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Bronchiectasis and Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771599/clinical-characterization-of-children-with-resistant-airflow-obstruction-a-multicenter-study
#1
Sankaran Krishnan, Allen J Dozor, Leonard Bacharier, Jason E Lang, Charles G Irvin, David Kaminsky, Harold J Farber, Lynn Gerald, Mark Brown, Janet T Holbrook, Robert A Wise, Julie Ryu, Sonali Bose, Yasin Razan, Joy Saams, Robert J Henderson, William G Teague
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a cohort of children with airflow limitation resistant to bronchodilator (BD) therapy. METHODS: Pulmonary function tests performed in children 6-17 years of age at 15 centers in a clinical research consortium were screened for resistant airflow limitation, defined as a post-BD FEV1 and/or an FEV1 /FVC less than the lower limits of normal. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed for associations with pulmonary function. RESULTS: 582 children were identified...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747278/-the-associations-between-comorbidity-and-exacerbation-risk-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Y L Huang, B Mao, J Mim, G H Li, Y Q Zheng, L H Wu, S J Wang, B Qu, J J Fu
Objective: To study the association between comorbidity and acute exacerbation risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: This was a prospective cohort study with 64 stable COPD patients included. There were 64 males and 18 females with an average age of (68±9) years. Clinical characteristics, the number and type of comorbidities were recorded, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was calculated. The patients were interviewed by phone calls every 3 months since baseline in which the number of acute exacerbations was recorded until 12 months...
May 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724384/long-term-azithromycin-therapy-to-reduce-acute-exacerbations-in-patients-with-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Nafiseh Naderi, Deborah Assayag, Seyed-Mohammad-Yousof Mostafavi-Pour-Manshadi, Zeina Kaddaha, Alexandre Joubert, Isabelle Ouellet, Isabelle Drouin, Pei Zhi Li, Jean Bourbeau
RATIONALE: According to clinical trials, azithromycin taken daily for 1 year, decreased exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: Effectiveness evaluation of long-term azithromycin to reduce exacerbations in severe COPD patient on optimal therapy in real-life practice. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of severe COPD patients who were prescribed azithromycin (PA)(250 mg, at least 3 times weekly for at least 6 months)...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617415/emergence-of-mycobacterium-simiae-a-retrospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-lebanon
#4
Amal Hamieh, Ralph Tayyar, Houssam Tabaja, Saeed E L Zein, Pierre Bou Khalil, Nathalie Kara, Zeina A Kanafani, Nadim Kanj, Imad Bou Akl, George Araj, Ghina Berjaoui, Souha S Kanj
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the clinical significance of Mycobacterium simiae at a major tertiary care center in Lebanon. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with positive cultures for M. simiae isolated between 2004 and 2016 at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. RESULTS: This study included 103 M. simiae isolates recovered from 51 patients. Their mean age was 62.7 years. The majority were males and smokers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546046/research-highlights-from-the-2017-ers-international-congress-airway-diseases-in-focus
#5
REVIEW
Cecilia Andersson, Sara J Bonvini, Peter Horvath, Eduardo Marquez, Imran Satia, Paul Kirkham, Florence Schleich, Marco Idzko, Reinoud Gosens, Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Apostolos Bossios, Omar Usmani, Antonio Spanevello, Ian M Adcock, Alexander G Mathioudakis
For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5) and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540496/exacerbations-of-copd
#6
Christian Viniol, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. While COPD is a mainly chronic disease, a substantial number of patients suffer from exacerbations. Severe exacerbations are related to a significantly worse survival outcome. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different aspects of COPD exacerbations. The impact of risk factors and triggers such as smoking, severe airflow limitation, bronchiectasis, bacterial and viral infections and comorbidities is discussed...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490418/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-in-a-patient-with-copd-and-bronchiectasis-with-radiological-signs-of-lung-tumor
#7
Dorota Wyrostkiewicz, Monika Szturmowicz, Iwona Bartoszuk, Izabela Siemion-Szcześniak, Lilia Jakubowska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Jan Kuś
