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Pediatric neuro-oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889022/advanced-mr-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-clinical-applications
#1
REVIEW
Maarten Lequin, Jeroen Hendrikse
Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864705/the-clinical-and-financial-impact-of-a-pediatric-surgical-neuro-oncology-clinical-trial
#2
Eric M Thompson, Sridharan Gururangan, Gerald Grant, Duane Mitchell, John H Sampson
Pediatric surgical trials are rare and the impact of such trials on the institutions in which they are conducted is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and financial impact of The Re-MATCH trial, a Phase I clinical trial requiring the biopsy or resection of recurrent medulloblastoma or PNET for enrollment. Inpatient financial and clinical volume information was collected during the 3 years of trial enrollment and the years preceding and following it. The primary endpoints were the difference in direct contribution margin (DCM), or net gain, of study and non-study patients and the difference in surgical volume during the study and non-study periods...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817916/orbital-periorbital-plexiform-neurofibromas-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-multidisciplinary-recommendations-for-care
#3
Robert A Avery, James A Katowitz, Michael J Fisher, Gena Heidary, Eva Dombi, Roger J Packer, Brigitte C Widemann
TOPIC: Children and adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant condition, manifest a variety of ophthalmologic conditions. Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) involving the eyelid, orbit, periorbital, and facial structures (orbital-periorbital plexiform neurofibroma [OPPN]) can result in significant visual loss in children. Equally important, OPPNs can cause significant alteration in physical appearance secondary to proptosis, ptosis, and facial disfigurement, leading to social embarrassment and decreased self-esteem...
November 3, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742111/response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-criteria-and-clinical-endpoints
#4
Raymond Y Huang, Patrick Y Wen
The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group is an international multidisciplinary group whose goal is to improve response criteria and define endpoints for neuro-oncology trials. The RANO criteria for high-grade gliomas attempt to address the issues of pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression. Incorporation of advanced MR imaging may eventually help improve the ability of these criteria to define enhancing and nonenhancing disease better. The RANO group has also developed criteria for neurologic response and evaluation of patients receiving immunologic therapies...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659837/mri-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas-in-children-a-case-series-review-description-of-the-current-technologies-and-perspectives
#5
Zulma Tovar-Spinoza, Hoon Choi
BACKGROUND: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) account for approximately half of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. The low-grade gliomas' first line of treatment is gross total resection. However, when gross total resection is not possible, options for adjuvant therapy are limited. MRI-guided laser ablation (magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT)) offers a new option for treatment in selected cases. We present a description of the current MRgLITT technology and an exemplary case-series review of our experience in its use in LGGs...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616346/clinical-trials-in-pediatric-neuro-oncology-what-is-missing-and-how-we-can-improve
#6
Lennox Byer, Cassie Kline, Sabine Mueller
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, yet outcomes vary dramatically. High-grade gliomas have dismal outcomes with poor survival. By contrast, low-grade gliomas, have high survival rates, but children suffer from morbidity of tumor burden and therapy-associated side effects. In this article, we discuss how current trial designs often miss the opportunity to include end points beyond tumor response and thus fail to offer complete assessments of therapeutic approaches. Quality of life, neurocognitive function and neurofunctional deficits need to be considered when assessing overall success of a therapy...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593248/clinical-pet-mr-imaging-in-dementia-and-neuro-oncology
#7
REVIEW
Otto M Henriksen, Lisbeth Marner, Ian Law
The introduction of hybrid PET/MRI systems allows simultaneous multimodality image acquisition of high technical quality. This technique is well suited for the brain, and particularly in dementia and neuro-oncology. In routine use combinations of well-established MRI sequences and PET tracers provide the most optimal and clinically valuable protocols. For dementia the [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has merit with a simultaneous four sequence MRI protocol of 20 min supported by supplementary statistical reading tools and quantitative measurements of the hippocampal volume...
October 2016: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554756/pediatric-malignant-germ-cell-tumors-a-comparison-of-the-neuro-oncology-and-solid-tumor-experience
#8
Ashley S Plant, Susan N Chi, Lindsay Frazier
Malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) arise from abnormal migration of primordial germ cells and are histologically identical whether they occur inside or outside the central nervous system (CNS). However, the treatment strategy for GCTs varies greatly depending on the location of the tumor. These differences are in part due to the increased morbidity of surgery in the CNS but may also reflect differential sensitivity of the tumors to chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) or not-yet-understood biologic differences between these tumors...
August 24, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502785/postoperative-surveillance-of-pediatric-cerebellar-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#9
Raphael Alford, Lynn Gargan, Daniel C Bowers, Laura J Klesse, Bradley Weprin, Korgun Koral
The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal frequency and duration of magnetic resonance imaging follow-up in children who had gross totally resected cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas (CPAs). Our hypothesis was that following two MR examinations, separated by at least 3 months, showing no evidence of tumor, gross totally resected CPAs did not recur and no further imaging follow-up was necessary. Retrospective review of Neuro-Oncology database from 1/2000 to 7/2013 yielded 53 patients with CPAs that had preoperative imaging and >2 years post-operative imaging follow-up available...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352283/-strabologic-and-neuro-ophthamologic-aspects-of-childhood-cancer
#10
A Neugebauer, P Herkenrath, F Koerber, T Simon, A Brunn, M Deckert, J Fricke
Pediatric oncology has achieved major progress by continuous optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the interdisciplinary team, the ophthalmologist plays an important role. In the field of strabismus and neuro-ophthalmology clinical symptoms as strabismus, visual loss, anisocoria, visual field defects, and involuntary eye movements may be key indicators of childhood cancer. The appropriate diagnostic workup as well as the diagnostic and therapeutic steps during the course of the disease are important often requiring individually tailored approaches...
