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Trauma Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230653/suicides-by-jumping-off-istanbul-bridges-linking-asia-and-europe
#1
Ayşe Yurtseven, İbrahim Üzün, Murat Nihat Arslan
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the injury spectrum and characteristics of people who committed suicide by jumping into water from the July 15th Martyrs Bridge and Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridges in Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: This study included all of the jumpers from the July 15th Martyrs Bridge and Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge who were autopsied by the Council of Forensic Medicine, Istanbul Morgue Department, between 2000 and 2013. All of the data were collected from archived case files...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215878/neuroactive-steroids-and-ptsd-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Ann M Rasmusson, Christine E Marx, Suzanne L Pineles, Andrea Locci, Erica R Scioli-Salter, Yael I Nillni, Jennifer J Liang, Graziano Pinna
This review highlights early efforts to translate pre-clinical and clinical findings regarding the role of neuroactive steroids in stress adaptation and PTSD into new therapeutics for PTSD. Numerous studies have demonstrated PTSD-related alterations in resting levels or the reactivity of neuroactive steroids and their targets. These studies also have demonstrated substantial variability in the dysfunction of specific neuroactive steroid systems among PTSD subpopulations. These variabilities have been related to the developmental timing of trauma, severity and type of trauma, genetic background, sex, reproductive state, lifestyle influences such as substance use and exercise, and the presence of comorbid conditions such as depression and chronic pain...
February 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215195/tetanus-a-potential-public-health-threat-in-times-of-disaster
#3
Paige Finkelstein, Laura Teisch, Casey J Allen, Gabriel Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Tetanus is a potentially fatal condition that is rare in urban environments but is seen in developing countries and post-natural-disaster. Therefore, the purpose of this report was to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of tetanus in the trauma patient. METHODS: A thorough literature review was conducted to look for the most current and thorough guidelines on the prophylaxis and treatment of tetanus. PUBMED (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), MEDLINE (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), and Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom) databases were searched for articles in English, published from 2005 to 2015, using the keywords "Tetanus," "Trauma/Surgery," and "Disaster...
February 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214463/bridging-the-gap-in-peripheral-nerve-repair
#4
Donato Perretta, Steven Green
Peripheral nerve injuries following trauma present an ongoing challenge to the hand surgeon. This review presents an overview of the topic with a historical perspective. Nerve anatomy and nerve injury classifications are discussed followed by a description of the biology of nerve regeneration. Methods used to bridge gaps in peripheral nerve repair are discussed in detail with a critical appraisal of the most recent literature. Recommendations for surgical treatment are formulated based on evidence-based medicine...
January 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210364/caudal-edge-of-the-liver-in-the-right-upper-quadrant-ruq-view-is-the-most-sensitive-area-for-free-fluid-on-the-fast-exam
#5
Viveta Lobo, Michelle Hunter-Behrend, Erin Cullnan, Rebecca Higbee, Caleb Phillips, Sarah Williams, Philips Perera, Laleh Gharahbaghian
INTRODUCTION: The focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) exam is a critical diagnostic test for intraperitoneal free fluid (FF). Current teaching is that fluid accumulates first in Morison's pouch. The goal of this study was to evaluate the "sub-quadrants" of traditional FAST views to determine the most sensitive areas for FF accumulation. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all adult trauma patients who had a recorded FAST exam by emergency physicians at a Level I trauma center from January 2012 - June 2013...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207602/spreading-depolarization-monitoring-in-neurocritical-care-of-acute-brain-injury
#6
Jed A Hartings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spreading depolarizations are unique in being discrete pathologic entities that are well characterized experimentally and also occur commonly in patients with substantial acute brain injury. Here, we review essential concepts in depolarization monitoring, highlighting its clinical significance, interpretation, and future potential. RECENT FINDINGS: Cortical lesion development in diverse animal models is mediated by tissue waves of mass spreading depolarization that cause the toxic loss of ion homeostasis and limit energy substrate supply through associated vasoconstriction...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203439/evolutional-trends-in-the-management-of-tracheal-and-bronchial-injuries
#7
REVIEW
Brendan Patrick Madden
Tracheal and Bronchial injuries are potentially life threatening complications which require urgent diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. They typically occur in association with blunt and penetrating chest trauma although they are increasingly being encountered in patients following endobronchial intervention and percutaneous tracheostomy insertion. Their precise incidence is unknown. Presenting features include dyspnoea, stridor, respiratory and haemodynamic compromise, haemoptysis, surgical emphysema, pneumothorax and persistent significant airleak...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191761/angiogenic-potential-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-chondrocyte-brick-enriched-constructs-promoted-stable-regeneration-of-craniofacial-cartilage
