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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344631/a-brief-exposure-based-treatment-vs-cognitive-processing-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-randomized-noninferiority-clinical-trial
#1
Denise M Sloan, Brian P Marx, Daniel J Lee, Patricia A Resick
Importance: Written exposure therapy (WET), a 5-session intervention, has been shown to efficaciously treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, this treatment has not yet been directly compared with a first-line PTSD treatment such as cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Objective: To determine if WET is noninferior to CPT in patients with PTSD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized clinical trial conducted at a Veterans Affairs medical facility between February 28, 2013, and November 6, 2016, 126 veteran and nonveteran adults were randomized to either WET or CPT...
January 17, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334911/hypocholesterolemia-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-depression-disorder-and-suicide-attempt-in-northern-mexican-population
#2
Marcela Segoviano-Mendoza, Manuel Cárdenas-de la Cruz, José Salas-Pacheco, Fernando Vázquez-Alaniz, Osmel La Llave-León, Francisco Castellanos-Juárez, Jazmín Méndez-Hernández, Marcelo Barraza-Salas, Ernesto Miranda-Morales, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Edna Méndez-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol has been associated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, however, there is growing evidence about crucial requirement of neuron membrane cholesterol in the organization and function of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor. For this, low cholesterol level has been reported to be associated with depression and suicidality. However there have been inconsistent reports about this finding and the exact relationship between these factors remains controversial...
January 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334642/examining-the-latent-structure-mechanisms-for-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Margo C Hurlocker, Desirae N Vidaurri, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Kelly Maieritsch, C Laurel Franklin
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric illness that can be difficult to diagnose, due in part to its comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD). Given that researchers have found no difference in prevalence rates of PTSD and MDD after accounting for overlapping symptoms, the latent structures of PTSD and MDD may account for the high comorbidity. In particular, the PTSD Negative Alterations in Cognition and Mood (NACM) and Hyperarousal factors have been characterized as non-specific to PTSD...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329692/potential-psychological-neural-mechanisms-in-binge-eating-disorder-implications-for-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Hedy Kober, Rebecca G Boswell
Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is a newly-established eating disorder diagnosis in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Although systematic research on BED is in its infancy and many studies feature small samples, several observations emerge. First, we review diagnostic, developmental, and socio-demographic features of BED. Next, although BED and obesity are linked and frequently co-occur, we review data suggesting that BED is a distinct phenotype. Importantly, we take a mechanism-focused approach and propose four psychological processes with neurobiological bases that may uniquely differentiate BED from obesity: emotion reactivity, food-cue reactivity, food craving, and cognitive control...
December 23, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327512/mental-disorder-are-we-moving-away-from-distress-and-disability
#5
Diogo Telles-Correia
The first time that formally a definition of mental disorder was presented was in DSM-III. This resulted from a complex conceptual analysis carried out by Spitzer, chair of the committee on nomenclature and statistics. The criteria of harm (distress-disability) arise as main defining characteristics for mental illness, being added that "there is an inference" that there is a dysfunction. The distress-disability model was later developed by Wakefield. This author argued that in a medical or psychiatric disorder there had to be a dysfunctional component (value free) and another one of harm (value laden)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325478/catatonia-under-diagnosis-in-the-general-hospital
#6
Joan Roig Llesuy, Michel Medina, Kristen C Jacobson, Joseph J Cooper
Catatonia is under-diagnosed in psychiatric settings. No studies have explored the under-diagnosis of catatonia in general hospitals. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review using DSM-5 criteria to diagnose catatonia in medical inpatients between 2011 and 2013. Of 133 case subjects meeting DSM-5 criteria for catatonia retrospectively, 79 had never been diagnosed and 54 had a documented diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression revealed that psychiatry consultation significantly decreased the odds of under-diagnosis of catatonia, whereas presence of agitation, grimacing, or echolalia increased the likelihood of under-diagnosis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325236/treatment-with-a-ghrelin-agonist-in-outpatient-women-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Pouneh K Fazeli, Elizabeth A Lawson, Alexander T Faje, Kamryn T Eddy, Hang Lee, Fred T Fiedorek, Anne Breggia, Ildiko M Gaal, Rebecca DeSanti, Anne Klibanski
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of relamorelin-an agonist of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, which has effects on gastric emptying-on (1) weight gain and (2) gastric emptying in women with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, the effects of the ghrelin agonist relamorelin were studied in 22 outpatient women with anorexia nervosa, diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria. The study was conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital Clinical Research Center between March 11, 2013, and February 26, 2015...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325011/cognitive-complaints-in-memory-clinic-patients-and-in-depressive-patients-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#8
Lisa Miebach, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Ingo Frommann, Klaus Fließbach, Frank Jessen, Rachel Buckley, Michael Wagner
Background and Objectives: Cognitive complaints are discussed as early signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, they are also very common in cognitively normal older adults and in patients with depression. Qualitative, interview-based approaches might be useful to identify those features of cognitive complaints specific for the experiences of cognitive decline in preclinical or prodromal AD versus those complaints typically reported by depressed patients. Research Design and Methods: A semi-structured interview was administered to 21 cognitively normal older adults (HC), 18 nondemented memory clinic patients (MC), and 11 patients with a major depression (MD), all above 55 years...
