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Bronchiectasis and Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Cecilia Andersson, Sara J Bonvini, Peter Horvath, Eduardo Marquez, Imran Satia, Paul Kirkham, Florence Schleich, Marco Idzko, Reinoud Gosens, Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Apostolos Bossios, Omar Usmani, Antonio Spanevello, Ian M Adcock, Alexander G Mathioudakis
For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5) and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Christian Viniol, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. While COPD is a mainly chronic disease, a substantial number of patients suffer from exacerbations. Severe exacerbations are related to a significantly worse survival outcome. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different aspects of COPD exacerbations. The impact of risk factors and triggers such as smoking, severe airflow limitation, bronchiectasis, bacterial and viral infections and comorbidities is discussed...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Dorota Wyrostkiewicz, Monika Szturmowicz, Iwona Bartoszuk, Izabela Siemion-Szcześniak, Lilia Jakubowska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Jan Kuś
Mycobacterial lung disease is caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as atypical mycobacteria. NTM are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil and water; they may colonize the airways, gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary system, without the apparent signs of disease. Nevertheless, in some risk groups such as patients with chronic lung diseases or with immunodeficiency, mycobacterial lung disease is identified. Recently, increased recognition of mycobacterial lung disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients has been observed, especially in those treated with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Ashok Mahashur
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a broad terminology which includes acute bronchitis, pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (AECB), and acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis. Acute LRTIs (ALRTIs) are one of the common clinical problems in community and hospital settings. Management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and AECB may pose challenges because of diagnostic difficulty in differentiating infections caused by typical and atypical microorganisms and rising rates of antimicrobial resistance...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Robert Palmér, Jukka Mäenpää, Alexandra Jauhiainen, Bengt Larsson, John Mo, Muir Russell, James Root, Susanne Prothon, Ligia Chialda, Pablo Forte, Torbjörn Egelrud, Kristina Stenvall, Philip Gardiner
Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs), such as neutrophil elastase (NE), are activated by dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1) during neutrophil maturation. High NSP levels can be detrimental, particularly in lung tissue, and inhibition of NSPs is therefore an interesting therapeutic opportunity in multiple lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, first-in-man study to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single and multiple oral doses of the DPP1 inhibitor AZD7986 in healthy subjects...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
James D Chalmers, Sanjay H Chotirmall
European Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of adult bronchiectasis highlight the paucity of treatment options available for patients with this disorder. No treatments have been licensed by regulatory agencies worldwide, and most therapies used in clinical practice are based on very little evidence. Development of new treatments is needed urgently. We did a systematic review of scientific literature and clinical trial registries to identify agents in early-to-late clinical development for bronchiectasis in adults...
February 22, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
A Perciaccante, P Charlier, C Negri, A Coralli, O Appenzeller, R Bianucci
A1AT deficiency- a genetically inherited autosomal codominant disease with more than 120 identified alleles- was first identified by Laurell and Eriksson in 1963. The most common hereditary disorder in adults, A1AT causes an increased risk of developing pulmonary emphysema and liver disease. In A1AT patients, lung disease generally presents at a younger age than "usual" chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it may be misdiagnosed as asthma. Because A1AT deficiency patients can show the same clinical features as non-deficient COPD (including increased evidence of bronchiectasis, frequent exacerbations, impaired health status and a degree of reversibility of airflow obstruction), the World Health Organization recommend to test every patient with a diagnosis of COPD or adult-onset asthma for A1AT deficiency...
February 2018: COPD
Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Termeh Kousha, Jessica Castner, Robert Dales
Increasing evidence suggests that ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease exacerbations and emergencies. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ambient air pollutants and emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory conditions in nine districts across the province of Ontario in Canada. Health, air pollutant (PM2.5 , NO2 , O3 , and SO2 ), and meteorological data were retrieved from April 2004 to December 2011. Respiratory diseases were categorized as: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, including bronchiectasis) and acute upper respiratory diseases...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Daniele Oliveira Dos Santos, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, José Antônio Baddini-Martinez, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Ada Clarice Gastaldi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by pathological and irreversible bronchial dilatation caused by the inefficient mucus and microorganism clearance and progression of inflammatory processes. The most frequent characteristic is the increase in bronchial mucus production resulting in slower transport and damage to the mucociliary transport. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of exercise on mucus transport, inflammation, and resistance of the respiratory and autonomic nervous systems and subsequent effects on quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis who are enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
L Y Xu, G X Lai, Q Hu, L Zhang, D L Liu, G B Zhu, X H Li, H H Shi, C Xu, Y H Yu, Y W Bao, W Chen
Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Methods: Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Stephanie Everaerts, Katrien Lagrou, Kristina Vermeersch, Lieven J Dupont, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens
The role of Aspergillus fumigatus in the airways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with bronchiectasis is currently unclear. We searched for a sensitive and noninvasive method for A. fumigatus detection in the sputum of COPD patients and addressed potential risk factors for its presence. Induced sputum samples of 18 COPD patients and 17 COPD patients with bronchiectasis were analyzed for the presence of A. fumigatus by culture, galactomannan detection, and PCR. Of the patients with COPD-bronchiectasis overlap, 23...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carol Kelly, Seamus Grundy, Dave Lynes, David Jw Evans, Sharada Gudur, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a long term respiratory condition with an increasing rate of diagnosis. It is associated with persistent symptoms, repeated infective exacerbations, and reduced quality of life, imposing a burden on individuals and healthcare systems. The main aims of therapeutic management are to reduce exacerbations and improve quality of life. Self-management interventions are potentially important for empowering people with bronchiectasis to manage their condition more effectively and to seek care in a timely manner...
