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Tina Sehm, Manfred Rauh, Kurt Wiendieck, Michael Buchfelder, IIker Y Eyüpoglu, Nicolai E Savaskan
The glutamate exchanger xCT (SLC7a11) is causally linked with the malignancy grade of brain tumors and represents a key player in glutamate, cystine and glutathione metabolism. Although blocking xCT is not cytotoxic for brain tumors, xCT inhibition disrupts the neurodegenerative and microenvironment-toxifying activity of gliomas. Here, we report on the use of various xCT inhibitors as single modal drugs and in combination with the autophagy-inducing standard chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (Temodal/Temcad®, TMZ)...
September 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Shinichi Urano, Toshiaki Ohara, Kazuhiro Noma, Ryoichi Katsube, Takayuki Ninomiya, Yasuko Tomono, Hiroshi Tazawa, Shunsuke Kagawa, Yasuhiro Shirakawa, Fumiaki Kimura, Kazuhiro Nouso, Akihiro Matsukawa, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
ABSTACT Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to have a poor prognosis. Sorafenib, a molecular targeted drug, is most commonly used for HCC treatment. However, its effect on HCC is limited in clinical use and therefore new strategies regarding sorafenib treatment are required. Iron overload is known to be associated with progression of chronic hepatitis and increased risk of HCC. We previously reported that iron depletion inhibited cancer cell proliferation and conversely induced angiogenesis. Indeed iron depletion therapy including iron chelator needs to be combined with anti-angiogenic drug for its anti-cancer effect...
June 2, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
(no author information available yet)
Radiological progression was delayed by 5 months in one trial, but its design does not allow reliable analysis of survival. Numerous, sometimes serious, adverse effects occurred.
February 2016: Prescrire International
Chengyu Liu, Zhen Chen, Yuejie Chen, Jia Lu, Yuan Li, Shujing Wang, Guoliang Wu, Feng Qian
Sorafenib is a clinically important oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of various cancers. However, the oral bioavailability of sorafenib tablet (Nexavar) is merely 38-49% relative to the oral solution, due to the low aqueous solubility of sorafenib and its relatively high daily dose. It is desirable to improve the oral bioavailability of sorafenib to expand the therapeutic window, reduce the drug resistance, and enhance patient compliance. In this study, we observed that the solubility of sorafenib could be increased ∼50-fold in the coexistence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate) (PVP-VA) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), due to the formation of PVP-VA/SLS complexes at a lower critical aggregation concentration...
February 1, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
R Mandal, S Becker, K Strebhardt
The RAS-RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway is a key signal transduction pathway in the cells. Critically, it remains constitutively active in approximately 30% of human cancers, having key roles in cancer development, maintenance and progression, while being responsible for poorer prognosis and drug resistance. Consequently, the inhibition of this pathway has been the subject of intense research for >25 years. The advent of better patient screening techniques has increasingly shown that upstream regulators like RAS and RAF remain persistently mutated in many cancer types...
May 19, 2016: Oncogene
Min-Seok Seo, Ja-Kyung Kim, Jae-Yong Shim
We report a case of regression of multiple pulmonary metastases, which originated from hepatocellular carcinoma after treatment with intravenous administration of high-dose vitamin C. A 74-year-old woman presented to the clinic for her cancer-related symptoms such as general weakness and anorexia. After undergoing initial transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), local recurrence with multiple pulmonary metastases was found. She refused further conventional therapy, including sorafenib tosylate (Nexavar). She did receive high doses of vitamin C (70 g), which were administered into a peripheral vein twice a week for 10 months, and multiple pulmonary metastases were observed to have completely regressed...
September 2015: Yonsei Medical Journal
Abdou Saad El-Tabl, Moshira Mohamed Abd El-Waheed, Mohammed Ahmed Wahba, Nahla Abd El-Halim Abou El-Fadl
Novel metal(II) complexes derived from 2-hydroxy-N'-((Z)-3-(hydroxyimino)-4-oxopentan-2-ylidene)benzohydrazide ligand (H2L) were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses (DTA and TGA), IR, UV-VIS, (1)H-NMR, ESR and mass spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibilities, and conductivities measurements. The complexes adopt distorted octahedral geometry. The ESR spectra of the solid copper(II) complexes are characteristic to d(9) configuration and have an axial symmetry type of a d(x (2)-y (2)) ground state...
2015: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
A Corrado, S M Ferrari, U Politti, V Mazzi, M Miccoli, G Materazzi, A Antonelli, S Ulisse, P Fallahi, P Miccoli
Sorafenib (Nexavar), is a multikinase inhibitor, which has demonstrated both anti proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the activity of targets present in the tumoral cells [c-RAF (proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase), BRAF, (V600E)BRAF, c-KIT, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3] and in tumor vessels [c-RAF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, VEGFR-3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β]. Sorafenib was initially approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma...
June 26, 2015: Minerva Endocrinologica
Caroline J Breitbach, Anne Moon, James Burke, Tae-Ho Hwang, David H Kirn
Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma; HCC) in patients not eligible for surgery or transplant is currently treated by locoregional therapeutic approaches, including trans-arterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation. Sorafenib (Nexavar; Bayer/Onyx) is currently the only approved systemic therapy for patients having failed locoregional interventions. Oncolytic viruses are designed to selectively replicate within, and subsequently lyse, cancer cells by a unique mechanisms-of-action that is not cross-resistant with approved therapies (Kirn et al...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jane L Roberts, Mehrad Tavallai, Aida Nourbakhsh, Abigail Fidanza, Tanya Cruz-Luna, Elizabeth Smith, Paul Siembida, Pascale Plamondon, Kelly A Cycon, Christopher D Doern, Laurence Booth, Paul Dent
Prior tumor cell studies have shown that the drugs sorafenib (Nexavar) and regorafenib (Stivarga) reduce expression of the chaperone GRP78. Sorafenib/regorafenib and the multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib (Votrient) interacted with sildenafil (Viagra) to further rapidly reduce GRP78 levels in eukaryotes and as single agents to reduce Dna K levels in prokaryotes. Similar data were obtained in tumor cells in vitro and in drug-treated mice for: HSP70, mitochondrial HSP70, HSP60, HSP56, HSP40, HSP10, and cyclophilin A...
