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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551942/-prostate-cancer-early-detection-using-psa-current-trends-and-recent-updates
#1
REVIEW
Arnon Lavi, Michael Cohen
Prostate cancer (Pca) is the most common malignancy in men and the second cause of death from cancer. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) assay has been used for Pca screening since the beginning of the 1990's and has brought a 40% reduction in mortality. Since Pca is a diverse disease, early detection can lead to overdetection and overtreatment. Pca treatment has significant adverse effects, namely incontinence and erectile dysfunction. How is it then that a simple and inexpensive test that probably caused the most significant reduction in mortality from cancer ever, is regarded to be "not recommended" by some health organizations? Why did the use of PSA testing fall drastically in the US in the last couple of years, while, at the same time, the tendency for diagnosis of higher risk diseases is noticed through large controlled studies, showing the efficacy of PSA testing in mortality reduction? Will PSA serve as a milestone for early detection and mass population screening in general? This review will deal with aspects of PSA screening and will bring the latest updates and dilemmas concerning this evolving topic...
March 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551930/-laboratory-tests-and-radiological-imaging-diagnostic-tools-that-share-information-and-can-be-functionally-integrated
#2
Michael Mayer
In spite of apparent disparity between the specialties of radiological imaging, pathology and laboratory analysis, the medical diagnostic information that these sources provide have a lot in common and can be effectively utilized by sharing quantitative and qualitative results through modern information technology processes. Informaticsbased integration of radiological imaging, digital images of anatomical and molecular pathology and clinical laboratory results enables earlier, more sensitive and precise diagnosis, resulting in the more efficient treatment of patients...
March 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551907/-the-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hypothyroidism
#3
REVIEW
Amir Bashkin, Marina Nodelman
Hypothyroidism is the most frequent endocrinologic disorder after diabetes. It is caused by the insufficient production of thyroid hormones Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). T4 is the main hormone that is accumulated in the thyroid gland, while T3 is the active hormone that is produced from T4 in the peripheral tissues. More than 99% of the patients have primary hypothyroidism which is due to thyroid disorder mainly Hashimoto's thyroiditis or iatrogenic. Hypothyroidism is divided into sub-clinical when T4 is in the normal range and overt when it is low and usually the TSH level is higher than 10 mIU\L...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551901/-the-role-of-the-plant-artemisia-in-survival-and-induction-of-apoptosis-of-b-cells-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cll
#4
Vita Mirkin, Alain Berrebi, Igor Rakhman, Michal Haran, Lev Shvidel
BACKGROUND: The cytotoxic effect of plants such as green tea and turmeric (curcumin) on B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells has been established. The plant Artemisia has been used in China for anti-cancer and anti-malaria applications. In Israel, Artemisia absinthium ("the Chiba") is used to release abdominal pain. In attempts to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of this plant in CLL cells, we prepared a decoction of Artemisia leaves and after filtration used it as an inducer of apoptosis of B CLL cells...
February 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551892/-integrative-medicine-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#5
Tamar Tadmor
Chronic lymphatic leukemia is the most common leukemia in the western world. In recent years, new drugs and more effective therapy have been developed, allowing for better outcomes for symptomatic patients. In contrast, patients without evidence of active disease do not require therapy, but there is a need to identify a means of intervention that could prevent progression of their disease, with minimum exposure to any side effects. Herbs, supplements or vitamins have been tested as possible therapeutic intervention for these patients and the available results are summarized in this article...
February 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551857/efficient-enzymatic-degradation-used-as-pre-stage-treatment-for-norfloxacin-removal-by-activated-sludge
#6
Ruinan Zhao, Xiaohong Li, Mancheng Hu, Shuni Li, Quanguo Zhai, Yucheng Jiang
Norfloxacin is often found in wastewater treatment plants, groundwater, and even drinking water causing environmental concerns because of its potential undesirable effects on human health or aquatic ecosystems. However, conventional treatments cannot deal with norfloxacin efficiently. This work proposes an efficiently enzymatic degradation of norfloxacin by chloroperoxidase (CPO). 82.18% degradation efficiency of norfloxacin was achieved after 25 min reaction time at pH 5.0 with an enzyme concentration of 1...
May 27, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551773/should-physicians-tell-the-truth-without-taking-social-complications-into-account-a-striking-case
#7
Ercan Avci
The principle of respect for autonomy requires informing patients adequately and appropriately about diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses. However, some clinical cases may cause ethical dilemmas regarding telling the truth. Under the existence especially of certain cultural, social, and religious circumstances, disclosing all the relevant information to all pertinent parties might create harmful effects. Even though the virtue of telling the truth is unquestionable, sometimes de facto conditions compel physicians to act paternalistically to protect the patient/patients from imminent dangers...
