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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914016/ms-ms-assisted-design-of-sequence-controlled-synthetic-polymers-for-improved-reading-of-encoded-information
#1
Laurence Charles, Gianni Cavallo, Valérie Monnier, Laurence Oswald, Roza Szweda, Jean-François Lutz
In order to improve their MS/MS sequencing, structure of sequence-controlled synthetic polymers can be optimized based on considerations regarding their fragmentation behavior in collision-induced dissociation conditions, as demonstrated here for two digitally encoded polymer families. In poly(triazole amide)s, the main dissociation route proceeded via cleavage of the amide bond in each monomer, hence allowing the chains to be safely sequenced. However, a competitive cleavage of an ether bond in a tri(ethylene glycol) spacer placed between each coding moiety complicated MS/MS spectra while not bringing new structural information...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913807/determination-of-a-threshold-compromise-value-for-the-perfusion-index-by-laser-doppler-imaging-after-digital-revascularization
#2
Y-Y Chu, D-Y Yu, C-W Chang, F Fang, H-T Liao
: We have used laser Doppler imaging to monitor the microcirculation of replanted digits during the post-operative period in 103 patients who underwent either replantation after traumatic amputation or toe-to-finger reconstruction. The blood flow (perfusion unit) in each revascularized digit was compared with that of an unaffected digit. The perfusion index was defined as the perfusion value of a revascularized digit divided by the perfusion value of the neighbouring normal digit. The ideal threshold value of the perfusion index (0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913629/investigation-of-imaging-magnification-in-radiostereometric-analysis
#3
Jordan S Broberg, Xunhua Yuan, Matthew G Teeter
Radiostereometric analysis is a highly accurate imaging technique. A recent advance in radiostereometric analysis is the use of flat panel digital radiography, which provides the opportunity for quick analysis using radiostereometric analysis. However, such a setup is expensive. Using large cassettes for small joints could minimize the cost. In this article, we investigated the influence of cassette size for small joint examinations with a biplanar radiostereometric analysis setup. Our results indicated that there is no significant difference in the precision when using large cassettes over small cassettes, whether or not imaging magnification is applied...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913434/a-study-of-tp53-rna-splicing-illustrates-pitfalls-of-rna-seq-methodology
#4
Sunali Mehta, Peter Tsai, Annette Lasham, Hamish Campbell, Roger Reddel, Antony Braithwaite, Cristin Print
TP53 undergoes multiple RNA-splicing events, resulting in at least nine mRNA transcripts encoding at least 12 functionally different protein isoforms. Antibodies specific to p53 protein isoforms have proven difficult to develop, thus researchers must rely on the transcript information to infer isoform abundance. In this study, we used deep RNA-seq, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) from nine human cell lines and RNA-seq data available for tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas to analyze TP53 splice variant expression...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913424/digital-3d-reconstructions-using-histological-serial-sections-of-lung-tissue-including-the-alveolar-capillary-network
#5
Roman Grothausmann, Lars Knudsen, Matthias Ochs, Christian Mühlfeld
The alveolar capillary network (ACN) provides an enormously large surface area that is necessary for pulmonary gas exchange. Changes of the ACN during normal or pathological development or in pulmonary diseases are of great functional impact and warrant further analysis. Due to the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the ACN, 2D approaches are limited in providing a comprehensive impression of the characteristics of the normal ACN or the nature of its alterations. Stereological methods offer a quantitative way to assess the ACN in 3D in terms of capillary volume, surface area or number but lack a 3D visualization to interpret the data...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913372/an-ehealth-project-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-comprehensive-evaluation-of-a-promotional-campaign
#6
Donatella Panatto, Alexander Domnich, Roberto Gasparini, Paolo Bonanni, Giancarlo Icardi, Daniela Amicizia, Lucia Arata, Stefano Carozzo, Alessio Signori, Angela Bechini, Sara Boccalini
BACKGROUND: The recently launched Pneumo Rischio eHealth project, which consists of an app, a website, and social networking activity, is aimed at increasing public awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The launch of this project was prompted by the inadequate awareness of IPD among both laypeople and health care workers, the heavy socioeconomic burden of IPD, and the far from optimal vaccination coverage in Italy, despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of our study were to analyze trends in Pneumo Rischio usage before and after a promotional campaign, to characterize its end users, and to assess its user-rated quality...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913353/embroidered-electromyography-a-systematic-design-guide
