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Human body anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917702/hominin-track-assemblages-from-okote-member-deposits-near-ileret-kenya-and-their-implications-for-understanding-fossil-hominin-paleobiology-at-1-5%C3%A2-ma
#1
Kevin G Hatala, Neil T Roach, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Roshna E Wunderlich, Heather L Dingwall, Brian A Villmoare, David J Green, David R Braun, John W K Harris, Anna K Behrensmeyer, Brian G Richmond
Tracks can provide unique, direct records of behaviors of fossil organisms moving across their landscapes millions of years ago. While track discoveries have been rare in the human fossil record, over the last decade our team has uncovered multiple sediment surfaces within the Okote Member of the Koobi Fora Formation near Ileret, Kenya that contain large assemblages of ∼1.5 Ma fossil hominin tracks. Here, we provide detailed information on the context and nature of each of these discoveries, and we outline the specific data that are preserved on the Ileret hominin track surfaces...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915916/effects-of-a-silent-mentor-initiation-ceremony-and-dissection-on-medical-students-humanity-and-learning
#2
Ruei-Jen Chiou, Po-Fang Tsai, Der-Yan Han
OBJECTIVES: Many medical schools in Taiwan have adopted a dignified "silent mentor" initiation ceremony to strengthen student's medical humanity and increase their learning attitudes. This ceremony consists of introductions of the body donor's conduct and deeds, wreath-laying, and a tea party. However, few empirical studies have examined the influences of the ceremony and dissection on medical humanity. This study explored if the initiation ceremony and the course can help students care more about others, develop more positive attitudes toward death, improve learning effectiveness in the course, and decrease negative emotions the first time they see a cadaver...
September 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910382/refining-experimental-dental-implant-testing-in-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-using-3d-computed-tomography-a-morphometric-study-of-the-mandibular-canal
#3
Giuliano M Corte, Johanna Plendl, Hana Hünigen, Kenneth C Richardson, Ole Gemeinhardt, Stefan M Niehues
This study reports morphometric and age-related data of the mandibular canal and the alveolar ridge of the Göttingen Minipig to avoid complications during in vivo testing of endosseus dental implants and to compare these data with the human anatomy. Using 3D computed tomography, six parameters of the mandibular canal as well as the alveolar bone height and the alveolar ridge width were measured in Göttingen Minipigs aged 12, 17 and 21 months. Our null hypothesis assumes that the age and the body mass have an influence on the parameters measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901615/model-based-dose-reconstruction-for-ct-dose-estimation
#4
Mingye Wu, Zhye Yin, Bruno De Man
PURPOSE: Our goal is to develop a model-based approach for CT dose estimation. We previously presented a CT dose estimation method that offered good accuracy in soft tissue regions but lower accuracy in bone regions. In this work, we propose an improved physic-based approach to achieve high accuracy for any materials and realistic clinical anatomies. METHODS: Like Monte Carlo techniques, we start from a model or image of the patient and we model all relevant x-ray interaction processes...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877098/a-3-dimensional-printed-ultrasound-probe-visuospatial-trainer
#5
Ryan T McKenna, Jesse C Dove, Robert A Ratzlaff, Jose L Diaz-Gomez, Daniel J Cox, Leslie V Simon
Training adult learners to use ultrasound in clinical practice relies on the ability of the learner to apply visuospatial concepts to the anatomy of the human body. We describe a visuospatial trainer that replicates the housing of an ultrasound transducer, through which a linear laser projects light in the same plane and orientation as the ultrasonic sound waves. We use this trainer in combination with a porcine heart dissection laboratory to teach bedside cardiac ultrasound and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE)...
