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Candida parapsilosis treatment in neonate

Iris Nora Tiraboschi, Natalia Cintia Pozzi, Luciana Farías, Susana García, Norma Beatriz Fernández
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of candidemia vary by region. AIM: To determine the epidemiology of candidemia in a hospital for 16 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Episodes of candidemia occurred in the Hospital de Clinicas of Buenos Aires were reviewed, from 01/01/98 to 31/12/13. RESULTS: 374 episodes of candidemia were identified. The incidence was 2.21/1,000 discharges and increased from 1.96 (1998-2005) to 2.25 (2006-2013) (p = 0...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Giuseppina Caggiano, Grazia Lovero, Osvalda De Giglio, Giovanna Barbuti, Osvaldo Montagna, Nicola Laforgia, Maria Teresa Montagna
We evaluated the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of an Italian university hospital during a 9-year period as a means of quantifying the burden of infection and identifying emerging trends. Clinical data were searched for in the microbiological laboratory database. For comparative purposes, we performed a review of NICU candidemia. Forty-one candidemia cases were reviewed (overall incidence, 3.0 per 100 admissions). Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto (58...
2017: BioMed Research International
Rachel Harrington, Sylvia L Kindermann, Qingjiang Hou, Robert J Taylor, Nkechi Azie, David L Horn
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology, treatment, length of stay (LOS) and costs for neonatal and pediatric inpatients with invasive candidiasis (IC). METHODS: The Cerner Health Facts Database was used to assess inpatients (2005-2014) identified by positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Candida cultures. Log-transformed LOS and cost were examined in candidemia-only patients (n = 191) using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 202 patients had a positive culture (blood: n = 192; CSF: n = 10; both: n = 2)...
August 22, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Jeffrey M Rybak, C Michael Dickens, Josie E Parker, Kelly E Caudle, Kayihura Manigaba, Sarah G Whaley, Andrew T Nishimoto, Arturo Luna-Tapia, Sujoy Roy, Qing Zhang, Katherine S Barker, Glen E Palmer, Thomas R Sutter, Ramin Homayouni, Nathan P Wiederhold, Steven L Kelly, P David Rogers
Among emerging non- albicans Candida species, Candida parapsilosis is of particular concern as a cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections in neonatal and intensive care unit patients. While fluconazole and echinocandins are considered effective treatments for such infections, recent reports of fluconazole and echinocandin resistance in C. parapsilosis indicate a growing problem. The present study describes a novel mechanism of antifungal resistance in this organism affecting susceptibility to azole and echinocandin antifungals in a clinical isolate obtained from a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis...
September 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sriparna Basu, Rajesh Kumar, Ragini Tilak, Ashok Kumar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiology of neonatal Candida blood stream infection. METHODS: Medical records of neonates with Candida blood stream infection over five years (September 2010 to August 2015) were reviewed. Clinical details, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility were noted. RESULTS: 114 neonates developed Candida blood stream infection. Commonly isolated Candida species were C. tropicalis, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis...
March 29, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
Şahin Hamilçıkan, Emrah Can, Övgü Büke, Meltem Erol, Özlem Bostan Gayret
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the result of intravenous pentoxifylline as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy on mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with nosocomial sepsis. Methods For the 18 VLBW preterm neonates, as an adjunct therapy to antibiotics regimens, pentoxifylline (5 mg/kg/h for 6 hours) was administered to premature infants with sepsis on 3 successive days. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded before and after treatment. Results Following pentoxifylline therapy, the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly decreased, while the blood pH and base excess were significantly increased (p < 0...