Mycobacterial lung disease is caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as atypical mycobacteria. NTM are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil and water; they may colonize the airways, gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary system, without the apparent signs of disease. Nevertheless, in some risk groups such as patients with chronic lung diseases or with immunodeficiency, mycobacterial lung disease is identified. Recently, increased recognition of mycobacterial lung disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients has been observed, especially in those treated with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487250/management-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-outpatient-settings-focus-on-clarithromycin
#8
REVIEW
Ashok Mahashur
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a broad terminology which includes acute bronchitis, pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (AECB), and acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis. Acute LRTIs (ALRTIs) are one of the common clinical problems in community and hospital settings. Management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and AECB may pose challenges because of diagnostic difficulty in differentiating infections caused by typical and atypical microorganisms and rising rates of antimicrobial resistance...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484635/dipeptidyl-peptidase-1-inhibitor-azd7986-induces-a-sustained-exposure-dependent-reduction-in-neutrophil-elastase-activity-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Robert Palmér, Jukka Mäenpää, Alexandra Jauhiainen, Bengt Larsson, John Mo, Muir Russell, James Root, Susanne Prothon, Ligia Chialda, Pablo Forte, Torbjörn Egelrud, Kristina Stenvall, Philip Gardiner
Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs), such as neutrophil elastase (NE), are activated by dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1) during neutrophil maturation. High NSP levels can be detrimental, particularly in lung tissue, and inhibition of NSPs is therefore an interesting therapeutic opportunity in multiple lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, first-in-human study to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single and multiple oral doses of the DPP1 inhibitor AZD7986 in healthy subjects...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478908/bronchiectasis-new-therapies-and-new-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
James D Chalmers, Sanjay H Chotirmall
European Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of adult bronchiectasis highlight the paucity of treatment options available for patients with this disorder. No treatments have been licensed by regulatory agencies worldwide, and most therapies used in clinical practice are based on very little evidence. Development of new treatments is needed urgently. We did a systematic review of scientific literature and clinical trial registries to identify agents in early-to-late clinical development for bronchiectasis in adults...
February 22, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469675/lessons-from-the-past-some-histories-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-before-its-discovery
#11
A Perciaccante, P Charlier, C Negri, A Coralli, O Appenzeller, R Bianucci
A1AT deficiency- a genetically inherited autosomal codominant disease with more than 120 identified alleles- was first identified by Laurell and Eriksson in 1963. The most common hereditary disorder in adults, A1AT causes an increased risk of developing pulmonary emphysema and liver disease. In A1AT patients, lung disease generally presents at a younger age than "usual" chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it may be misdiagnosed as asthma. Because A1AT deficiency patients can show the same clinical features as non-deficient COPD (including increased evidence of bronchiectasis, frequent exacerbations, impaired health status and a degree of reversibility of airflow obstruction), the World Health Organization recommend to test every patient with a diagnosis of COPD or adult-onset asthma for A1AT deficiency...
February 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459308/air-pollution-and-emergency-department-visits-for-respiratory-diseases-a-multi-city-case-crossover-study
#12
Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Termeh Kousha, Jessica Castner, Robert Dales
Increasing evidence suggests that ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease exacerbations and emergencies. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ambient air pollutants and emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory conditions in nine districts across the province of Ontario in Canada. Health, air pollutant (PM2.5 , NO2 , O3 , and SO2 ), and meteorological data were retrieved from April 2004 to December 2011. Respiratory diseases were categorized as: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, including bronchiectasis) and acute upper respiratory diseases...