January 8, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324086/how-robust-is-the-influence-of-causal-explanation-on-clinical-judgments-assessments-in-structured-clinical-interviews
#9
Mason R Jenkins, Nancy S Kim
When causal life-event explanations for disorder symptoms are available, clinicians tend to explain away those symptoms (Ahn, Novick, & Kim, 2003 ; Meehl, 1973 ), eschewing formal diagnostic guidelines such as the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). We asked whether this effect is attenuated in the context of a structured diagnostic clinical interview procedure, which deliberately directs evaluators' attention to symptoms alone, or whether it is robust enough to continue to emerge. Across two experiments, lay evaluators given causal life-event explanations for disordered behaviors gave them lower judgments of abnormality and need for treatment compared to evaluators not given such explanations, regardless of whether they used a structured clinical interview...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323514/ffmpd-scales-comparisons-with-the-ffm-pid-5-and-cat-pd-sf
#10
Cristina Crego, Joshua R Oltmanns, Thomas A Widiger
A series of 8 Five Factor Model Personality Disorder (FFMPD) scales have been developed to assess, from the perspective of the Five Factor Model (FFM), the maladaptive traits included within DSM-5 Section II personality disorders. An extensive body of FFMPD research has accumulated. However, for the most part, each study has been confined to the scales within 1 particular FFMPD Inventory. The current study considered 36 FFMPD scales, at least 1 from each of the 8 FFMPD inventories, including 8 scales considered to be from neuroticism, 8 from extraversion, 5 from openness, 8 from agreeableness, and 7 from conscientiousness...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323509/five-factor-model-personality-disorder-scales-an-introduction-to-a-special-section-on-assessment-of-maladaptive-variants-of-the-five-factor-model
#11
R Michael Bagby, Thomas A Widiger
The Five-Factor Model (FFM) is a dimensional model of general personality structure, consisting of the domains of neuroticism (or emotional instability), extraversion versus introversion, openness (or unconventionality), agreeableness versus antagonism, and conscientiousness (or constraint). The FFM is arguably the most commonly researched dimensional model of general personality structure. However, a notable limitation of existing measures of the FFM has been a lack of coverage of its maladaptive variants...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321711/validity-and-reliability-of-the-turkish-version-of-dsm-5-social-anxiety-disorder-severity-scale-child-form
#12
Şermin Yalin Sapmaz, Dilek Ergin, Nesrin Şen Celasin, Duygu Karaarslan, Masum Öztürk, Handan Özek Erkuran, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.) (DSM-5) Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale- Child Form. Method: The scale was prepared by carrying out the translation and back translation of the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form. The study group consisted of 31 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and 99 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321707/validity-and-reliability-of-the-turkish-version-for-dsm-5-level-2-anger-scale-child-form-for-children-aged-11-17-years-and-parent-form-for-children-aged-6-17-years
#13
Şermin Yalin Sapmaz, Handan Özek Erkuran, Nefize Yalin, Özlem Önen, Siğnem Öztekin, Canem Kavurma, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) Level 2 Anger Scale. Methods: The scale was prepared by translation and back translation of DSM-5 Level 2 Anger Scale. Study groups consisted of a clinical sample of cases diagnosed with depressive disorder and treated in a child and adolescent psychiatry unit and a community sample. The study was continued with 218 children and 160 parents...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319367/development-and-validation-of-personality-disorder-spectra-scales-for-the-mmpi-2-rf
#14
Martin Sellbom, Mark H Waugh, Christopher J Hopwood
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a set of MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) personality disorder (PD) spectra scales. These scales could serve the purpose of assisting with DSM-5 PD diagnosis and help link categorical and dimensional conceptions of personality pathology within the MMPI-2-RF. We developed and provided initial validity results for scales corresponding to the 10 PD constructs listed in the DSM-5 using data from student, community, clinical, and correctional samples...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310741/childhood-interpersonal-violence-and-adult-alcohol-cannabis-and-tobacco-use-disorders-variation-by-race-ethnicity
