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Human body anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904020/is-the-ultimobranchial-body-a-reality-or-myth-a-study-using-serial-sections-of-human-embryos
#1
Yohei Honkura, Masahito Yamamoto, Toshihito Yoshimoto, Jose Francisco Rodriguez-Vazquez, Gen Murakami, Yukio Katori, Shin-Ichi Abe
Reported morphologies of the ultimobranchial body had varied between researchers: a cluster of mitotic cells, a duct-like structure and a rosette-like cell mass. To clarify the true morphology, we studied tilted horizontal sections of 20 human embryos (crown-rump length 5-18 mm; 4-6 weeks). The sections displayed a ladder-like arrangement of the second to fourth endodermal pouches and, in 5 early embryos we found the fifth pouch attached to the fifth ectodermal groove near the fourth pharyngeal arch artery...
2016: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890190/imaging-of-the-sella-and-parasellar-region
#2
REVIEW
John L Go, Anandh G Rajamohan
The sella and parasellar region, found between the anterior and central skull base, represents the central aspect of the skull base. Given the location of the pituitary gland in this location, small lesions in this location may have major physiologic effects on the human body. This article reviews the anatomy, development, and pathologic processes that may involve this region.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884788/the-virtual-dissecting-room-creating-highly-detailed-anatomy-models-for-educational-purposes
#3
Marijn Zilverschoon, Koen L Vincken, Ronald L A W Bleys
INTRODUCTION: Virtual 3D models are powerful tools for teaching anatomy. At the present day, there are a lot of different digital anatomy models, most of these commercial applications are based on a 3D model of a human body reconstructed from images with a 1 millimeter intervals. The use of even smaller intervals may result in more details and more realistic appearances of 3D anatomy models. The aim of this study was to create a realistic and highly detailed 3D model of the hand and wrist based on small interval cross-sectional images, suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching purposes with the possibility to perform a virtual dissection in an educational application...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852775/eeg-oscillations-are-modulated-in-different-behavior-related-networks-during-rhythmic-finger-movements
#4
Martin Seeber, Reinhold Scherer, Gernot R Müller-Putz
: Sequencing and timing of body movements are essential to perform motoric tasks. In this study, we investigate the temporal relation between cortical oscillations and human motor behavior (i.e., rhythmic finger movements). High-density EEG recordings were used for source imaging based on individual anatomy. We separated sustained and movement phase-related EEG source amplitudes based on the actual finger movements recorded by a data glove. Sustained amplitude modulations in the contralateral hand area show decrease for α (10-12 Hz) and β (18-24 Hz), but increase for high γ (60-80 Hz) frequencies during the entire movement period...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844333/cardiac-autonomic-innervation
#5
Hina K Jamali, Fahad Waqar, Myron C Gerson
The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in regulating changes in the cardiovascular system and its adaptation to various human body functions. The sympathetic arm of the autonomic nervous system is associated with the fight and flight response, while the parasympathetic division is responsible for the restorative effects on heart rate, blood pressure, and contractility. Disorders involving these two divisions can lead to, and are seen as, a manifestation of most common cardiovascular disorders. Over the last few decades, extensive research has been performed establishing imaging techniques to quantify the autonomic dysfunction associated with various cardiovascular disorders...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821521/from-cytoskeletal-dynamics-to-organ-asymmetry-a-nonlinear-regulative-pathway-underlies-left-right-patterning
#6
Gary McDowell, Suvithan Rajadurai, Michael Levin
Consistent left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fundamental aspect of the bodyplan across phyla, and errors of laterality form an important class of human birth defects. Its molecular underpinning was first discovered as a sequential pathway of left- and right-sided gene expression that controlled positioning of the heart and visceral organs. Recent data have revised this picture in two important ways. First, the physical origin of chirality has been identified; cytoskeletal dynamics underlie the asymmetry of single-cell behaviour and patterning of the LR axis...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813631/a-plea-for-extension-of-the-anatomical-nomenclature-part-1-nervous-system-and-senses
#7
David Kachlík, Vladimir Musil, Vaclav Baca
A correct, exact, concise and detailed anatomical nomenclature is a cornerstone of communication not only in anatomy and related subjects but also in other medical branches and in the whole medical education. Terminologia Anatomica fulfils this task but some important structures are still missing there. The authors have collected and present here a list of terms including their definitions or explanations to provoke discussion about possible extension of the Terminologia Anatomica. The first part of this contribution, presented in this article, comprises 113 terms concerning the regulation systems of the human body: endocrine glands, central and peripheral nervous system, and senses...