February 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
J Benzaquen, J Pradelli, B Padovani, C H Marquette, S Leroy
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common condition that may initially look simple but may conceal other diseases capable of accelerating its natural history or even simulating it. We describe four cases presenting as COPD with emphysema that were reclassified on the basis of certain clinical characteristics and the radiological pattern. CASE REPORTS: A 52 year old never smoking woman presenting with emphysema was eventually diagnosed as having lymphangioleiomyomatosis on the basis of an abdominal CT scan showing kidney angiomyolipomas...
January 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Mariana Hoffman, Marcella G Assis, Valéria Maria Augusto, Bruna Mara F Silveira, Verônica F Parreira
BACKGROUND: Advanced lung disease is a chronic non-neoplastic disease that compromises activities of daily living. Treatment includes pulmonary rehabilitation and inspiratory muscle training. Studies have shown the effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training in lung disease patients, but literature is scarce on the patients' perceptions about this topic. OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceptions of patients with advanced lung disease about inspiratory muscle training...
December 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Meng-Heng Hsieh, Yueh-Fu Fang, Fu-Tsai Chung, Chung-Shu Lee, Yu-Chen Chang, Yuan-Zhang Liu, Cheng-Hsien Wu, Horng-Chyuan Lin
Background: Previous surveillance methods to monitor the prognoses of patients with bronchiectasis are too complex for use in daily practice. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple exercise test to predict the prognosis of chronic obstructive airway disease and numerous chronic lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. No studies have investigated exercise-induced oxygen desaturation (EID) and distance-saturation product (DSP) of 6MWT to predict the prognoses of patients with bronchiectasis...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Vaughan G Macefield, B Gunnar Wallin
It has long been known from microneurographic recordings in human subjects that activity of postganglionic sympathetic axons occurs as spontaneous bursts, with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) exhibiting strong cardiac rhythmicity via the baroreflex and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) showing much weaker cardiac modulation. Here we review the firing properties of single sympathetic neurons, obtained using highly selective microelectrodes. Individual vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle or skin, or sudomotor neurones supplying sweat glands, always discharge with a low firing probability (~30%) and at very low frequencies (~0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
George M Solomon, Lianwu Fu, Steven M Rowe, James F Collawn
Airways diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is an ongoing unmet need for novel and effective therapies. There is an established pathophysiological link and phenotypic similarity between the chronic bronchitis phenotype of COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF). New evidence suggests that CFTR dysfunction may play a role in other common airways diseases such as COPD, non-atopic asthma and non-CF bronchiectasis. Newly approved and investigational drugs that target both mutant and wild-type CFTR channels have provided a new treatment opportunity addressing the mucus defect in pulmonary diseases that share the same pathophysiology with CF...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Miguel Ángel Martínez-García, Luis Máiz, Casilda Olveira, Rosa María Girón, David de la Rosa, Marina Blanco, Rafael Cantón, Montserrat Vendrell, Eva Polverino, Javier de Gracia, Concepción Prados
In 2008, the Spanish Society of Pulmonology (SEPAR) published the first guidelines in the world on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiectasis. Almost 10 years later, considerable scientific advances have been made in both the treatment and the evaluation and diagnosis of this disease, and the original guidelines have been updated to include the latest scientific knowledge on bronchiectasis. These new recommendations have been drafted following a strict methodological process designed to ensure the quality of content, and are linked to a large amount of online information that includes a wealth of references...
November 8, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Jordan Minov, Saso Stoleski, Dragan Mijakoski, Kristin Vasilevska, Aneta Atanasovska
There is evidence that coexisting bronchiectasis (BE) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) aggravates the course of the disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of bacterial exacerbations in COPD patients with BE. The frequency and duration of bacterial exacerbations treated in a 12-month period, as well as the duration of the exacerbation-free interval, were evaluated in 54 patients with COPD (Group D) who were diagnosed and assessed according to official recommendations...
April 11, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Rong-Bao Zhang, Fei Yuan, Xing-Yu Tan, Quan-Ying He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of previously undiagnosed radiographic bronchiectasis in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and to evaluate the effect of radiographic bronchiectasis on the symptoms and risks in stable COPD patients. METHODS: From May 2012 to April 2014, there were 347 patients enrolled in COPD database. Data describing the general conditions, the frequency of acute exacerbations the year before, COPD assessment test, modified medical research council (mMRC) score, spirometric classification, and HRCT were collected...
September 2017: Chronic diseases and translational medicine
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