May 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551743/effects-of-deltamethrin-on-striatum-and-hippocampus-mitochondrial-integrity-and-the-protective-role-of-quercetin-in-rats
#8
Salim Gasmi, Rachid Rouabhi, Mohamed Kebieche, Samira Boussekine, Aya Salmi, Nadjiba Toualbia, Chahinez Taib, Zina Bouteraa, Hajer Chenikher, Sara Henine, Belgacem Djabri
The present work is to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by pyrethroid insecticide "Deltamethrin" at 0.32 mg/kg/day in two main regions of the Wistar rat brain (hippocampus and striatum) and the protective effects of Quercetin at 10 mg/kg/day on this toxicity after 90 days of exposure. The assay of brain parameters showed that Deltamethrin caused a significant increase of mitochondrial metabolite level (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) and enzyme activity (glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase); a decreased amount of mitochondrial glutathione level and catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; and an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) acid levels of the two regions...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551724/the-rate-of-adherence-to-urate-lowering-therapy-and-associated-factors-in-chinese-gout-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Rulan Yin, Haixia Cao, Ting Fu, Qiuxiang Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Liren Li, Zhifeng Gu
The aim of this study was to assess adherence rate and predictors of non-adherence with urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in Chinese gout patients. A cross-sectional study was administered to 125 gout patients using the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology (CQR) for adherence to ULT. Patients were asked to complete the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication version II, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Confidence in Gout Treatment Questionnaire, Gout Knowledge Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey...
May 27, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551715/direct-comparison-of-the-acute-subjective-emotional-autonomic-and-endocrine-effects-of-mdma-methylphenidate-and-modafinil-in-healthy-subjects
#10
Patrick C Dolder, Felix Müller, Yasmin Schmid, Stefan J Borgwardt, Matthias E Liechti
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is used recreationally and investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Methylphenidate and modafinil are psychostimulants that are used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, respectively, but they are also misused as cognitive enhancers. Little is known about differences in the acute effects of equally cardiostimulant doses of these stimulant-type substances compared directly within the same subjects. METHODS: We investigated the acute autonomic, subjective, endocrine, and emotional effects of single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), modafinil (600 mg), and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over study in 24 healthy participants...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551714/cue-avoidance-training-and-inhibitory-control-training-for-the-reduction-of-alcohol-consumption-a-comparison-of-effectiveness-and-investigation-of-their-mechanisms-of-action
#11
Lisa C G Di Lemma, Matt Field
RATIONALE: Both cue avoidance training (CAT) and inhibitory control training (ICT) reduce alcohol consumption in the laboratory. However, these interventions have never been directly compared and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We compared the effects of both types of training on alcohol consumption and investigated if they led to theoretically predicted changes in alcohol avoidance (CAT) or alcohol inhibition (ICT) associations and changes in evaluation of alcohol cues...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551711/why-are-most-phospholipidosis-inducers-also-herg-blockers
#12
Svetoslav Slavov, Iva Stoyanova-Slavova, Shuaizhang Li, Jinghua Zhao, Ruili Huang, Menghang Xia, Richard Beger
Recent reports have noted that a number of compounds that block the human Ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) ion channel also induce phospholipidosis (PLD). To explore a hypothesis explaining why most PLD inducers are also hERG inhibitors, a modeling approach was undertaken with data sets comprised of 4096 compounds assayed for hERG inhibition and 5490 compounds assayed for PLD induction. To eliminate the chemical domain effect, a filtered data set of 567 compounds tested in quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format for both hERG inhibition and PLD induction was constructed...
May 27, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551699/the-role-of-somatostatin-in-glp-1-induced-inhibition-of-glucagon-secretion-in-mice
#13
Anne Ørgaard, Jens J Holst
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their main mechanism of action is enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (from increased beta cell glucose sensitivity) and inhibition of glucagon secretion. The latter has been demonstrated to account for about half of their blood glucose-lowering activity. Whereas the effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion is clearly dependent on ambient glucose concentrations and has been described in detail, the mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion is heavily debated...
May 27, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551698/glucose-metabolism-during-rotational-shift-work-in-healthcare-workers
#14
Anu Sharma, Marcello C Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Ron T Varghese, Claudio Cobelli, Robert A Rizza, Aleksey Matveyenko, Adrian Vella
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Shift-work is associated with circadian rhythm disruption and an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to determine the effect of rotational shift-work on glucose metabolism in humans. METHODS: We studied 12 otherwise healthy nurses performing rotational shift-work using a randomised crossover study design. On each occasion, participants underwent an isotope-labelled mixed meal test during a simulated day shift and a simulated night shift, enabling simultaneous measurement of glucose flux and beta cell function using the oral minimal model...
