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limbic encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306571/cns-syndromes-associated-with-antibodies-against-metabotropic-receptors
#1
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoantibodies to Central nervous system (CNS) metabotropic receptors are associated with a growing family of autoimmune brain diseases, including encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Ophelia syndrome, and cerebellitis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the target receptors, the neurological autoimmune disorders, and the pathogenic mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor are associate with limbic encephalitis and severe seizures, often with small cell lung cancers...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284337/autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis-with-anti-contactin-associated-protein-like-2-antibody-secondary-to-pembrolizumab-therapy
#2
Michael P Brown, Pravin Hissaria, Amy Hc Hsieh, Christopher Kneebone, Wilson Vallat
Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as Pembrolizumab are used to restore antitumour immune response. It is important to be vigilant of immune mediated adverse events related to such therapy. We report a case of autoimmune limbic encephalitis with Contactin-Associated Protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody secondary to Pembrolizumab therapy for metastatic melanoma.
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272206/limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-anti-nh2-terminal-of-%C3%AE-enolase-antibodies-a-clinical-subtype-of-hashimoto-encephalopathy
#3
Toru Kishitani, Akiko Matsunaga, Masamichi Ikawa, Kouji Hayashi, Osamu Yamamura, Tadanori Hamano, Osamu Watanabe, Keiko Tanaka, Yasunari Nakamoto, Makoto Yoneda
Several types of autoantibodies have been reported in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE), such as antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex including leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1). We recently reported a patient with autoimmune LE and serum anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) antibodies, a specific diagnostic marker for Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), who was diagnosed with HE based on the presence of antithyroid antibodies and responsiveness to immunotherapy. This case suggests that LE patients with antibodies to both the thyroid and NAE could be diagnosed with HE and respond to immunotherapy...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268128/mr-imaging-of-adult-acute-infectious-encephalitis
#4
REVIEW
A Bertrand, D Leclercq, L Martinez-Almoyna, N Girard, J-P Stahl, T De-Broucker
BACKGROUND: Imaging is a key tool for the diagnosis of acute encephalitis. Brain CT scan must be urgently performed to rule out a brain lesion with mass effect that would contraindicate lumbar puncture. Brain MRI is less accessible than CT scan, but can provide crucial information with patients presenting with acute encephalitis. METHOD: We performed a literature review on PubMed on April 1, 2015 with the search terms "MRI" and "encephalitis". RESULTS: We first described the various brain MRI abnormalities associated with each pathogen of acute encephalitis (HSV, VZV, other viral agents targeting immunocompromised patients or travelers; tuberculosis, listeriosis, other less frequent bacterial agents)...
March 3, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259863/-review-of-the-psychiatric-aspects-of-anti-nmda-n-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-receptor-encephalitis-case-report-and-our-plans-for-a-future-study
#5
Levente Herman, Ildiko Reka Zsigmond, Laszlo Peter, Janos M Rethelyi
Anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) encephalitis, first described in 2007, is a rare, autoimmune limbic encephalitis. In half of the cases anti-NMDAR antibodies are paraneoplastic manifestations of an underlying tumor (mostly ovarian teratoma). In the early stage of the disease psychiatric symptoms are prominent, therefore 60-70% of the patients are first treated in a psychiatric department. In most of the cases, typical neurological symptoms appear later. Besides the clinical picture and typical symptoms, verifying presence of IgG antibodies in the serum or CSF is necessary to set up the diagnosis...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248701/autoimmune-encephalitis-with-anti-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-or-anti-contactin-associated-protein-like-2-antibodies-formerly-called-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies
#6
Anna E M Bastiaansen, Agnes van Sonderen, Maarten J Titulaer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Twenty years since the discovery of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-related autoimmunity; it is currently known that the antibodies are not directed at the VGKC itself but to two closely associated proteins, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2). Antibodies to LGI1 and Caspr2 give well-described clinical phenotypes. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients mostly have limbic symptoms, and anti-Caspr2 patients have variable syndromes with both central and peripheral symptoms...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223808/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-could-be-a-cause-of-catatonic-symptoms-in-psychiatric-patients-case-reports-and-methods-for-detection
#7