November 4, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751944/hippocampal-to-basal-forebrain-transport-of-mn-2-is-impaired-by-deletion-of-klc1-a-subunit-of-the-conventional-kinesin-microtubule-based-motor
#8
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734315/an-analysis-of-factors-affecting-the-mercury-content-in-the-human-femoral-bone
#9
A Zioła-Frankowska, M Dąbrowski, Ł Kubaszewski, P Rogala, A Kowalski, M Frankowski
The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726737/imaging-the-glenoid-labrum-and-labral-tears
#10
Tineke De Coninck, Steven S Ngai, Monica Tafur, Christine B Chung
The shoulder joint is the most unstable articulation in the entire human body. While this certainly introduces vulnerability to injury, it also confers the advantage of broad range of motion. There are many elements that work in combination to offset the inherent instability of the glenohumeral joint, but the glenoid labrum is perhaps related most often. Broadly, clinical unidirectional instability can be subdivided into anterior and posterior instability, which usually raise concern for anteroinferior and posteroinferior labral lesions, respectively...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704284/thoracic-spine-morphology-of-a-pseudo-biped-animal-model-kangaroo-and-comparisons-with-human-and-quadruped-animals
#11
Sriram Balasubramanian, James R Peters, Lucy F Robinson, Anita Singh, Richard W Kent
PURPOSE: Based on the structural anatomy, loading condition and range of motion (ROM), no quadruped animal has been shown to accurately mimic the structure and biomechanical function of the human spine. The objective of this study is to quantify the thoracic vertebrae geometry of the kangaroo, and compare with adult human, pig, sheep, and deer. METHODS: The thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) from whole body CT scans of ten juvenile kangaroos (ages 11-14 months) were digitally reconstructed and geometric dimensions of the vertebral bodies, endplates, pedicles, spinal canal, processes, facets and intervertebral discs were recorded...
October 4, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695942/the-development-of-anatomy-from-macroscopic-body-dissections-to-stem-cell-derived-organoids
#12
Beate Brand-Saberi, Holm Zaehres
Anatomy as a descriptive topic of research and instruction in medicine has been increasingly influenced by discoveries in molecular cell and developmental biology and most recently the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells and organoids. We summarize here how anatomy has been influenced by developmental and stem cell biologists, and how in vitro modelling of the three-dimensional body environment is emerging to understand structure and function of cells during differentiation processes in development and disease...