May 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443739/effects-of-exercise-on-secretion-transport-inflammation-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-noncystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daniele Oliveira Dos Santos, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, José Antônio Baddini-Martinez, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Ada Clarice Gastaldi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by pathological and irreversible bronchial dilatation caused by the inefficient mucus and microorganism clearance and progression of inflammatory processes. The most frequent characteristic is the increase in bronchial mucus production resulting in slower transport and damage to the mucociliary transport. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of exercise on mucus transport, inflammation, and resistance of the respiratory and autonomic nervous systems and subsequent effects on quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis who are enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429215/-a-clinican-linical-analysis-of-29-cases-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#14
L Y Xu, G X Lai, Q Hu, L Zhang, D L Liu, G B Zhu, X H Li, H H Shi, C Xu, Y H Yu, Y W Bao, W Chen
Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Methods: Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425123/aspergillus-fumigatus-detection-and-risk-factors-in-patients-with-copd-bronchiectasis-overlap
#15
Stephanie Everaerts, Katrien Lagrou, Kristina Vermeersch, Lieven J Dupont, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens
The role of Aspergillus fumigatus in the airways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with bronchiectasis is currently unclear. We searched for a sensitive and noninvasive method for A. fumigatus detection in the sputum of COPD patients and addressed potential risk factors for its presence. Induced sputum samples of 18 COPD patients and 17 COPD patients with bronchiectasis were analyzed for the presence of A. fumigatus by culture, galactomannan detection, and PCR. Of the patients with COPD-bronchiectasis overlap, 23...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411860/self-management-for-bronchiectasis
#16
REVIEW
Carol Kelly, Seamus Grundy, Dave Lynes, David Jw Evans, Sharada Gudur, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a long term respiratory condition with an increasing rate of diagnosis. It is associated with persistent symptoms, repeated infective exacerbations, and reduced quality of life, imposing a burden on individuals and healthcare systems. The main aims of therapeutic management are to reduce exacerbations and improve quality of life. Self-management interventions are potentially important for empowering people with bronchiectasis to manage their condition more effectively and to seek care in a timely manner...
February 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402641/-emphysema-did-you-say-emphysema
#17
J Benzaquen, J Pradelli, B Padovani, C H Marquette, S Leroy
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common condition that may initially look simple but may conceal other diseases capable of accelerating its natural history or even simulating it. We describe four cases presenting as COPD with emphysema that were reclassified on the basis of certain clinical characteristics and the radiological pattern. CASE REPORTS: A 52 year old never smoking woman presenting with emphysema was eventually diagnosed as having lymphangioleiomyomatosis on the basis of an abdominal CT scan showing kidney angiomyolipomas...
January 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258735/the-effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-based-on-the-perceptions-of-patients-with-advanced-lung-disease-a-qualitative-study
#18
Mariana Hoffman, Marcella G Assis, Valéria Maria Augusto, Bruna Mara F Silveira, Verônica F Parreira
BACKGROUND: Advanced lung disease is a chronic non-neoplastic disease that compromises activities of daily living. Treatment includes pulmonary rehabilitation and inspiratory muscle training. Studies have shown the effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training in lung disease patients, but literature is scarce on the patients' perceptions about this topic. OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceptions of patients with advanced lung disease about inspiratory muscle training...
December 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221293/distance-saturation-product-of-the-6-minute-walk-test-predicts-mortality-of-patients-with-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#19
Meng-Heng Hsieh, Yueh-Fu Fang, Fu-Tsai Chung, Chung-Shu Lee, Yu-Chen Chang, Yuan-Zhang Liu, Cheng-Hsien Wu, Horng-Chyuan Lin
Background: Previous surveillance methods to monitor the prognoses of patients with bronchiectasis are too complex for use in daily practice. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple exercise test to predict the prognosis of chronic obstructive airway disease and numerous chronic lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. No studies have investigated exercise-induced oxygen desaturation (EID) and distance-saturation product (DSP) of 6MWT to predict the prognoses of patients with bronchiectasis...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142091/physiological-and-pathophysiological-firing-properties-of-single-postganglionic-sympathetic-neurons-in-humans
#20
Vaughan G Macefield, B Gunnar Wallin
It has long been known from microneurographic recordings in human subjects that the activity of postganglionic sympathetic axons occurs as spontaneous bursts, with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) exhibiting strong cardiac rhythmicity via the baroreflex and skin sympathetic nerve activity showing much weaker cardiac modulation. Here we review the firing properties of single sympathetic neurons, obtained using highly selective microelectrodes. Individual vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle or skin, or sudomotor neurons supplying sweat glands, always discharge with a low firing probability (~30%) and at very low frequencies (~0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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