#7
Ali Shafti, Roger Ribas Manero, Amanda Borg, Kaspar Althoefer, Matthew Howard
Muscle activity monitoring or Electromyography (EMG) is a useful tool. However, EMG is typically invasive, expensive and difficult to use for untrained users. A possible solution is textile-based surface EMG (sEMG) integrated into clothing as a wearable device. This is, however, challenging due to (i) uncertainties in the electrical properties of conductive threads used for electrodes, (ii) imprecise fabrication technologies (e.g., embroidery, sewing), and (iii) lack of standardization in design variable selection...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913346/automatic-design-of-high-sensitivity-color-filter-arrays-with-panchromatic-pixels
#8
Jia Li, Chenyan Bai, Zhouchen Lin, Jian Yu
In most of existing digital cameras, color images have to be reconstructed from raw images which only have one color sensed at each pixel, as their imaging sensors are covered by color filter arrays (CFAs). At each pixel a CFA usually allows only a portion of the light spectrum to pass through and thereby reduces the light sensitivity of pixels. To address this issue, previous works have explored adding panchromatic pixels into CFAs. However, almost all existing methods assign panchromatic pixels empirically, making the designed CFAs prone to aliasing artifacts...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913337/melanoma-classification-on-dermoscopy-images-using-a-neural-network-ensemble-model
#9
Feng-Ying Xie, Haidi Fan, Li Yang, Zhi-Guo Jiang, Ru-Song Meng, Alan Bovik
We develop a novel method for classifying melanocytic tumors as benign or malignant by the analysis of digital dermoscopy images. The algorithm follows three steps: first, lesions are extracted using a self-generating neural network (SGNN); second, features descriptive of tumor color, texture and border are extracted; and third, lesion objects are classified using a classifier based on a neural network ensemble model. In clinical situations, lesions occur that are too large to be entirely contained within the dermoscopy image...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913238/contemporary-ureteroscopic-management-of-renal-stones
#10
S Proietti, T Knoll, G Giusti
The advancements in the endourological armamentarium and the evolution of ureteroscopes with the advent of fiberoptic first and then digital technology, the introduction of holmium laser lithotripters, together with the increasing number of requests for minimally invasive procedures has ameliorated outcomes, patients' safety and comfort, making the use of flexible ureteroscopy for urinary calculi increasingly attractive and widespread among urological community. Due to its high stone-free rates and low morbidity, flexible ureteroscopy has become a viable option for the treatment of renal stones...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913042/objective-analysis-of-cancer-stem-cell-marker-expression-using-immunohistochemistry
#11
T J Miller, M J McCoy, C Hemmings, M K Bulsara, B Iacopetta, C F Platell
Analysis of immunohistochemical expression is often a subjective and semiquantitative process that can lead to the inconsistent reporting of results. To assess the effect that region selection and quantification method have on results, five different cancer stem cell markers were used in this study to compare tissue scoring with digital analysis methods that used three different tissue annotation methods. Samples of tumour and normal mucosa were used from 10 consecutive stage II colon cancer patients and stained for the putative cancer stem cell markers ALDH1, CD44v6, CD133, Lgr5 and SOX2...
November 29, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912765/rna-seq-based-digital-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-modification-of-host-defense-responses-by-rice-stripe-virus-during-disease-symptom-development-in-arabidopsis
#12
Feng Sun, Peng Fang, Juan Li, Linlin Du, Ying Lan, Tong Zhou, Yongjian Fan, Wenbiao Shen, Yijun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Virus infection induces and suppresses host gene expression on a global level. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type species of the genus Tenuivirus and infects rice and Arabidopsis plants. Microarray-based and next generation sequencing-based transcriptomic approaches have been used to study rice-RSV interactions. However, our knowledge of the response of Arabidopsis plants to RSV infection is limited, and it requires further investigation to determine the similarities (or differences) in virus-host interactions between monocot and dicot hosts infected with RSV...