Ko Tsutsui, Takashi Kanbayashi, Manabu Takaki, Yuki Omori, Yumiko Imai, Seiji Nishino, Keiko Tanaka, Tetsuo Shimizu
The symptoms of catatonia have been reported to be similar to the initial symptoms of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Subsequently, this autoimmune limbic encephalitis has been noticed by many psychiatrists. For a differential diagnosis of catatonic state, it is important to detect anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This encephalitis is expected to be in remission by early detection and treatment. We should be more cautious about catatonic symptoms of schizophrenia. When a patient is suspected of having encephalitis, we should screen for anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples using a cell-based assay...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222692/hashimoto-s-encephalitis-associated-with-ampar2-antibodies-a-case-report
#8
Mingqin Zhu, Xuefan Yu, Caiyun Liu, Chenchen Duan, Chunxiao Li, Jie Zhu, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's encephalitis (HE) is a rare neurological complication of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), while limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder frequently associated with anti-neuronal antibodies. The glutamate receptor α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) is important for synaptic transmission, memory, and learning. The etiology of HE remains unclear. We present a case of HE with antibodies to AMPAR2 both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
February 21, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194064/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-patients-with-neurologic-disorders-review-of-63-cases
#9
Anil Tombak, Mehmet Ali Uçar, Aydan Akdeniz, Arda Yilmaz, Hakan Kaleagası, Mehmet Ali Sungur, Eyup Naci Tiftik
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure that reduces circulating autoantibodies of the patients. TPE is commonly used in neurological disorders where autoimmunity plays a major role. We report our experience with regard to the indications, adverse events and outcomes of plasma exchange in neurological disorders. Sixty-three patients were included to this retrospective study. Median age was 48 years (range 1-85), there was a predominance of males. Neurological indications included Guillain-Barrè syndrome (n = 22), myasthenia gravis (n = 21), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 7), polymyositis (n = 3), multifocal motor neuropathy (n = 2), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2), neuromyelitis optica (n = 2), multiple sclerosis (n = 2), limbic encephalitis (n = 1) and transverse myelitis (n = 1)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183838/autoimmune-encephalitis-pathophysiology-and-imaging-review-of-an-overlooked-diagnosis
#10
REVIEW
B P Kelley, S C Patel, H L Marin, J J Corrigan, P D Mitsias, B Griffith
Autoimmune encephalitis is a relatively new category of immune-mediated disease involving the central nervous system that demonstrates a widely variable spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from the relatively mild or insidious onset of cognitive impairment to more complex forms of encephalopathy with refractory seizure. Due to its diverse clinical features, which can mimic a variety of other pathologic processes, autoimmune encephalitis presents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Imaging findings in patients with these disorders can also be quite variable, but recognizing characteristic findings within limbic structures suggestive of autoimmune encephalitis can be a key step in alerting clinicians to the potential diagnosis and ensuring a prompt and appropriate clinical work-up...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150403/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-mature-cystic-teratoma-of-the-fallopian-tube
#11
Yukio Hattori, Yoriko Yamashita, Masayuki Mizuno, Kinue Katano, Mayumi Sugiura-Ogasawara, Noriyuki Matsukawa
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) limbic encephalitis is the most common form of paraneoplastic encephalitis that is associated with teratomas. Because tumor removal leads to better clinical outcomes, it is essential to reveal the location of the teratomas. This is the first reported case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis associated with teratoma of the fallopian tube. Salpingo-oophorectomy improved neurological symptoms and immunohistochemical examinations indicated the expression of NMDAR on neuroglial cells within the fallopian tube teratoma...
February 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115470/intracellular-and-non-neuronal-targets-of-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies
#12
Bethan Lang, Mateusz Makuch, Teresa Moloney, Inga Dettmann, Swantje Mindorf, Christian Probst, Winfried Stoecker, Camilla Buckley, Charles R Newton, M Isabel Leite, Paul Maddison, Lars Komorowski, Jane Adcock, Angela Vincent, Patrick Waters, Sarosh R Irani
OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies against the extracellular domains of the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex proteins, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2), are found in patients with limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, Morvan's syndrome and neuromyotonia. However, in routine testing, VGKC complex antibodies without LGI1 or CASPR2 reactivities (double-negative) are more common than LGI1 or CASPR2 specificities. Therefore, the target(s) and clinical associations of double-negative antibodies need to be determined...
