HCl is a voltage-dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 'channel blocker' that selectively blocks pathological glutamate overactivity...
March 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
Benjamin D Wissel, Alok K Dwivedi, Aristide Merola, Danielle Chin, Cara Jacob, Andrew P Duker, Jennifer E Vaughan, Lilia Lovera, Kathrin LaFaver, Ariel Levy, Anthony E Lang, Francesca Morgante, Melissa Jill Nirenberg, Christopher Stephen, Nutan Sharma, Alberto Romagnolo, Leonardo Lopiano, Bettina Balint, Xin X Yu, Kailash P Bhatia, Alberto J Espay
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain demographic and clinical features of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with functional neurological features. METHODS: A standardised form was used to extract data from electronic records of 53 PD patients with associated functional neurological disorders (PD-FND) across eight movement disorders centres in the USA, Canada and Europe. These subjects were matched for age, gender and disease duration to PD patients without functional features (PD-only)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Emmanuel Umama-Agada, Muhammad Asghar, Aoife Curley, Jane Gilhooley, Richard M Duffy, Brendan D Kelly
Involuntary psychiatric admission is an established practice for patients who are acutely or severely mentally ill but the factors contributing to involuntary (as opposed to voluntary) admission are not fully clear. Nor is it clear why rates of involuntary admission often vary between hospitals within the same jurisdiction. We studied all admissions, voluntary and involuntary, in three inpatient psychiatry units in Dublin, Ireland, which cover a population of 552,019 people, over a one-year period (1 July 2014 until 30 June 2015, inclusive), as part of the Dublin Involuntary Admission Study (DIAS)...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Latinka Basara, Nataša Jokić Begić, Sanja Popović Grle, Marko Jakopović, Miroslav SamarŽija
Dyspnea or breathlessness is a term primarily used in respiratory medicine. Nevertheless, in the last fifteen years, studies from other fields focus on the affective component of this complex phenomenon due to the frequent observation that psychological states can cause or be caused by dyspnea. Research so far shows that besides the biological component, dyspnea has a strong emotional and psychosocial determinant. This means that apart from its biological factors, dyspnea and its intensity are affected by emotions, personality, anxiety and depression, etc...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
F Sancassiani, Mauro G Carta, Roberta Montisci, Antonio Preti, Sergio Machado, Maria F Moro, Maria F Marchetti, Luigi Meloni
Background: The aim was to study the association between mood and anxiety disorders and the Tako-Tsubo Syndrome (TTS) and to determine the role of antidepressants and the impairment of quality of life due the comorbid psychiatric disorder. Methods: Case-control study: 19 consecutive patients (17 female) with TTS compared to 76 controls without TTS, were randomly selected from the database of a nationwide epidemiological study after matching (gender, age and residence) by controls...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Debasish Basu, Aniruddha Basu, Abhishek Ghosh
A large proportion of patients with substance use disorders have clinical comorbidities, either medical or psychiatric. An initial assessment is necessary initially for prompt identification and management of any psychiatric or medical emergency, and thereafter a more detailed assessment for the comprehensive understanding of the individual. This should be done keeping in mind the goals of both immediate and long term assessment so that a comprehensive but individualized, context and culture sensitive, reality based, recovery-oriented management plan can be formulated...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
J C Stagnaro, A H Cia, H Vommaro, S Sustas, N Vázquez, E Serfaty, R C Kessler, C Benjet
AIMS: While there are effective treatments for psychiatric disorders, many individuals with such disorders do not receive treatment and those that do often take years to get into treatment. Information regarding treatment contact failure and delay in Argentina is needed to guide public health policy and planning. Therefore, this study aimed to provide data on prompt treatment contact, lifetime treatment contact, median duration of treatment delays and socio-demographic predictors of treatment contact after the first onset of a mental disorder...
March 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Birgit Grund, Shweta Sharma, Esteban Martinez, Nathan Cummins, Julie Fox, Karin L Klingman, Dalibor Sedlacek, Simon Collins, Patricia M Flynn, William M Chasanov, Eynat Kedem, Christine Katlama, Juan Sierra-Madero, Claudia Afonso, Pim Brouwers, David A Cooper
Background: Randomized trials have shown increased risk of suicidality associated with efavirenz (EFV). The START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) trial randomized treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults with high CD4 cell counts to immediate vs deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: The initial ART regimen was selected prior to randomization (prespecified). We compared the incidence of suicidal and self-injurious behaviours (suicidal behavior) between the immediate vs deferred ART groups using proportional hazards models, separately for those with EFV and other prespecified regimens, by intention to treat, and after censoring participants in the deferred arm at ART initiation...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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