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Human body anatomy

Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
A Zioła-Frankowska, M Dąbrowski, Ł Kubaszewski, P Rogala, A Kowalski, M Frankowski
The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tineke De Coninck, Steven S Ngai, Monica Tafur, Christine B Chung
The shoulder joint is the most unstable articulation in the entire human body. While this certainly introduces vulnerability to injury, it also confers the advantage of broad range of motion. There are many elements that work in combination to offset the inherent instability of the glenohumeral joint, but the glenoid labrum is perhaps related most often. Broadly, clinical unidirectional instability can be subdivided into anterior and posterior instability, which usually raise concern for anteroinferior and posteroinferior labral lesions, respectively...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Sriram Balasubramanian, James R Peters, Lucy F Robinson, Anita Singh, Richard W Kent
PURPOSE: Based on the structural anatomy, loading condition and range of motion (ROM), no quadruped animal has been shown to accurately mimic the structure and biomechanical function of the human spine. The objective of this study is to quantify the thoracic vertebrae geometry of the kangaroo, and compare with adult human, pig, sheep, and deer. METHODS: The thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) from whole body CT scans of ten juvenile kangaroos (ages 11-14 months) were digitally reconstructed and geometric dimensions of the vertebral bodies, endplates, pedicles, spinal canal, processes, facets and intervertebral discs were recorded...
October 4, 2016: European Spine Journal
Beate Brand-Saberi, Holm Zaehres
Anatomy as a descriptive topic of research and instruction in medicine has been increasingly influenced by discoveries in molecular cell and developmental biology and most recently the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells and organoids. We summarize here how anatomy has been influenced by developmental and stem cell biologists, and how in vitro modelling of the three-dimensional body environment is emerging to understand structure and function of cells during differentiation processes in development and disease...
September 30, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Katarzyna Pisanski, Emanuel C Mora, Annette Pisanski, David Reby, Piotr Sorokowski, Tomasz Frackowiak, David R Feinberg
Several mammalian species scale their voice fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies in competitive and mating contexts, reducing vocal tract and laryngeal allometry thereby exaggerating apparent body size. Although humans' rare capacity to volitionally modulate these same frequencies is thought to subserve articulated speech, the potential function of voice frequency modulation in human nonverbal communication remains largely unexplored. Here, the voices of 167 men and women from Canada, Cuba, and Poland were recorded in a baseline condition and while volitionally imitating a physically small and large body size...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
D Charisi, Z Laffranchi, S A Jiménez-Brobeil
Sexual dimorphism in humans is mainly observed as a difference in the anatomy of genitals and breasts. There are also some differences in the stature and metric or morphological traits of the skeleton. Degree of sexual dimorphism varies among populations and depends on their genetic composition and various cultural and environmental factors. In this study, two Mediaeval Muslim populations from Granada, Spain, were compared, testing whether differences in living environment (urban vs. rural) would result in distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism of long bones...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Alex P A Donovan, M Albert Basson
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed solely on the basis of behaviour. A large body of work has reported neuroanatomical differences between individuals with ASD and neurotypical controls. Despite the huge clinical and genetic heterogeneity that typifies autism, some of these anatomical features appear to be either present in most cases or so dramatically altered in some that their presence is now reasonably well replicated in a number of studies...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Tom P Franken, Philip H Smith, Philip X Joris
The lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB) is a prominent nucleus in the superior olivary complex in mammals including humans. Its physiology in vivo is poorly understood due to a paucity of recordings. It is thought to provide a glycinergic projection to the medial superior olive (MSO) with an important role in binaural processing and sound localization. We combined in vivo patch clamp recordings with labeling of individual neurons in the Mongolian gerbil. Labeling of the recorded neurons allowed us to relate physiological properties to anatomy at the light and electron microscopic level...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jehad Al-Ramahi, Huiping Luo, Rui Fang, Adriana Chou, Jack Jiang, Tony Kille
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to create a 3D printed airway model simulating the size and mechanical properties of various age groups for foreign body removal training. METHODS: Three-dimensional printing technology was used to print the anatomically correct airway from rubber-like translucent material, simulating the mechanical properties of human airway tissue. The model's effectiveness in trainee education was evaluated by otolaryngology residents with varying levels of experience...