October 2015: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hannah A Blair, Greg L Plosker
Sorafenib (Nexavar®) is the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor to be approved for the treatment of radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). In the pivotal phase III DECISION trial in patients with RAI-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic DTC, oral sorafenib 400 mg twice daily significantly prolonged median progression-free survival (PFS) relative to placebo. The PFS benefit of sorafenib over placebo was evident in all pre-specified clinical and genetic biomarker subgroups, and neither BRAF nor RAS mutation status was predictive of sorafenib benefit for PFS...
March 2015: Targeted Oncology
Mehrad Tavallai, Hossein A Hamed, Jane L Roberts, Nichola Cruickshanks, John Chuckalovcak, Andrew Poklepovic, Laurence Booth, Paul Dent
We determined whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over-expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs...
September 2015: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jolanta Krajewska, Daria Handkiewicz-Junak, Barbara Jarzab
INTRODUCTION: Sorafenib (Nexavar) is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor targeting B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) (both wild type and BRAF(V600E)), VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ and RET (also RET/PTC) influencing both differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cell proliferation and angiogenesis. AREAS COVERED: Encouraging results achieved in numerous Phase II trials were confirmed in a Phase III study conducted in radioiodine-refractory DTC. Sorafenib compared to placebo significantly prolongs progression-free survival, 10...
March 2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Aaron T Wecksler, Sung Hee Hwang, Jun-Yan Liu, Hiromi I Wettersten, Christophe Morisseau, Jian Wu, Robert H Weiss, Bruce D Hammock
Sorafenib (Nexavar®) is currently the only FDA-approved small molecule targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of structural analogues and derivatives of sorafenib has enabled the elucidation of critical targets and mechanism(s) of cell death for human cancer lines. We previously performed a structure-activity relationship study on a series of sorafenib analogues designed to investigate the inhibition overlap between the major targets of sorafenib Raf-1 kinase and VEGFR-2, and an enzyme shown to be a potent off-target of sorafenib, soluble epoxide hydrolase...
January 2015: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Jolanta Krajewska, Barbara Jarzab
INTRODUCTION: New therapeutic options for both differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) have opened up during the past few years, as the key role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of thyroid carcinoma has been proved. Recently, two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting VEGFR vandetanib (Caprelsa) and cabozantinib (Cometriq) have been approved for advanced MTC, whereas, sorafenib (Nexavar) has been accepted to treat late-stage of DTC. Their efficacy was demonstrated in Phase III studies, compared to placebo; each of them significantly prolonged the progression-free survival...
December 2014: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Zofia F Bielecka, Anna M Czarnecka, Wojciech Solarek, Anna Kornakiewicz, Cezary Szczylik
Clear - cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a histological subtype of renal cell carcinoma - the most prevalent adult kidney cancer. Causes of ccRCC are not completely understood and therefore number of available therapies is limited. As a consequence of tumor chemo- and radioresistance as well as restrictions in offered targeted therapies, overall response rate is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, a significant group of patients (circa 1/4) does not respond to the targeted first-line treatment, while in other cases, after an initial period of stable improvement, disease progression occurs...
December 2014: Current Signal Transduction Therapy
Sunnie Kim, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
Since the approval of the multityrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sorafenib (Nexavar, Bayer and Onyx) as the standard of care for intermediate to advanced stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there has been considerable interest in developing more potent TKIs to improve morbidity and mortality for patients with HCC. Much of the research on TKIs targets pathways implicated in angiogenesis, given that HCC is a highly vascularized cancer type. It was theorized that the efficacy of sorafenib is primarily attributable to its angiogenesis targets-namely, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, FLT-3, and RAF kinases...
January 2014: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Sumanta K Pal, Adriana Hu, Mark Chang, Robert A Figlin
The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has evolved markedly over the past decade, broaden- ing beyond immune-based strategies (eg, interleukin-2 and interferon-α) to include targeted agents (eg, sunitinib [Sutent, Pfizer] and sorafenib [Nexavar, Bayer]). Recently, there has been a renewed interest in immune-based strategies, with clinical trials underway to assess vaccines and other immunomodulatory agents. Of particular interest are agents that inhibit the interaction between the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligand (PD-L1) at the T-cell/antigen-presenting cell interface...
February 2014: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Yen Lin Kuo, Yen Kuang Yang, Hsiu-Chi Cheng, Chia Jui Yen, Po See Chen
The Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK cascade is important in the intra-cellular transduction of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamate. Sorafenib (Nexavar), a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting Raf kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor, has shown promising results in the treatment of malignancies. BAY86-9766, a novel selective MEK 1/2 inhibitor, is being evaluated in clinical trials as an anticancer drug...
July 2014: General Hospital Psychiatry
Ya-Jen Chang, Wei-Hsin Hsu, Chih-Hsien Chang, Keng-Li Lan, Gann Ting, Te-Wei Lee
Rhenium-188 ((188)Re) displays abundant intermediate energy β emission and possesses a physical half-life of 16.9 h. Sorafenib is an orally available multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf kinases and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Sorafenib has demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity against several types of tumors, such as renal cell and colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of radiotherapeutics of (188)Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib in a C26-luc metastatic colorectal liver tumour mouse model...
May 2014: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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