September 4, 2017: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873382/development-and-anatomy-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-humans
#6
Carsten Posovszky
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits an enormous surface area that consists mostly of absorptive enterocytes. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are found scattered along the GI tract between absorptive enterocytes and other secretory cells, and comprise around 1% of the epithelial cell population. Interestingly, they develop from the same crypt stem cell as the other absorptive or secretory cells of the gut. EECs differentiate along the crypt villus axis and are renewed every 4-6 days, and hence possess a high plasticity...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871591/network-of-breathing-multifunctional-role-of-the-diaphragm-a-review
#7
Janusz Kocjan, Mariusz Adamek, Bożena Gzik-Zroska, Damian Czyżewski, Mateusz Rydel
The diaphragm is the primary muscle involved in active inspiration and serves also as an important anatomical landmark that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavity. However, the diaphragm muscle like other structures and organs in the human body has more than one function, and displays many anatomic links throughout the body, thereby forming a 'network of breathing'. Besides respiratory function, it is important for postural control as it stabilises the lumbar spine during loading tasks. It also plays a vital role in the vascular and lymphatic systems, as well as, is greatly involved in gastroesophageal functions such as swallowing, vomiting, and contributing to the gastroesophageal reflux barrier...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832938/energetic-cost-of-walking-in-fossil-hominins
#8
M Vidal-Cordasco, A Mateos, G Zorrilla-Revilla, O Prado-Nóvoa, J Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: Many biomechanical studies consistently show that a broader pelvis increases the reaction forces and bending moments across the femoral shaft, increasing the energetic costs of unloaded locomotion. However, a biomechanical model does not provide the real amount of metabolic energy expended in walking. The aim of this study is to test the influence of pelvis breadth on locomotion cost and to evaluate the locomotion efficiency of extinct Pleistocene hominins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The current study measures in vivo the influence of pelvis width on the caloric cost of locomotion, integrating anthropometry, body composition and indirect calorimetry protocols in a sample of 46 subjects of both sexes...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815746/matthew-baillie-s-specimens-and-engravings
#9
Caitlin Spear, Maggie Reilly, Stuart W McDonald
In 1799, Matthew Baillie, William Hunter's nephew, published his famous atlas of pathology. It was entitled A Series of Engravings Accompanied with Explanations which are Intended to Illustrate the Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body. The present study aims to match the illustrations to extant specimens in the collections of William and John Hunter, preserved at the University of Glasgow and at the Royal College of Surgeons of England respectively. Baillie's book contains 10 fasciculi, consisting of 73 plates and 206 figures...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809677/application-of-the-4d-xcat-phantoms-in-biomedical-imaging-and-beyond
#10
W Paul Segars, B M W Tsui, Jing Cai, Fang-Fang Yin, George S K Fung, Ehsan Samei
The four dimensional (4D) eXtended CArdiac-Torso (XCAT) series of phantoms was developed to provide accurate computerized models of the human anatomy and physiology. The XCAT series encompasses a vast population of phantoms of varying ages from newborn to adult, each including parameterized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. With great flexibility in the XCAT's design, any number of body sizes, different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, patient positions and orientations, and spatial resolutions can be simulated...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805487/state-of-the-art-nanopathological-diagnostics
#11
Luca Roncati, Giuseppe Barbolini
The nanopathological diagnostics (ND) is an ultra-specialized branch of pathological anatomy aimed to identify the nanoparticles of metallic, semimetallic, or nonmetallic elements in the inorganic particulate matter present inside pathological tissues, even on the nanometer scale. ND exploits an environmental scanning electron microscope, connected to an X-ray microprobe mounted on an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The searching of nanoparticles can be performed on paraffin-embedded material, omitting emissions of black overlay and plating procedures...
August 14, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753247/take-away-body-parts-an-investigation-into-the-use-of-3d-printed-anatomical-models-in-undergraduate-anatomy-education
#12
Claire F Smith, Nicholas Tollemache, Derek Covill, Malcolm Johnston
Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the human form is imperative for effective medical practice and the emergence of 3D printing creates numerous opportunities to enhance aspects of medical and healthcare training. A recently deceased, un-embalmed donor was scanned through high-resolution computed tomography. The scan data underwent segmentation and post-processing and a range of 3D-printed anatomical models were produced. A four-stage mixed-methods study was conducted to evaluate the educational value of the models in a medical program...