September 30, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687571/volitional-exaggeration-of-body-size-through-fundamental-and-formant-frequency-modulation-in-humans
#13
Katarzyna Pisanski, Emanuel C Mora, Annette Pisanski, David Reby, Piotr Sorokowski, Tomasz Frackowiak, David R Feinberg
Several mammalian species scale their voice fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies in competitive and mating contexts, reducing vocal tract and laryngeal allometry thereby exaggerating apparent body size. Although humans' rare capacity to volitionally modulate these same frequencies is thought to subserve articulated speech, the potential function of voice frequency modulation in human nonverbal communication remains largely unexplored. Here, the voices of 167 men and women from Canada, Cuba, and Poland were recorded in a baseline condition and while volitionally imitating a physically small and large body size...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659541/sexual-dimorphism-in-two-mediaeval-muslim-populations-from-spain
#14
D Charisi, Z Laffranchi, S A Jiménez-Brobeil
Sexual dimorphism in humans is mainly observed as a difference in the anatomy of genitals and breasts. There are also some differences in the stature and metric or morphological traits of the skeleton. Degree of sexual dimorphism varies among populations and depends on their genetic composition and various cultural and environmental factors. In this study, two Mediaeval Muslim populations from Granada, Spain, were compared, testing whether differences in living environment (urban vs. rural) would result in distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism of long bones...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620360/the-neuroanatomy-of-autism-a-developmental-perspective
#15
Alex P A Donovan, M Albert Basson
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed solely on the basis of behaviour. A large body of work has reported neuroanatomical differences between individuals with ASD and neurotypical controls. Despite the huge clinical and genetic heterogeneity that typifies autism, some of these anatomical features appear to be either present in most cases or so dramatically altered in some that their presence is now reasonably well replicated in a number of studies...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605909/in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings-combined-with-electron-microscopy-reveal-unexpected-morphological-and-physiological-properties-in-the-lateral-nucleus-of-the-trapezoid-body-in-the-auditory-brainstem
#16
Tom P Franken, Philip H Smith, Philip X Joris
The lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB) is a prominent nucleus in the superior olivary complex in mammals including humans. Its physiology in vivo is poorly understood due to a paucity of recordings. It is thought to provide a glycinergic projection to the medial superior olive (MSO) with an important role in binaural processing and sound localization. We combined in vivo patch clamp recordings with labeling of individual neurons in the Mongolian gerbil. Labeling of the recorded neurons allowed us to relate physiological properties to anatomy at the light and electron microscopic level...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605436/development-of-an-innovative-3d-printed-rigid-bronchoscopy-training-model
#17
Jehad Al-Ramahi, Huiping Luo, Rui Fang, Adriana Chou, Jack Jiang, Tony Kille
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to create a 3D printed airway model simulating the size and mechanical properties of various age groups for foreign body removal training. METHODS: Three-dimensional printing technology was used to print the anatomically correct airway from rubber-like translucent material, simulating the mechanical properties of human airway tissue. The model's effectiveness in trainee education was evaluated by otolaryngology residents with varying levels of experience...
September 7, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584554/light-and-electron-microscopy-methods-for-examination-of-cochlear-morphology-in-mouse-models-of-deafness
#18
Andrew Parker, Lauren Chessum, Philomena Mburu, Jeremy Sanderson, Michael R Bowl
Mice are an invaluable model organism for the study of auditory function. Even though there are differences in size and frequency response, the anatomy and physiology of the mouse and human ear are remarkably similar. In addition, the tools available for genetic manipulation in the mouse have enabled the generation of models carrying mutations in orthologous human deafness-causing genes, helping to validate these lesions and assess their functional consequence. Reciprocally, novel gene mutations discovered to cause auditory deficits in the mouse highlight potential new loci for human hearing loss, and expand our basic knowledge of the mechanisms and pathways important for the function of the mammalian ear...
2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565019/a-functional-and-clinical-reinterpretation-of-human-perineal-neuromuscular-anatomy
#19
Jeffrey H Plochocki, Jose R Rodriguez-Sosa, Brent Adrian, Saul A Ruiz, Margaret I Hall
INTRODUCTION: Modern anatomical and surgical references illustrate perineal muscles all innervated by branches of the pudendal nerve but still organized into anatomically distinct urogenital and anal triangles with muscles inserting onto a central perineal body. However, this conflicts with the anatomy commonly encountered during dissection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use dissections of 43 human cadavers to characterize the anatomical organization of the human perineum and compare our findings to standard references...
August 26, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563594/autopsy-as-a-tool-for-learning-gross-anatomy-during-1-st-year-mbbs
#20
Parmod Kumar Goyal, Monika Gupta, Jaswinder Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Embalmed cadavers are the primary tool for teaching anatomy. However, difficulties are encountered due to changed color/texture of organs, hardening of tissues, and smell of formaldehyde. To overcome these difficulties, dissections on a fresh human body were shown to the 1(st) year MBBS students, and their perception was noted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After taking universal precautionary measures, postmortem dissections were shown to students on voluntary donated bodies in the dissection hall, in addition to the traditional teaching on embalmed cadavers...
July 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
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