July 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
Mario Giuffrè, Clelia Lo Verso, Gregorio Serra, Giovanni Moceri, Marcello Cimador, Giovanni Corsello
Objective This report discusses the role of both congenital and acquired risk factors in the pathogenesis of portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Study Design We describe the clinical management and treatment of PVT in a preterm newborn with a homozygous mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genes and sepsis by Candida parapsilosis. Results Although literature data suggest a minor role of genetic factors in thrombophilia in the case of only one mutation, we hypothesize that combined thrombophilic genetic defects may have a cumulative effect and significantly increase the thrombotic risk...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
G Lovero, O De Giglio, O Montagna, G Diella, F Divenuto, M Lopuzzo, S Rutigliano, N Laforgia, G Caggiano, M T Montagna
BACKGROUND: Candidemia has become an increasingly important problem in infants hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). Candida species are the third most common agents of late-onset infections in critically ill neonates and they are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this study we evaluated the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infections in the NICU of an Italian university hospital during a 15-year period. Our specific aims were to analyze the change in species distribution and the vitro susceptibility of these yeasts to fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AmB)...
July 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
M D Benjamin, E Jolivet, N Desbois, J Pignol, S Ketterer-Martinon, L Pierre-Louis, O Flechelles
Fungal colonization is a common occurrence in preterm neonates. Our objective was to describe the profile and characteristics of fungal colonization in preterm infants admitted to the Martinique NICU. From March 2012 to January 2013, an epidemiological prospective cohort study was conducted with 57 very low-birth-weight infants. Cutaneous, rectal, gastric, respiratory, and urinary swabs were collected on admission, then every week for 4 weeks. The prevalence of fungal colonization was 68% (39/57): 46% by Malassezia species, 28% by Candida parapsilosis, 19% by C...
September 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindós
Invasive candidiasis is the most common invasive fungal disease causing an unacceptably high mortality. Candida albicans remains the predominant origin, but an epidemiological shift has been described in the last decades. Some species of Candida have emerged as an important cause of severe candidaemia and can exhibit reduced susceptibility to the current antifungal agents. Candida parapsilosis has been associated with candidaemia in neonates and young adults, whereas Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei are most frequently isolated in blood cultures from older patients (>65 years)...
July 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Jose Carlos Flores-González, Inmaculada Guerrero-Lozano, Juan Jesús Pérez-Guerrero, Arturo Hernández-González, Fátima Galán-Sánchez, Sebastián Quintero-Otero, Fernando Rubio-Quiñones, Servando Pantoja-Rosso
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases have increased in recent years. Candida species are the most common aetiology. Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei are the cause of most of them. The aim of this work is to describe the first isolation of Candida fabianii in the blood of a non-neonatal paediatric patient. CASE REPORT: A 2 year-old male with short bowel syndrome, severe malnutrition, and hypophosphataemic rickets deficiency was admitted to paediatric intensive care due to a respiratory tract infection and suspicion of an intestinal pseudo-obstruction...
January 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Emel Altuncu, Hulya Bilgen, Ahmet Soysal, Eren Ozek
Herein, we report two preterms with invasive candidiasis refractory to liposomal amphotericin B (AMB) treatment in spite of low MIC levels (MIC: 0.5 mcg/mL). Both of the patients' blood cultures were persistently positive for C. parapsilosis despite high therapeutic doses (AMB: 7 mg/kg per day). After starting voriconazole blood cultures became negative and both of the patients were treated successfully without any side effects. In conclusion, although it is not a standard treatment in neonatal patients, our limited experience with these patients suggests that voriconazole appears to be a safe antifungal agent to be used in critically ill preterm infants with persistent fungemia despite AMB treatment...
2015: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Carolina M Silva, Ana M R Carvalho-Parahym, Danielle P C Macêdo, Reginaldo G Lima-Neto, Elaine C Francisco, Analy S A Melo, Maria da Conceição M Silva, Moacir B Jucá, Luciana R B Mello, Rosemary M J Amorim, Rejane P Neves
Candidemia is a frequent condition in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) and usually complicates the newborns clinical course. Several factors are responsible for candidiasis, such as prematurity and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and in these cases, there are the involvement of various Candida species, as C. albicans, and C. parapsilosis. However, other species as C. haemulonii has been rarely described in candidemia cases, being considered an emergent pathogen. Thus, we report a case of neonatal candidemia by C...
