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Bronchiectasis and COPD

Ieuan Edward Shepherd Evans, Pallavi Bedi, Tom M Quinn, Adam T Hill
BACKGROUND: There is increased interest in the association of vascular disease with COPD and pneumonia, but there is a lack of research in this area with patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: A retrospective study of 400 patients attending a specialist bronchiectasis clinic in NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, UK between May 2013 and September 2014 was conducted. The study assessed the prevalence of vascular disease (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease and atrial fibrillation)...
October 6, 2016: Chest
Chiharu Yoshii, Soushi Uchida, Shingo Noguchi, Ryo Torii, Ikuko Shimabukuro, Kazuhiro Yatera
Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects one in several smokers, only a few patients are correctly diagnosed compared to the estimated number of patients. Several recent reports indicate that the development of rotator cuff tears is related to smoking. In this study, we investigated smoking status in patients with rotator cuff tears and evaluated the possibility of undiagnosed COPD by a pulmonary function test. The subjects were 150 consecutive patients over 40 years old, who had been diagnosed with rotator cuff tears and had been examined by a pulmonary function test before surgery in our orthopedic department between April 2011 and June 2015...
September 2016: Journal of UOEH
Gema Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana López de Andrés, Rodrigo Jiménez-García, Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Fernando Pedraza-Serrano, Luis Puente-Maestu, Javier de Miguel-Díez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in the incidence, diagnostic procedures, comorbidity, length of hospital stay (LOHS), costs and in-hospital mortality (IHM) for patients with bronchiectasis who were hospitalized in Spain over a 10-year period. METHODS: We included all admissions for patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis as primary or secondary diagnosis during 2004-2013. RESULTS: 282,207 patients were admitted to the study. After controlling for possible confounders, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of hospitalizations over the study period when bronchiectasis was a secondary diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
Marc Miravitlles, Anthony D'Urzo, Dave Singh, Vladimir Koblizek
Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations and managing them appropriately to reduce this risk represents an important clinical challenge. Numerous treatments have been assessed for the prevention of exacerbations and their efficacy may differ by patient phenotype. Given their centrality in the treatment of COPD, there is strong rationale for maximizing bronchodilation as an initial strategy to reduce exacerbation risk irrespective of patient phenotype. Therefore, in patients assessed as frequent exacerbators (>1 exacerbation/year) we propose initial bronchodilator treatment with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/ long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)...
September 10, 2016: Respiratory Research
Francesco Blasi, Clive Page, Gian Maria Rossolini, Lucia Pallecchi, Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani, Mario Cazzola
OBJECTIVES: In airway infections, biofilm formation has been demonstrated to be responsible for both acute and chronic events, and constitutes a genuine challenge in clinical practice. Difficulty in eradicating biofilms with systemic antibiotics has led clinicians to consider the possible role of non-antibiotic therapy. The aim of this review is to examine current evidence for the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of biofilm-related respiratory infections. METHODS: Electronic searches of PUBMED up to September 2015 were conducted, searching for 'biofilm', 'respiratory tract infection', 'N-acetylcysteine', 'cystic fibrosis', 'COPD', 'bronchiectasis', 'otitis', and 'bronchitis' in titles and abstracts...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Heino Stass, Johannes Nagelschmitz, Dominik Kappeler, Knut Sommerer, Claudius Kietzig, Boris Weimann
BACKGROUND: Ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) is in development as long-term intermittent therapy to reduce the frequency of acute exacerbations in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) patients with respiratory bacterial pathogens. There is no approved therapy in this indication. Reliable, reproducible lung deposition is a prerequisite for inhaled drugs. METHODS: In this phase I study, six patients with NCFB, six with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 12 healthy volunteers (HVs), received one dose of (99m)Tc-Ciprofloxacin DPI 32...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Jianmin Jin, Wenling Yu, Shuling Li, Lijin Lu, Xiaofang Liu, Yongchang Sun