#15
Jacquelyn L Meyers, Carolyn E Sartor, Kimberly B Werner, Karestan C Koenen, Bridget F Grant, Deborah Hasin
BACKGROUND: Exposure to child maltreatment has been shown to increase lifetime risk for substance use disorders (SUD). However, this has not been systematically examined among race/ethnic groups, for whom rates of exposure to assaultive violence and SUD differ. This study examined variation by race/ethnicity and gender in associations of alcohol (AUD), cannabis (CUD), and tobacco (TUD) use disorders with three types of childhood interpersonal violence (cIPV): physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing parental violence...
January 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310066/is-recurrence-in-major-depressive-disorder-related-to-bipolarity-and-mixed-features-results-from-the-bridge-ii-mix-study
#16
Lorenzo Mazzarini, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Daria Piacentino, Salvatore Rizzato, Jules Angst, Jean-Michel Azorin, Charles L Bowden, Sergey Mosolov, Allan H Young, Eduard Vieta, Paolo Girardi, Giulio Perugi
BACKGROUND: Current classifications separate Bipolar (BD) from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) based on polarity rather than recurrence. We aimed to determine bipolar/mixed feature frequency in a large MDD multinational sample with (High-Rec) and without (Low-Rec) >3 recurrences, comparing the two subsamples. METHODS: We measured frequency of bipolarity/hypomanic features during current depressive episodes (MDEs) in 2347 MDD patients from the BRIDGE-II-mix database, comparing High-Rec with Low-Rec...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309956/public-stigma-of-prolonged-grief-disorder-an-experimental-study
#17
Maarten C Eisma
Prolonged grief disorder (PGD), characterized by severe, persistent and disabling grief, is being considered for inclusion in the International Classification of Diseases' 11 (ICD-11) and a related disorder, Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD), is included for further investigation in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5). Establishing diagnoses for pathological grief may lead to stigmatization. Additionally, it has been argued that people experiencing severe grief responses after loss of non-family members (i...
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309698/burdens-on-emergency-responders-after-a-terrorist-attack-in-berlin
#18
U Wesemann, P Zimmermann, M Mahnke, O Butler, S Polk, G Willmund
Background: Terrorist attacks induce various responses in emergency responders. Addressing this range of responses in individual workers is of central interest. Aims: To assess the gender- and occupation-specific effects of a terrorist attack, particularly in emergency responders. Methods: This was a pilot study. Emergency responders present during the 2016 terrorist attack at Breitscheidplatz in Berlin were asked to participate. Measures for crisis management had been previously implemented...
December 22, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308332/topiramate-induced-lithium-toxicity
#19
Afaque H Khan, Shazia Q Shah
This case report discusses a suspected case of lithium toxicity following the administration of topiramate (TPM). Our patient is a 47-year-old man who has been an inpatient for the past year and was diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder bipolar type 1 for the past 20 years according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). He manifested symptoms of lithium toxicity following administration of TPM to ameliorate the compulsive consumption of food and liquids...
October 26, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306694/evaluating-the-stability-of-dsm-5-ptsd-symptom-network-structure-in-a-national-sample-of-u-s-military-veterans
#20
Sophia H H von Stockert, Eiko I Fried, Cherie Armour, Robert H Pietrzak
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have used network models to investigate how PTSD symptoms associate with each other. However, analyses examining the degree to which these networks are stable over time, which are critical to identifying symptoms that may contribute to the chronicity of this disorder, are scarce. In the current study, we evaluated the temporal stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom networks over a three-year period in a nationally representative sample of trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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