#8
Zhiye Li, Ruikai Ba, Zhifa Wang, Jianhua Wei, Yimin Zhao, Wei Wu
Craniofacial deformities caused by congenital defects or trauma remain challenges for clinicians, whereas current surgical interventions present limited therapeutic outcomes. Injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into the defect is highly desirable because such a procedure is microinvasive and grafts are more flexible to fill the lesions. However, preventing hypertrophic transition and morphological contraction remain significant challenges. We have developed an "all host derived" cell transplantation system composed of chondrocyte brick (CB)-enriched platelet-rich plasma (P) gel and BMSCs (B)...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186694/pattern-of-oral-maxillofacial-trauma-from-violence-against-women-and-its-associated-factors
#9
Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega Barbosa, Jéssica Antoniana Lira E Silva, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni, Sérgio d'Avila
BACKGROUND/AIM: Violence against women is a global public health problem. The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of women victims of violence and identify factors associated with maxillofacial injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed based on an evaluation of 884 medico-legal and social records of women victims of physical aggression treated at the Center of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry in Brazil. The variables investigated were related to the socio-demographic characteristics of victims, circumstances of aggressions, and patterns of trauma...
February 10, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185748/validity-of-ultrasound-in-diagnosis-of-tendon-injuries-in-penetrating-extremity-trauma
#10
Narges Mohammadrezaei, Javad Seyedhosseini, Elnaz Vahidi
BACKGROUND: Tendon ruptures are common musculoskeletal injuries all around the world. Correct and timely diagnosis of tendon injuries is obviously important for improving the treatment and minimizing the community costs. Ultrasound is now being considered as one of useful modalities in this area. OBJECTIVE: The preset study is going to validate the diagnostic ability of ultrasound in tendon injuries induced by penetrating extremity trauma. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, patients with penetrating extremity trauma and suspicion of tendon injuries were enrolled in our study...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183741/patterns-of-homicide-in-north-tunisia-a-10-year-study-2005-2014
#11
Mehdi Ben Khelil, Fethia Farhani, Hana Harzallah, Mohamed Allouche, Meriem Gharbaoui, Ahmed Banasr, Anis Benzarti, Moncef Hamdoun
BACKGROUND: In Tunisia and in the Arab world, few data are available about homicide patterns. The aim of our study was to analyse the victims' profiles and the general pattern. METHODS: 636 homicide victims were autopsied at the Legal Medicine Department of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis, over a period of 10 years (2005-2014). RESULTS: Victims were males in 79.7% with a male-to-female ratio of 3.93 and the average age was 37.7 years...
February 9, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181264/promising-directions-for-treating-comorbid-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorder
#12
Sonya B Norman, Jessica L Hamblen
Although trauma focused (TF) psychotherapies are well established as the most effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; e.g., Institute of Medicine, 2007), questions remain about when a patient is "ready" for TF treatment. Providers can be hesitant to initiate TF treatment with patients with comorbidity (Cook et al., in press) and may offer patients non-TF options in place of, or in preparation for, TF psychotherapy (Hamblen et al., 2015). Unfortunately, there is no definitive way to determine readiness and providers may be unnecessarily delaying effective treatment...
February 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180986/what-are-the-differences-in-injury-patterns-of-young-and-elderly-traffic-accident-fatalities-considering-death-on-scene-and-death-in-hospital
#13
Daniela Heinrich, Christopher Holzmann, Anja Wagner, Anja Fischer, Roman Pfeifer, Matthias Graw, Sylvia Schick
Older traffic participants have higher risks of injury than the population up to 65 years in case of comparable road traffic accidents and further, higher mortality rates at comparable injury severities. Rib fractures as risk factors are currently discussed. However, death on scene is associated with hardly survivable injuries and might not be a matter of neither rib fractures nor age. As 60% of traffic accident fatalities are estimated to die on scene, they are not captured in hospital-based trauma registries and injury patterns remain unknown...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179044/translating-battlefield-practices-to-disaster-health
#14
Kandra Strauss-Riggs, Kevin Yeskey, Aubrey Miller, Stacey Arnesen, Craig Goolsby
We review aspects of the recently released National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report A National Trauma Care System: Integrating Military and Civilian Trauma Systems to Achieve Zero Preventable Deaths After Injury most relevant to disaster health, particularly the concepts of focused empiricism and building a learning health system. The article references battlefield success utilizing these concepts and the emerging Disaster Research Response Program. We call upon disaster health researchers to apply the report's recommendations to their work...