May 27, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551692/when-do-paediatric-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-need-statin-therapy
#15
Matylda Hennig, Agnieszka Brandt, Joanna Bautembach-Minkowska, Dominik Świętoń, Agnieszka Mickiewicz, Magdalenia Chmara, Bartosz Wasąg, Ewa Kamińska, Anna Balcerska, Janusz Limon, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Marcin Gruchała, Małgorzata Myśliwiec
INTRODUCTION: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders. It is characterized by elevated LDL cholesterol levels occurring already by early childhood. Awareness of health risks in FH patients should incite health professionals to actively seek and treat children with lipid disorders to reduce their risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of taking into account the following parameters: ApoB/ApoA index, IMT and e-tracking examination, when initiating statin therapy in FH patients...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551659/chronic-periodontitis-does-not-impact-serum-levels-of-prostate-specific-antigen
#16
Stephan Kruck, Jörg Hennenlotter, Bastian Amend, Maya Geiger, Elitsa Filipova, Tim Neumann, Viktoria Stühler, Tina Schubert, Tilman Todenhöfer, Steffen Rausch, Fabian Huettig, Arnulf Stenzl, Jens Bedke
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic periodontitis (CP) has already been associated with altered PSA values in men undergoing biopsy. This study addressed the impact of CP treatment on PSA screening. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two asymptomatic men presenting for CP treatment were prospectively enrolled. Total (t)PSA, free (f)PSA and %PSA were determined (n=47) before and after therapy. Pre- and post-therapy values were correlated pairwise regarding patients and dental characteristics...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551591/evidence-that-anhedonia-is-a-symptom-of-opioid-dependence-associated-with-recent-use
#17
Joshua B B Garfield, Sue M Cotton, Nicholas B Allen, Ali Cheetham, Marni Kras, Murat Yücel, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is prevalent among substance-dependent populations. The hedonic allostasis model suggests this is due to the effects of addictive substances on neural substrates of reward processing. However, previous research may have been confounded by other factors likely to influence anhedonia, including tobacco use, psychopathology, and history of trauma and other stressors. Thus it remains unclear whether elevated anhedonia in substance-dependent populations is caused by substance use itself, or is due to other correlates of substance dependence...
May 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551590/higher-pretreatment-blood-pressure-is-associated-with-greater-alcohol-drinking-reduction-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-treated-with-doxazosin
#18
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Kimberly Goodyear, William H Zywiak, Molly Magill, Sarah E Eltinge, Paul M Wallace, Victoria M Long, Nitya Jayaram-Lindström, Robert M Swift, George A Kenna, Lorenzo Leggio
BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical research suggest that the α1 receptor antagonist prazosin reduces alcohol consumption. Furthermore, clinical studies indicate a role for prazosin in treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and a recent trial suggested that pre-treatment blood pressure (BP) predicts therapeutic response for prazosin in PTSD patients. Whether pre-treatment BP may predict response to α1 blockers in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients is unknown. We previously reported a randomized controlled trial (RCT) where doxazosin, an α1 receptor antagonist with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than prazosin, reduced drinks per week (DPW) and heavy drinking days (HDD) in AD patients with a high family history density of alcoholism...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551585/lethal-and-sub-lethal-evaluation-of-indigo-carmine-dye-and-byproducts-after-tio2-photocatalysis-in-the-immune-system-of-eisenia-andrei-earthworms
#19
Patrícia Christina Genázio Pereira, Roberta Valoura Reimão, Thelma Pavesi, Enrico Mendes Saggioro, Josino Costa Moreira, Fábio Veríssimo Correia
The Indigo carmine (IC) dye has been widely used in textile industries, even though it has been considered toxic for rats, pigs and humans. Owing to its toxicity, wastes containing this compound should be treated to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the biota. As an alternative to wastewater treatment, advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) have been highlighted due to their high capacity to destruct organic molecules. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate Indigo Carmine toxicity to soil organisms using the earthworm Eisenia andrei as a model-organism and also verify the efficiency of AOP in reducing its toxicity to these organisms...
May 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551578/toxicity-of-organic-uv-filters-to-the-aquatic-midge-chironomus-riparius
#20
Diana Campos, Carlos Gravato, Carla Quintaneiro, Oksana Golovko, Vladimír Žlábek, Amadeu M V M Soares, João L T Pestana
Despite the frequent detection of organic ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters) in freshwater sediments, there is a lack of ecotoxicological data undermining a correct risk assessment for these emerging contaminants. The present study assessed the effects of three of the most commonly used UV-filters (benzophenone-3 - BP3; 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor - 4-MBC and octocrylene - OC) on Chironomus riparius life history and biochemical responses. Standard ecotoxicological assays confirmed that all compounds impaired growth of C...
May 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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