July 28, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751237/a-large-modern-southeast-asian-human-skeletal-collection-from-thailand
#13
Nawaporn Techataweewan, Panya Tuamsuk, Yanyong Toomsan, Worawut Woraputtaporn, Parichat Prachaney, Nancy Tayles
The Khon Kaen University Human Skeleton Research Centre has a large human collection consisting of 745 modern northeastern Thai (Isan) skeletons derived from bodies bequeathed to the Department of Anatomy during the period 1979-2014. The aim of this paper is to document the collection and address the question of whether the collection may be representative of local Isan people, or populations of the wider region of mainland Southeast Asia. This will determine its value as a reference collection for forensic anthropology in particular but also for all other fields of research about human skeletal biology...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716518/virtual-animation-of-victim-specific-3d-models-obtained-from-ct-scans-for-forensic-reconstructions-living-and-dead-subjects
#14
C Villa, K B Olsen, S H Hansen
Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715313/the-visible-human-project-from-body-to-bits
#15
Michael J Ackerman
Atlases of anatomy have long been a mainstay for visualizing and identifying features of the human body [1]. Many are constructed of idealized illustrations rendered so that structures are presented as three-dimensional (3-D) pictures. Others have employed photographs of actual dissections. Still others are composed of collections of artist renderings of organs or areas of interest. All rely on a basically two-dimensional (2-D) graphic display to depict and allow for a better understanding of a complicated 3-D structure...
July 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707222/considering-the-inferior-surface-area-of-lower-lumbar-vertebrae-determining-weight-transmission-pattern-at-the-lumbosacral-junction
#16
Uchenna Kenneth Ezemagu, Chike P Anibeze, Chinedu F Akpuaka
The biomechanical function of the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) is obscure, but its medical significance is not, as it is the most common site of low back pain. In this study, we analyzed the difference between the mean values of the surface areas of the inferior body and total inferior facet areas of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. We aimed to define the function of the LSJ during weight transmission and clarify its mechanical significance. Vertebral columns of 45 adult male human cadavers from five anatomy departments in Nigeria were cut at the L3-L4 intervertebral disc and macerated...
July 13, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698108/imaging-at-ultrahigh-magnetic-fields-history-challenges-and-solutions
#17
Kamil Uğurbil
Following early efforts in applying nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study biological processes in intact systems, and particularly since the introduction of 4 T human scanners circa 1990, rapid progress was made in imaging and spectroscopy studies of humans at 4 T and animal models at 9.4 T, leading to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has provided numerous technological solutions to challenges posed at these ultrahigh fields, and demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in signal-to-noise ratio and biological information content...
July 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695209/comment-on-monkey-vocal-tracts-are-speech-ready
#18
Philip Lieberman
Monkey vocal tracts are capable of producing monkey speech, not the full range of articulate human speech. The evolution of human speech entailed both anatomy and brains. Fitch, de Boer, Mathur, and Ghazanfar in Science Advances claim that "monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready," and conclude that "…the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural change rather than modifications of vocal anatomy." Neither premise is consistent either with the data presented and the conclusions reached by de Boer and Fitch themselves in their own published papers on the role of anatomy in the evolution of human speech or with the body of independent studies published since the 1950s...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646272/rhesus-cochlear-and-vestibular-functions-are-preserved-after-inner-ear-injection-of-saline-volume-sufficient-for-gene-therapy-delivery
#19
Chenkai Dai, Mohamed Lehar, Daniel Q Sun, Lani Swarthout Rvt, John P Carey, Tim MacLachlan, Doug Brough, Hinrich Staecker, Alexandra M Della Santina, Timothy E Hullar, Charles C Della Santina
Sensorineural losses of hearing and vestibular sensation due to hair cell dysfunction are among the most common disabilities. Recent preclinical research demonstrates that treatment of the inner ear with a variety of compounds, including gene therapy agents, may elicit regeneration and/or repair of hair cells in animals exposed to ototoxic medications or other insults to the inner ear. Delivery of gene therapy may also offer a means for treatment of hereditary hearing loss. However, injection of a fluid volume sufficient to deliver an adequate dose of a pharmacologic agent could, in theory, cause inner ear trauma that compromises functional outcome...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638930/-different-adipose-tissue-depots-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-human
#20
Ran Wang, Xiao-Nan Li
Obesity is characterized by abnormal and excessive adipose tissue accumulated in the body. Compared with peripheral obesity (the accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue), abdominal obesity (the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue) is associated with increased risk of the metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and dyslipidemia. Adipose tissue is a highly heterogeneous endocrine organ. Adipose tissue depots differ significantly in anatomy, cell biology, glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in endocrine regulation...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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