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Bronchiectasis and Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142091/physiological-and-pathophysiological-firing-properties-of-single-postganglionic-sympathetic-neurons-in-humans
#1
Vaughan G Macefield, B Gunnar Wallin
It has long been known from microneurographic recordings in human subjects that activity of postganglionic sympathetic axons occurs as spontaneous bursts, with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) exhibiting strong cardiac rhythmicity via the baroreflex and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) showing much weaker cardiac modulation. Here we review the firing properties of single sympathetic neurons, obtained using highly selective microelectrodes. Individual vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle or skin, or sudomotor neurones supplying sweat glands, always discharge with a low firing probability (~30%) and at very low frequencies (~0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132121/the-therapeutic-potential-of-cftr-modulators-for-copd-and-other-airway-diseases
#2
REVIEW
George M Solomon, Lianwu Fu, Steven M Rowe, James F Collawn
Airways diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is an ongoing unmet need for novel and effective therapies. There is an established pathophysiological link and phenotypic similarity between the chronic bronchitis phenotype of COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF). New evidence suggests that CFTR dysfunction may play a role in other common airways diseases such as COPD, non-atopic asthma and non-CF bronchiectasis. Newly approved and investigational drugs that target both mutant and wild-type CFTR channels have provided a new treatment opportunity addressing the mucus defect in pulmonary diseases that share the same pathophysiology with CF...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128130/spanish-guidelines-on-the-evaluation-and-diagnosis-of-bronchiectasis-in-adults
#3
Miguel Ángel Martínez-García, Luis Máiz, Casilda Olveira, Rosa María Girón, David de la Rosa, Marina Blanco, Rafael Cantón, Montserrat Vendrell, Eva Polverino, Javier de Gracia, Concepción Prados
In 2008, the Spanish Society of Pulmonology (SEPAR) published the first guidelines in the world on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiectasis. Almost 10 years later, considerable scientific advances have been made in both the treatment and the evaluation and diagnosis of this disease, and the original guidelines have been updated to include the latest scientific knowledge on bronchiectasis. These new recommendations have been drafted following a strict methodological process designed to ensure the quality of content, and are linked to a large amount of online information that includes a wealth of references...
November 8, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099023/exacerbations-in-copd-patients-with-bronchiectasis
#4
Jordan Minov, Saso Stoleski, Dragan Mijakoski, Kristin Vasilevska, Aneta Atanasovska
There is evidence that coexisting bronchiectasis (BE) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) aggravates the course of the disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of bacterial exacerbations in COPD patients with BE. The frequency and duration of bacterial exacerbations treated in a 12-month period, as well as the duration of the exacerbation-free interval, were evaluated in 54 patients with COPD (Group D) who were diagnosed and assessed according to official recommendations...
April 11, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063074/evaluation-of-symptoms-and-risks-in-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-with-radiographic-bronchiectasis
#5
Rong-Bao Zhang, Fei Yuan, Xing-Yu Tan, Quan-Ying He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of previously undiagnosed radiographic bronchiectasis in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and to evaluate the effect of radiographic bronchiectasis on the symptoms and risks in stable COPD patients. METHODS: From May 2012 to April 2014, there were 347 patients enrolled in COPD database. Data describing the general conditions, the frequency of acute exacerbations the year before, COPD assessment test, modified medical research council (mMRC) score, spirometric classification, and HRCT were collected...