August 2015: Mycopathologia
Monica Isabel Baptista, José Nona, Marta Ferreira, Isabel Sampaio, Margarida Abrantes, Maria Teresa Tomé, Maria Teresa Neto, Rosalina Barroso, Micaella Serelha, Daniel Virella
This study assesses the epidemiology of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in Portuguese Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) and compares the effectiveness and safety of antifungal therapies. A survey concerning the period 2005-2010 was carried out in NICUs of Greater Lisbon. Among 10 473 admitted neonates, 44 cases were identified, 29 among extreme low birth weight neonates (65.9%). Cumulative incidence rate was 0.42% (95%CI 0.309-0.559). A central vascular catheter was present before IFI in all cases. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis were the most frequent isolates...
2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Amilcar Caballero-Trejo, Carlos Eduardo Aguirre-Morales, Gloria M González-González, Dzoara Cortés-Palma, María Guadalupe Miranda-Novales
BACKGROUND: Candida infections have increased in the last few decades. Previous colonization is the most important risk factor for the development of fungemia. Understanding local epidemiology is necessary in order to select the optimal anti-fungal treatment. The purpose of this study was to establish colonization by Candida in patients, staff and medical devices in a neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Cultures were obtained from different anatomic sites, from medical devices and from the hands of healthcare staff at admission and every 7 days until discharge of the unit...
2014: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Bhavani Sriram, Pratibha K Agarwal, Nancy W S Tee, Victor S Rajadurai
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the incidence, trends of systemic candidiasis and meningitis in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) neonates (<1000 gms) despite the routine use of topical miconazole prophylaxis and to compare the risk factors, adverse outcomes and comorbidities with controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of ELBW neonates with systemic candidiasis and meningitis over an 11-year period (1997 to 2007). Matched case control analyses were performed to determine the risk factors and comorbidities which were severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring treatment, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), chronic lung disease (CLD) and cholestatic jaundice...
May 2014: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Aslınur Ozkaya-Parlakay, Hasan Tezer, Tugba Kazmacan, Belgin Gulhan, Sevim Unal
Neonatal Candida infections are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections that might cause severe morbidity or mortality in a large majority of those affected. Although Candida albicans has been the most common species, Candida parapsilosis is increasingly being recognized as an important cause of invasive candidiasis in neonates. Among the Candida species, C. parapsilosis has been commonly isolated and shown to be less susceptible in vitro to echinocandins than other Candida species. We report an infant who had refractory C...
August 2014: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Guillermo Quindós
Invasive candidiasis is a leading cause of mortality. Candidaemia is the most common clinical presentation of invasive candidiasis but more that 30% of these infections do not yield positive blood cultures. Candida albicans remains the predominant aetiology, accounting for 50% of all cases. However, there has been an epidemiological shift in the last decades. Some species of Candida different to C. albicans have emerged as an important cause of severe candidaemia as they can exhibit resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal agents...
January 2014: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Daynia E Ballot, Noma Bosman, Trusha Nana, Tanisha Ramdin, Peter A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is the predominant isolate in many neonatal fungal bloodstream infections (BSIs), so fluconazole is used as empiric antifungal therapy. AIM: To determine the predominant organisms, antifungal sensitivity patterns, clinical and demographic risk factors and crude mortality rate in neonatal fungal BSI cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a review of all neonatal fungal BSI cases between January 2007 and December 2011...
December 2013: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Jennifer R Linden, Dennis Kunkel, Sonia S Laforce-Nesbitt, Joseph M Bliss
Candida albicans causes the majority of invasive candidiasis in immunocompromised adults while Candida parapsilosis is a leading cause of neonatal candidiasis. While much work has focused on how the immune system recognizes and responds to C. albicans, less is known about host interaction with C. parapsilosis. This study investigates the human neutrophil phagocytic response to these species. Neutrophils underwent phagocytosis of C. parapsilosis yeast and C. albicans hyphae much more efficiently than C...
July 2013: Cellular Microbiology
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