February 9, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178913/training-us-health-care-professionals-on-human-trafficking-where-do-we-go-from-here
#15
Clydette Powell, Kirsten Dickins, Hanni Stoklosa
: Some 21 million adults and children are labor-trafficked or sex-trafficked through force, fraud, or coercion. In recognition of the interface between trafficking victims and the healthcare setting, over the last 10 years there has been a notable increase in training of health care professionals (HCPs) on human trafficking (HT) and its health implications. Many organizations have developed curricula and offered training in various clinical settings. However, methods and content of this education on trafficking vary widely, and there is little evaluation of the impact of the training...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166574/adverse-childhood-experiences-survey-of-resident-practice-knowledge-and-attitude
#16
Wendy Tink, Jessica C Tink, Tanvir C Turin, Martina Kelly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) affect 20%-50% of adults and are associated with considerable adult chronic disease, unhealthy behavior, and early mortality. Physicians seldom identify this history although identification can improve health. Low screening rates are attributed to poor physician knowledge of ACEs and barriers to screening, including a lack of confidence to screen and insufficient training. Female physicians and physicians with personal ACE histories report more confidence to screen and fewer time barriers...
January 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165057/a-novel-indication-of-platonin-a-therapeutic-immunomodulating-medicine-on-neuroprotection-against-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#17
Joen-Rong Sheu, Zhih-Cherng Chen, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Duen-Suey Chou, Ting-Lin Yen, Hsing-Ni Lee, Szu-Han Pan, Chih-Hsuan Hsia, Chih-Hao Yang, Cheng-Ying Hsieh
Thrombosis and stroke are major causes of disability and death worldwide. However, the regular antithrombotic drugs may have unsatisfactory results and side effects. Platonin, a cyanine photosensitizing dye, has been used to treat trauma, ulcers and some acute inflammation. Here, we explored the neuroprotective effects of platonin against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in mice. Platonin(200 μg/kg) substantially reduced cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, neuronal cell death and neurological deficit scores, and improved the MCAO-reduced locomotor activity and rotarod performance...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164614/using-circulating-mirnas-as-biomarkers-for-the-evaluation-and-monitoring-of-the-mitochondrial-damage-in-the-critically-ill-polytrauma-patients
#18
REVIEW
Ovidiu H Bedreag, Marius Papurica, Alexandru F Rogobete, Dorel Sandesc, Raluca Dumache, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Lavinia M Bratu, Sonia E Popovici, Laurentiu V Sima
BACKGROUND: The multiple-traumatic critical patient presents a variety of pathophysiological, cellular, and molecular dysfunctions. One of the most important is represented by mitochondrial damage which afterwards is responsible for the augmentation and worsening of a series of pathologies that lead to the worsening of the clinical status of the patient. The severe inflammatory response, sepsis, and the redox imbalance are other pathologies that together with the multiple traumas are responsible for the mitochondrial dysfunctions...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163912/the-benefits-of-youth-are-lost-on-the-young-cardiac-arrest-patient
#19
REVIEW
Brian Griffith, Patrick Kochanek, Cameron Dezfulian
Children and young adults tend to have reduced mortality and disability after acquired brain injuries such as trauma or stroke and across other disease processes seen in critical care medicine. However, after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), outcomes are remarkably similar across age groups. The consistent lack of witnessed arrests and a high incidence of asphyxial or respiratory etiology arrests among pediatric and young adult patients with OHCA account for a substantial portion of the difference in outcomes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163463/it-is-the-cooperation-stupid
#20
Somesh Gupta
The rise of aesthetics in medicine has resulted from society's acknowledgement of the importance of physical beauty. This has led to an emerging conflict between allied specialties. The author introduces the concept of "Aesthetic Socialism" according to which everyone should have an opportunity to enhance or restore the beauty where it is missing or when it is lost due to disease, trauma or ageing. However, there are multiple aspects of aesthetics, which can not be addressed by a single specialty, therefore author recommends interdisciplinary cooperation rather than conflict to achieve aesthetic socialism...
October 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
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