September 2017: Chronic Dis Transl Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059250/causative-species-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-and-comparative-investigation-on-clinical-features-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-disease-a-retrospective-analysis-for-two-major-hospitals-in-a-subtropical-region-of-japan
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hiroaki Nagano, Takeshi Kinjo, Yuichiro Nei, Shin Yamashiro, Jiro Fujita, Tomoo Kishaba
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease is increasing globally. Although the etiological epidemiology of NTM is different across regions, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the leading cause of NTM lung disease in most countries, including mainland Japan. Okinawa is located in the southernmost region of Japan and is the only prefecture categorized as a subtropical region in Japan, it is therefore likely the etiological epidemiology of NTM lung disease is different from mainland Japan. From 2009 to 2015, the medical records of patients, with respiratory specimens positive for NTMs, visiting or admitted to two Okinawan hospitals, were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055397/vitamin-k-deficit-and-elastolysis-theory-in-pulmonary-elasto-degenerative-diseases
#7
Rob Janssen, Cees Vermeer
Elastin is a unique protein providing deformability and resilience to dynamic tissues, such as arteries and lungs. It is an absolute basic requirement for circulation and respiration. Elastin can be degraded by elastases and has a high calcium affinity. Elastin calcification and elastin degradation are two pathological processes that impair elastin's functioning. Furthermore, elastin degradation can be associated to elastin calcification. Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is probably the most potent natural inhibitor of elastin calcification and requires vitamin K for its activation...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042767/effectiveness-of-treatment-with-nebulized-colistin-in-patients-with-copd
#8
Nuria Bruguera-Avila, Alicia Marin, Ignasi Garcia-Olive, Joaquim Radua, Cristina Prat, Montserrat Gil, Juan Ruiz-Manzano
OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether the introduction of nebulized colistin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with a decrease of the number and duration of severe exacerbations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty six patients with COPD and infection with PA treated with nebulized colistin attending a day hospital during a 5-year (January 2010-December 2014) period were prospectively included...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038903/-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-sputum-recommendations-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
J Rademacher
Pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have increased over the last years and decades in Germany and also worldwide. Because the disease is more frequent in patients with immunodeficiencies and chronic respiratory diseases, e.g. bronchiectasis, advanced chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), an infection with mycobacteria should always be considered in this patient group. The detection in sputum alone is not an indication for treatment but the correct diagnosis should be based on the appropriate clinical symptoms as well as radiological and microbiological criteria...
November 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983645/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-role-of-long-term-antibiotic-treatment
#10
REVIEW
G G U Rohde, T Welte
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is probably associated with increased mortality and morbidity and a faster progress of COPD, although this has not been conclusively proven by studies. Studies demonstrating an improvement in prognosis in COPD patients by early eradication of Pseudomonas or at least a reduction of the bacterial burden by either inhaled or oral antibiotic maintenance therapy, are missing. An impact on the exacerbation rate has only been shown for macrolide maintenance treatment; however, this effect could be explained by the inclusion of patients with bronchiectasis in the studies...
November 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975014/the-relative-burden-of-menopausal-and-postmenopausal-symptoms-versus-other-major-conditions-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-medical-expenditure-panel-survey-data
#11
Annlouise R Assaf, Andrew G Bushmakin, Nina Joyce, Michael J Louie, Michael Flores, Margaret Moffatt
BACKGROUND: The direct costs associated with menopausal and postmenopausal symptoms (hereafter "menopausal symptoms") may include the costs of physician and emergency department visits, medications, laboratory testing, and the management of side effects. However, much remains unknown about the costs related to menopausal symptoms, including how they compare with the costs of other diseases that are common among menopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To compare the economic burden of menopausal symptoms with other select prevalent chronic conditions among a nationally representative sample of US menopausal women aged 45 to 65 years...
September 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967797/pulmonary-disease-by-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-clinical-management-unmet-needs-and-future-perspectives
#12
Lars-Olof Larsson, Eva Polverino, Wouter Hoefsloot, Luigi R Codecasa, Roland Diel, Stephen G Jenkins, Michael R Loebinger
The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing globally. Poor resistance against infections, for example, due to pre-existing lung diseases, immune deficiency and immune-modulating treatment, predisposes the population to developing pulmonary NTM disease. The incidence of pre-existing lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis has also increased. NTM disease diagnosis is often delayed due to non-specific symptoms. The therapeutic arsenal is limited and adherence to treatment guidelines is often low since the treatment regimens are complex, lengthy and side effects are common...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956954/hiv-related-chronic-lung-disease-in-adolescents-are-we-prepared-for-the-future
#13
Pierre Goussard, Robert P Gie
Chronic lung diseases (CLD) are the most chronic disease occurring in adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). In ALHIV who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) late in childhood, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans and interstitial pneumonitis are common. In adolescents who received ART early in life the spectrum of CLD has changed with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being common. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review CLD in ALHIV. We conducted a literature review of electronic databases focusing on CLD that were common prior to the introduction of ART (1996-2004), the present situation where ART is widely available (2005 to 2016), and articles which aided us speculating on the impact of HIV-related CLD in adolescents transitioning to adult HIV-clinics...