A high prevalence of bronchiectasis was found by chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it was shown to be associated with more severe symptoms, higher frequency of exacerbations and mortality. The risk factors for bronchiectasis in COPD are not yet clarified.High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of chest was performed in patients with moderate-severe COPD, and the presence and the extent of bronchiectasis were evaluated by two radiologists...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Matthieu Buscot, Héloïse Pottier, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Sylvie Leroy
BACKGROUND: Data concerning phenotypes in bronchiectasis are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, functional and microbiological phenotypes of patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective study in a university hospital in France was conducted over 10 years (2002-2012). Non-cystic fibrosis patients with tomographic confirmation of bronchiectasis were included. The clinical, functional and microbiological data of patients were analyzed relying on the underlying etiology...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Timm Greulich, Christoph Nell, Christian Herr, Claus Vogelmeier, Viktor Kotke, Stefan Wiedmann, Marion Wencker, Robert Bals, Andreas Rembert Koczulla
BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an autosomal codominant inherited disease that is significantly underdiagnosed. We have previously shown that the combination of an awareness campaign with the offer of free diagnostic testing results in the detection of a relevant number of severely deficient AATD patients. The present study provides an update on the results of our targeted screening program (German AAT laboratory, University of Marburg) covering a period from August 2003 to May 2015...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Jessica Rademacher, Felix C Ringshausen, Hendrik Suhling, Jan Fuge, Georg Marsch, Gregor Warnecke, Axel Haverich, Tobias Welte, Jens Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation (LTx) is a well-established treatment for end-stage pulmonary disease. However, data regarding microbiology and outcome of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) after lung transplantation are limited. METHODS: A retrospective analysis between August 1992 and September 2014 of all patients undergoing lung transplantation at our program of all recipients with a primary diagnosis of bronchiectasis was performed. Microbiology of sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, lung function and clinical parameters pre- and post-LTx were assessed retrospectively...
June 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Jae Kil Park, Jae Jun Kim, Seok Whan Moon
BACKGROUND: No definitive findings or established guidelines have been published for the evaluation of esophageal tumors (tumor) and regional lymph nodes (LN) using positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) in patients with esophageal cancer. In addition, it remains unclear whether PET-CT findings vary between neoadjuvant (NT) and non-neoadjuvant (non-NT) therapy cases. Therefore, preoperative evaluation using PET-CT might provide unreliable information and influence the management plan for esophageal cancer...
May 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
I S Sehgal, S Dhooria, D Behera, R Agarwal
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder that results from immune responses mounted against antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in non-specific respiratory symptoms and structural lung damage. Classically defined in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis, ABPA has recently been described in other lung diseases including COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, idiopathic bronchiectasis and others. Herein, we report the first case of ABPA complicating Swyer-James-Macleod's syndrome that was successfully treated with oral antifungal therapy...
May 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
José Cerón Navarro, Karol de Aguiar Quevedo, Carlos Jordá Aragón, Juan C Peñalver Cuesta, Nuria Mancheño Franch, Francisco Vera Sempere, José Padilla Alarcón
INTRODUCTION: Lung transplantation (LT) has been considered an alternative therapeutic approach in terminal patients. However, this process in COPD is not controversy-free. This paper aimed to analyze 30-day mortality (PM) patterns and their risk factors in COPD patients undergoing LT. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A retrospective cohort with 107 COPD patients, transplanted at the University La Fe Valencia, Spain, treated from January 1991 to December 2008. Demographics values, degree of dyspnoea, diagnosis, BODE index, single versus bilateral LT, cardio-pulmonary bypass, donor age, steroid dependence, presence of bronchiectasis, retrograde perfusion, transfusion of blood products, and PaO2/FiO2 were analyzed...