September 7, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Andrew Parker, Lauren Chessum, Philomena Mburu, Jeremy Sanderson, Michael R Bowl
Mice are an invaluable model organism for the study of auditory function. Even though there are differences in size and frequency response, the anatomy and physiology of the mouse and human ear are remarkably similar. In addition, the tools available for genetic manipulation in the mouse have enabled the generation of models carrying mutations in orthologous human deafness-causing genes, helping to validate these lesions and assess their functional consequence. Reciprocally, novel gene mutations discovered to cause auditory deficits in the mouse highlight potential new loci for human hearing loss, and expand our basic knowledge of the mechanisms and pathways important for the function of the mammalian ear...
2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Jeffrey H Plochocki, Jose R Rodriguez-Sosa, Brent Adrian, Saul A Ruiz, Margaret I Hall
INTRODUCTION: Modern anatomical and surgical references illustrate perineal muscles all innervated by branches of the pudendal nerve but still organized into anatomically distinct urogenital and anal triangles with muscles inserting onto a central perineal body. However, this conflicts with the anatomy commonly encountered during dissection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use dissections of 43 human cadavers to characterize the anatomical organization of the human perineum and compare our findings to standard references...
August 26, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Parmod Kumar Goyal, Monika Gupta, Jaswinder Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Embalmed cadavers are the primary tool for teaching anatomy. However, difficulties are encountered due to changed color/texture of organs, hardening of tissues, and smell of formaldehyde. To overcome these difficulties, dissections on a fresh human body were shown to the 1(st) year MBBS students, and their perception was noted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After taking universal precautionary measures, postmortem dissections were shown to students on voluntary donated bodies in the dissection hall, in addition to the traditional teaching on embalmed cadavers...
July 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Minoru Tsuchitani, Junko Sato, Hiroko Kokoshima
As basic knowledge for evaluation of pancreatic toxicity, anatomical structures were compared among experimental animal species, including rats, dogs, monkeys, and minipigs. In terms of gross anatomy, the pancreases of dogs, monkeys, and minipigs are compact and similar to that of humans. The rat pancreas is relatively compact at the splenic segment, but the duodenal segment is dispersed within the mesentery. In terms of histology, the islet of each animal is characterized by a topographic distribution pattern of α- versus β-cells...
July 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
André Silva Ranhel, Evandro Tinoco Mesquita
The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments...
April 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Isain Zapata, James A Serpell, Carlos E Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Fear/anxiety and anger/aggression greatly influence health, quality of life and social interactions. They are a huge burden to wellbeing, and personal and public economics. However, while much is known about the physiology and neuroanatomy of such emotions, little is known about their genetics - most importantly, why some individuals are more susceptible to pathology under stress. RESULTS: We conducted genomewide association (GWA) mapping of breed stereotypes for many fear and aggression traits across several hundred dogs from diverse breeds...
2016: BMC Genomics
Pakama Mahlumba, Yahya E Choonara, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Viness Pillay
Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eunhye Kim, Zhong Zheng, Yubyeol Jeon, Yong-Xun Jin, Seon-Ung Hwang, Lian Cai, Chang-Kyu Lee, Nam-Hyung Kim, Sang-Hwan Hyun
Pigs provide outstanding models of human genetic diseases due to their striking similarities with human anatomy, physiology and genetics. Although transgenic pigs have been produced using genetically modified somatic cells and nuclear transfer (SCNT), the cloning efficiency was extremely low. Here, we report an improved method to produce diploid cloned embryos from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs), which were synchronized to the G2/M stage using a double blocking method with aphidicolin and nocodazole...
2016: PloS One
R Shane Tubbs, Andre Granger, Christian Fisahn, Marios Loukas, Marc Moisi, Joe Iwanaga, David Paulson, Shiveindra Jeyamohan, Jens R Chapman, Rod J Oskouian
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of the course of the vertebral artery during instrumentation is of paramount importance. It has been shown that erosion of the C2 pedicle and body can occur due to pulsations of the adjacent vertebral artery. This often results in a "cave" for this segment of the artery. The descriptions of this anatomy are limited. The current study was performed with the hope that these data will be of use to spine surgeons during C2 instrumentation. METHODS: In 40 human adult C2 bone specimens, the position of the vertebral artery in relation to the undersurface of the superior articular facet, pedicle, and C2 body was observed...
October 2016: World Neurosurgery
Márton Tóth, László Ruskó, Balázs Csébfalvi
This paper presents a method that detects anatomy regions in three-dimensional medical images. The method labels each axial slice of the image according to the anatomy region it belongs to. The detected regions are the head (and neck), the chest, the abdomen, the pelvis, and the legs. The proposed method consists of two main parts. The core of the algorithm is based on a two-dimensional feature extraction that is followed by a random forest classification. This recognition process achieves an overall accuracy of 91...
September 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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