December 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952865/promoting-physical-activity-using-the-internet-is-it-feasible-and-acceptable-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-and-bronchiectasis
#14
Athina Liacos, Angela T Burge, Narelle S Cox, Anne E Holland
Older people with chronic lung diseases with low physical activity participation rates are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a purpose-designed internet-based program (ActivOnline) to monitor and encourage exercise and physical activity. Twelve participants with COPD or bronchiectasis were recruited (54-84 years). Primary outcome measures were feasibility measured by frequency of program access, and acceptability measured by semi-structured interview, system usability scores and participant perception of benefit...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919731/sensitization-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-as-a-risk-factor-for-bronchiectasis-in-copd
#15
Stephanie Everaerts, Katrien Lagrou, Adriana Dubbeldam, Natalie Lorent, Kristina Vermeersch, Erna Van Hoeyveld, Xavier Bossuyt, Lieven J Dupont, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap presents a possible clinical phenotype of COPD, but it is unclear why it develops in a subset of patients. We hypothesized that sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus (A fum) is associated with bronchiectasis in COPD and occurs more frequently in vitamin D-deficient patients. METHODS: This observational study investigated sensitization to A fum in an outpatient clinical cohort of 300 COPD patients and 50 (ex-) smoking controls...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910509/the-experience-of-palliative-care-service-provision-for-people-with-non-malignant-respiratory-disease-and-their-family-carers-an-all-ireland-qualitative-study
#16
Clare Mc Veigh, Joanne Reid, Philip Larkin, Sam Porter, Peter Hudson
AIM: To explore specialist and generalist palliative care provision for people with non-malignant respiratory disease, in rural and urban areas in the North and Republic of Ireland. BACKGROUND: Globally, palliative care is recommended as an appropriate healthcare option for people with advanced non- malignant lung disease. Yet, there is limited evidence regarding the integration of palliative care for this client group. DESIGN: Qualitative study...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894479/the-european-multicentre-bronchiectasis-audit-and-research-collaboration-embarc-experiences-from-a-successful-ers-clinical-research-collaboration
#17
REVIEW
James D Chalmers, Megan Crichton, Pieter C Goeminne, Michael R Loebinger, Charles Haworth, Marta Almagro, Montse Vendrell, Anthony De Soyza, Raja Dhar, Lucy Morgan, Francesco Blasi, Stefano Aliberti, Jeanette Boyd, Eva Polverino
In contrast to airway diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, and rare diseases such as cystic fibrosis, there has been little research and few clinical trials in bronchiectasis. Guidelines are primarily based on expert opinion and treatment is challenging because of the heterogeneous nature of the disease. In an effort to address decades of underinvestment in bronchiectasis research, education and clinical care, the European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (EMBARC) was established in 2012 as a collaborative pan-European network to bring together bronchiectasis researchers...
September 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758310/the-global-burden-of-respiratory-infections-in-indigenous-children-and-adults-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Thilini L Basnayake, Lucy C Morgan, Anne B Chang
This review article focuses on common lower respiratory infections (LRIs) in indigenous populations in both developed and developing countries, where data is available. Indigenous populations across the world share some commonalities including poorer health and socio-economic disadvantage compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. Generally, acute and chronic respiratory infections are more frequent and more severe in both indigenous children and adults, often resulting in substantial consequences including higher rates of bronchiectasis and poorer outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
November 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718249/frequency-of-undiagnosed-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#19
Raza Ullah, Shahid Salam, Tahir Ghaffar, Rahim Muhammad, Imran Khan
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) is considered as risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) along with other risk factors. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pulmonology and Cardiology wards/OPD's of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar. Patients more than 35 years of age, diagnosed with CAD of either gender were included...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705307/a-new-method-for-enhanced-expectoration-of-sputum-by-vibratory-stimulation-of-the-cervical-trachea
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mitsuhiro Kamimura, Nobuhisa Kameyama, Chie Homma, Tatsuya Ibe, Shinjiro Takeoka, Atsuto Mouri, Yoichiro Hamamoto
BACKGROUND: Expectoration of sputum can be difficult for patients with respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, or bronchiectasis because of the effects of decreased pulmonary function, respiratory muscle fatigue, altered sputum properties, and impaired ciliary function. We developed a new method for the vibratory stimulation of the cervical trachea and this study aimed to compare it with the Acapella (a current oscillation device) method...
July 2017: Respiratory Investigation
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