June 17, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Asger Dirksen, Mathilde M W Wille
Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways disease) and distal to the airways with destruction and loss of lung parenchyma (emphysema). However, segmentation of airways is still experimental; with contemporary high-resolution CT (HRCT) we can just see the "entrance" of small airways, and until now changes in airway morphology that have been observed in COPD are subtle...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kuniaki Seyama, Toyohiro Hirai, Michiaki Mishima, Koichiro Tatsumi, Masaharu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Alpha1-antitrypsin (ΑAT) deficiency (AATD), a condition of little or no AAT in the serum, is believed to be extremely rare in Japan. However, no such nationwide epidemiological survey has been conducted. The Respiratory Research Failure Group and Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) cooperated to conduct this survey. METHODS: The survey questionnaire was sent by post to 1598 hospitals that have 200 or more beds (excluding mental hospitals), and by e-mail to members of the JRS...
May 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Erika Horácio Pinto, Priscila Larcher Longo, Caroline Cristina Batista de Camargo, Simone Dal Corso, Fernanda De Cordoba Lanza, Rafael Stelmach, Rodrigo Athanazio, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Marcia Pinto Alves Mayer, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita Ferrari, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana
INTRODUCTION: The association between periodontal disease (PD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been widely studied, with aspiration of periodontal pathogens being one of the most accepted causal mechanisms for pulmonary exacerbation. Periodontal treatment (PT) was associated with a decrease in these exacerbations. Bronchiectasis is a pulmonary disease that has many similarities to COPD; however, there are no studies correlating this condition to PD thus far. This study will evaluate if PT reduces proinflammatory cytokines in serum and saliva, as well as halitosis and the amount of microorganisms associated with exacerbation of bronchiectasis in saliva, sputum and nasal lavage 3 months after PT...
2016: BMJ Open
Yonghua Chen, Chunli Liu, Wenju Lu, Mengxi Li, Cyrus Hadadi, Elizabeth Wenqian Wang, Kai Yang, Ning Lai, Junyi Huang, Shiyue Li, Nanshan Zhong, Nuofu Zhang, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subtype of PH, which lacks clinical epidemiological data in China. METHODS: Six hundred and ninety three patients hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 were classified by echocardiography according to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP): mild (36≤ PASP <50 mmHg); moderate (50≤ PASP <70 mmHg) and severe (PASP ≥70 mmHg). RESULTS: Dyspnea (93...
March 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Silvia Maria Doria da Silva, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Marcos Mello Moreira, Luciana Campanatti Palhares, Mônica Corso Pereira
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) phenotypic characterization helps in understanding the clinical diversity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but its clinical relevance and its relationship with functional features are not clarified. Volumetric capnography (VC) uses the principle of gas washout and analyzes the pattern of CO2 elimination as a function of expired volume. The main variables analyzed were end-tidal concentration of carbon dioxide (ETCO2), Slope of phase 2 (Slp2), and Slope of phase 3 (Slp3) of capnogram, the curve which represents the total amount of CO2 eliminated by the lungs during each breath...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Qingxia Du, Jianmin Jin, Xiaofang Liu, Yongchang Sun
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis revealed by chest computed tomography in COPD patients and its comorbid effect on prognosis have not been addressed by large-sized studies. Understanding the presence of bronchiectasis in COPD is important for future intervention and preventing disease progression. METHODS: Observational studies were identified from electronic literature searches in Cochrane library, PubMed, ScienceDirect databases, American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society meeting abstracts...
2016: PloS One
Adamantia Liapikou, Antoni Torres
The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study reported that lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, are the fourth most common cause of death globally. The etiology of acute bronchitis and asthma exacerbations is mostly viral and the therapy is symptomatic. Management decisions in community acquired pneumonia regarding site of care, extent of assessment, and level of treatment are based primarily on disease severity (outpatient, inpatient, ICU admission). Antibiotics are the main choice of treatment for patients with pneumonia, acute exacerbations (AE) of COPD (including increased sputum purulence and worsening shortness of breath) and AE of non-CF bronchiectasis...
March 16, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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