July 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249765/exploiting-laboratory-insights-to-improve-outcomes-of-pediatric-central-nervous-system-tumors
#11
Giles W Robinson, Hendrik Witt, Adam Resnick
Over a relatively short period of time, owing to improvements in biotechnology, our ability to identify the molecular mechanisms within pediatric brain tumors has dramatically increased. These findings have reshaped the way that we describe these diseases and have provided insights into how to better treat these often devastating diseases. Although still far from reaching the full therapeutic potential these advancements hold, the impact of these findings is steadily taking hold of pediatric brain tumor management...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228211/further-understanding-of-the-pathology-of-glioma-implications-for-the-clinic
#12
Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Santosh Kesari
INTRODUCTION: Glioma classification and grading has been historically based in morphologic appearance of tumor cells: astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, oligoastrocytomas and ependymomas. Recent molecular advances have transformed the field of neuro-oncology, as some molecular markers harbor diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. AREAS COVERED: In this paper we will review the major molecular changes associated with gliomas and their implications in diagnosis, prognosis, and opportunities in therapeutics...
September 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219108/second-opinion-interpretations-of-neuroimaging-studies-by-oncologic-neuroradiologists-can-help-reduce-errors-in-cancer-care
#13
Vaios Hatzoglou, Antonio M Omuro, Sofia Haque, Yasmin Khakoo, Ian Ganly, Jung Hun Oh, Amita Shukla-Dave, Robin Fatovic, Joshua Gaal, Andrei I Holodny
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility and clinical impact of second-opinion interpretations of outside neuroimaging studies by oncologic neuroradiologists at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of initial outside and second-opinion radiology reports from 300 computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies and identified cases with discrepancies between the two reports...
September 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188672/pediatric-neuro-oncology-time-to-go-molecular
#14
COMMENT
Oren J Becher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188671/applications-of-genomic-sequencing-in-pediatric-cns-tumors
#15
REVIEW
Abhishek A Bavle, Frank Y Lin, D Williams Parsons
Recent advances in genome-scale sequencing methods have resulted in a significant increase in our understanding of the biology of human cancers. When applied to pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors, these remarkable technological breakthroughs have facilitated the molecular characterization of multiple tumor types, provided new insights into the genetic basis of these cancers, and prompted innovative strategies that are changing the management paradigm in pediatric neuro-oncology. Genomic tests have begun to affect medical decision making in a number of ways, from delineating histopathologically similar tumor types into distinct molecular subgroups that correlate with clinical characteristics, to guiding the addition of novel therapeutic agents for patients with high-risk or poor-prognosis tumors, or alternatively, reducing treatment intensity for those with a favorable prognosis...
May 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127006/response-assessment-in-pediatric-neuro-oncology-implementation-and-expansion-of-the-rano-criteria-in-a-randomized-phase-ii-trial-of-pediatric-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-high-grade-gliomas
#16
T Jaspan, P S Morgan, M Warmuth-Metz, E Sanchez Aliaga, D Warren, R Calmon, J Grill, D Hargrave, J Garcia, G Zahlmann
Determination of tumor response to treatment in neuro-oncology is challenging, particularly when antiangiogenic agents are considered. Nontumoral factors (eg, blood-brain barrier disruption, edema, and necrosis) can alter contrast enhancement independent of true tumor response/progression. Furthermore, gliomas are often infiltrative, with nonenhancing components. In adults, the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria attempted to address these issues. No such guidelines exist yet for children...
September 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948357/complications-from-radiotherapy
#17
Frédéric Dhermain, Igor J Barani
Radiotherapy (RT) of the brain is associated with significant stigma in the neuro-oncology community. This is primarily because of the potentially severe complications with which it may be associated. These complications, especially in subacute and latent settings, are often unpredictable, potentially progressive, and irreversible. The onset of complications may start from the first fraction of 2 Gy, continuing over several months after end of RT with persistent drowsiness and apathy. It may also extend over many years with progressive onset of neurocognitive impairments such as memory decline, and diminished focus/attention...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801774/rare-primary-central-nervous-system-tumors-encountered-in-pediatrics
#18
Kim Kramer
As part of the special issue on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology, this article will focus on 4 of the rarer tumors in this spectrum, including atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes, choroid plexus tumors, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. Incidence and current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors are discussed, and avenues of therapy both current and prospective are explored.
October 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715299/single-pediatric-neuro-oncology-center-may-make-difference-in-low-middle-income-countries
#19
LETTER
Mohamed S Zaghloul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26451963/standard-of-care-for-neuropsychological-monitoring-in-pediatric-neuro-oncology-lessons-from-the-children-s-oncology-group-cog
#20
REVIEW
Karin S Walsh, Robert B Noll, Robert D Annett, Sunita K Patel, Andrea F Patenaude, Leanne Embry
As the mortality of pediatric cancers has decreased, focus on neuropsychological morbidities of treatment sequelae have increased. Neuropsychological evaluations are essential diagnostic tools that assess cognitive functioning and neurobiological integrity. These tests provide vital information to support ongoing medical care, documenting cognitive morbidity and response to interventions. We frame standards for neuropsychological monitoring of pediatric patients with CNS malignancy or who received cancer-directed therapies involving the CNS and discuss billing for these services in the United States in the context of clinical research...
February 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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