December 2, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912246/ecoinformatics-big-data-for-agricultural-entomology-pitfalls-progress-and-promise
#13
Jay A Rosenheim, Claudio Gratton
Ecoinformatics, as defined in this review, is the use of preexisting data sets to address questions in ecology. We provide the first review of ecoinformatics methods in agricultural entomology. Ecoinformatics methods have been used to address the full range of questions studied by agricultural entomologists, enabled by the special opportunities associated with data sets, nearly all of which have been observational, that are larger and more diverse and that embrace larger spatial and temporal scales than most experimental studies do...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912173/improved-anticancer-and-antiparasitic-activity-of-new-lawsone-mannich-bases
#14
Katharina Mahal, Aamir Ahmad, Florian Schmitt, Julia Lockhauserbäumer, Kathrin Starz, Rohan Pradhan, Subhash Padhye, Fazlul H Sarkar, Waleed S Koko, Rainer Schobert, Klaus Ersfeld, Bernhard Biersack
Substituted lawsone Mannich bases 2a-e, 3a-e and 4a-e were prepared and tested for their biological activities. The new fatty alkyl substituted compounds 2a-c exhibited strong and selective growth inhibitory activities in the low one-digit micromolar and sub-micromolar range against a panel of human cancer cell lines associated with ROS formation. In addition, compounds 2a-c revealed sub-micromolar anti-trypanosomal activities against parasitic Trypanosoma brucei brucei cells via deformation of the microtubule cytoskeleton...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912010/fecundity-and-the-demographic-strategies-of-coral-morphologies
#15
Mariana Álvarez-Noriega, Andrew H Baird, Maria Dornelas, Joshua S Madin, Vivian R Cumbo, Sean R Connolly
Understanding species differences in demographic strategies is a fundamental goal of ecology. In scleractinian corals, colony morphology is tightly linked with many demographic traits, such as size-specific growth and morality. Here we test how well morphology predicts the colony size-fecundity relationship in eight species of broadcast-spawning corals. Variation in colony fecundity is greater among morphologies than between species with a similar morphology, demonstrating that colony morphology can be used as a quantitative proxy for demographic strategies...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911652/trueness-and-minimal-detectable-change-of-smartphone-inclinometer-measurements-of-shoulder-range-of-motion
#16
Patrick Boissy, Serigne Diop-Fallou, Karina Lebel, Mikael Bernier, Frederic Balg, Yanick Tousignant-Laflamme
BACKGROUND: Digital inclinometer applications using data from embedded sensors on smartphone/multi-purpose pocket computers or "smart digital inclinometers" (SDIs) are now used to clinically assess range of motion (ROM). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess, compared with a biomechanical gold standard (GS), the trueness and minimal detectable change (MDC) of shoulder range of motion (SROM) measurements obtained from an SDI. METHODS: Twenty-five (n = 25) asymptomatic healthy participants performed three trials of shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder abduction (SA), and shoulder external rotation (SER) at full-range and mid-range...
December 2, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911486/extended-mortality-results-for-prostate-cancer-screening-in-the-plco-trial-with-median-follow-up-of-15-years
#17
Paul F Pinsky, Philip C Prorok, Kelly Yu, Barnett S Kramer, Amanda Black, John K Gohagan, E David Crawford, Robert L Grubb, Gerald L Andriole
BACKGROUND: Two large-scale prostate cancer screening trials using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have given conflicting results in terms of the efficacy of such screening. One of those trials, the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, previously reported outcomes with 13 years of follow-up. This study presents updated findings from the PLCO trial. METHODS: The PLCO trial randomized subjects from 1993 to 2001 to an intervention or control arm...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911388/high-throughput-real-time-dual-readout-testing-of-intracellular-antimicrobial-activity-and-eukaryotic-cell-cytotoxicity
#18
Lucius Chiaraviglio, Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911379/rapid-acquisition-of-3d-images-using-high-resolution-episcopic-microscopy
#19
Haochuan Zhang, JunGang Huang, Xin Liu, Ping Zhu, Zhongrong Li, Xue Li
High-resolution episcopic microscopic (HREM) technology enables rapid acquisition of high-resolution digital volumetric and three-dimensional (3D) morphometric data. Here, we describe the detailed protocol to image the entire mouse embryo. The protocol consists of four major sections: sample preparation, embedding, image acquisition and finally, 3D visualization. The technology requires specimens to be stained with a fluorescent dye, which can be problematic for large or dense specimens. To overcome this limitation, we have improved the existing protocol to enhance tissue penetration of the dye by pretreating the specimen with a solution containing urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911378/iridium-oxide-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanohybrid-thin-film-modified-screen-printed-electrodes-as-disposable-electrochemical-paper-microfluidic-ph-sensors
#20
Jiang Yang, Tae-Joon Kwak, Xiaodong Zhang, Robert McClain, Woo-Jin Chang, Sundaram Gunasekaran
A facile, controllable, inexpensive and green electrochemical synthesis of IrO2-graphene nanohybrid thin films is developed to fabricate an easy-to-use integrated paper microfluidic electrochemical pH sensor for resource-limited settings. Taking advantages from both pH meters and strips, the pH sensing platform is composed of hydrophobic barrier-patterned paper micropad (µPAD) using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), screen-printed electrode (SPE) modified with IrO2-graphene films and molded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic holder...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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