April 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096524/a-case-of-seronegative-limbic-encephalitis-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-possible-overlapping-syndrome
#13
Zerrin Karaaslan, Özlem Mercan, Erdem Tüzün, Handan Mısırlı, Recai Türkoğlu
BACKGROUND Autoimmune encephalitis might coexist in patients with autoimmune demyelinating disorders. CASE REPORT We report on a case of a 45-year-old female multiple sclerosis (MS) patient presenting with acute onset short-term memory loss, altered mental status, inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and an MRI lesion on the left temporal lobe. An extensive panel for neuronal autoantibodies proved negative. Neuropsychological symptoms gave a prompt response to immunotherapy but nevertheless control MRI showed left hippocampal atrophy...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063151/gad65-neurological-autoimmunity
#14
Andrew McKeon, Jennifer A Tracy
The glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-isoform (GAD65) antibody is a biomarker of autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) disorders and, more commonly, non-neurological autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease, and pernicious anemia are the most frequent GAD65 autoimmune associations. One or more of these disorders coexists in approximately 70% of patients with GAD65 neurological autoimmunity. Neurological phenotypes have CNS localization and include limbic encephalitis, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, and stiff-person syndrome (SPS), among others...
January 7, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062719/characteristics-in-limbic-encephalitis-with-anti-adenylate-kinase-5-autoantibodies
#15
Le-Duy Do, Eve Chanson, Virginie Desestret, Bastien Joubert, François Ducray, Sabine Brugière, Yohann Couté, Maité Formaglio, Veronique Rogemond, Catherine Thomas-Antérion, Laura Borrega, Brice Laurens, Francois Tison, Jonathan Curot, Thomas De Brouker, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Jean-Yves Delattre, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jerome Honnorat
OBJECTIVE: To report 10 patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) and adenylate kinase 5 autoantibodies (AK5-Abs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 50 patients with LE with uncharacterized autoantibodies and identified a specific target using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and cell-based assay. RESULTS: AK5 (a known autoantigen of LE) was identified as the target of antibodies in the CSFs and sera of 10 patients with LE (median age 64 years; range 57-80), which was characterized by subacute anterograde amnesia without seizure and sometimes preceded by a prodromal phase of asthenia or mood disturbances...
February 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062718/do-we-need-to-measure-specific-antibodies-in-patients-with-limbic-encephalitis
#16
EDITORIAL
Josep Dalmau, Angela Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026046/anti-lgi1-encephalitis-is-strongly-associated-with-hla-dr7-and-hla-drb4
#17
Agnes van Sonderen, Dave L Roelen, Johannes A Stoop, Robert M Verdijk, Geert W Haasnoot, Roland D Thijs, Paul W Wirtz, Marco W J Schreurs, Frans H J Claas, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Maarten J Titulaer
Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated1 (LGI1) encephalitis is an antibody-associated inflammation of the limbic area. An autoimmune etiology is suspected but not yet proven. We performed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) analysis in 25 nontumor anti-LGI1 patients and discovered a remarkably strong HLA association. HLA-DR7 was present in 88% compared to 19.6% in healthy controls (p = 4.1 × 10(-11) ). HLA-DRB4 was present in all patients and in 46.5% controls (p = 1.19 × 10(-7) ). These findings support the autoimmune hypothesis...
February 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026032/the-major-histocompatibility-complex-and-antibody-mediated-limbic-encephalitis
#18
Olaf Stuve, Steven Vernino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980287/a-case-of-neurosyphilis-presenting-with-limbic-encephalitis
#19
Kazuto Tsukita, Akihiro Shimotake, Mitsuyoshi Nakatani, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Akio Ikeda, Ryosuke Takahashi
A 46-year-old man presented with a history of personality change and memory disturbance for 5 months. He gradually became difficult in doing a daily job. Brain MRI showed abnormal hyperintensity within bilateral mesial temporal lobes on T2 weighted image. Therefore, viral and autoimmune limbic encephalitis was initially suspected. However, because treponemal and non-treponemal specific antibodies were positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the diagnosis of neurosyphilis was made. Patients of neurosyphilis with mesiotemporal T2 weighted hyperintensity reportedly showed common features such as relatively young age, HIV-negative, subacute cognitive impairment and seizure, as seen in our patient...
December 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955671/pro-epileptogenic-effects-of-viral-like-inflammation-in-both-mature-and-immature-brains
#20
Nina Dupuis, Andrey Mazarati, Béatrice Desnous, Vibol Chhor, Bobbi Fleiss, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Sophie Lebon, Zsolt Csaba, Pierre Gressens, Pascal Dournaud, Stéphane Auvin
BACKGROUND: Infectious encephalitides are most often associated with acute seizures during the infection period and are risk factors for the development of epilepsy at later times. Mechanisms of viral encephalitis-induced epileptogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the contribution of viral encephalitis-associated inflammation to ictogenesis and epileptogenesis using a rapid kindling protocol in rats. In addition, we examined whether minocycline can improve outcomes of viral-like brain inflammation...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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