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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091934/roles-of-plasmablasts-and-b-cells-in-igg4-related-disease-implications-for-therapy-and-early-treatment-outcomes
#1
Marco Lanzillotta, Emanuel Della-Torre, John H Stone
High serum IgG4 concentrations are a striking feature of many patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Blood levels of IgG4 often reach ten, twenty, and even thirty or more times higher than the upper limit of normal. Under the proper clinical circumstances, the finding of an elevated serum IgG4 concentration serves as a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of this condition. This serum IgG4 elevation quickly called attention to the possibility of therapies targeting cells of the B lymphocyte lineage. In addition, a greater understanding of the cellular mechanisms that underpin IgG4-RD has identified peripheral blood plasmablasts as a promising biomarker for this disease...
January 7, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091345/propofol-as-a-risk-factor-for-icu-acquired-weakness-in-septic-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#2
Peter A Abdelmalik, Goran Rakocevic
BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIN) and critical illness myopathy (CIM), together "ICU-Acquired weakness (ICUAW)," occur frequently in septic patients. One of the proposed mechanisms for ICUAW includes prolonged inactivation of sodium channels. Propofol, used commonly in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), primarily acts via enhancement of GABAergic transmission but may also increase sodium channel inactivation, suggesting a potential interaction. METHODS: Electronic medical records and EMG reports of patients with ICUAW and a diagnosis of either sepsis, septicaemia, severe sepsis, or septic shock, concurrent with a diagnosis of acute respiratory failure (ARF), were retrospectively analyzed in a single center university hospital...
January 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079113/congenital-hearing-loss
#3
Anna M H Korver, Richard J H Smith, Guy Van Camp, Mark R Schleiss, Maria A K Bitner-Glindzicz, Lawrence R Lustig, Shin-Ichi Usami, An N Boudewyns
Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss...
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078319/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer
#4
Jun Sun, Ikuko Kato
Although genes contribute to colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota are an important player. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic infection and the ensuing inflammation contributes to tumor initiation and tumor progression. A variety of bacterial species and tumor-promoting virulence mechanisms have been investigated. Significant advances have been made in understanding the composition and functional capabilities of the gut microbiota and its roles in cancer. In the current review, we discuss the novel roles of microbiota in the progression of colon cancer...
June 2016: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067178/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-recent-progress-and-future-prospects
#5
Avineesh Singh, Preeti Patel, Vijay K Patel, Deepak K Jain, Ravichandran Veerasamy, Prabodh C Sharma, Harish Rajak
Colorectal cancer is a devastating disease with a dismal prognosis which is heavily hampered by delayed diagnosis. Surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the curative options. Due to few therapeutic treatments available i.e., mono and combination therapy and development of resistance towards drug response, novel and efficacious therapy is urgently needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are emerging class of therapeutic agents having potential anticancer activity with minimal toxicity for different types of malignancies in preclinical studies...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067062/developments-in-pharmacotherapy-for-treating-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Antonio Rossi, Paola Claudia Sacco, Giuseppe Santabarbara, Assunta Sgambato, Francesca Casaluce, Giovanni Palazzolo, Paolo Maione, Cesare Gridelli
Most patients with non-small cell lung (NSCLC), including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma, have advanced disease at diagnosis and systemic therapy is the standard-of-care. About 20% of Caucasian patients are affected by an oncogene-addicted advanced NSCLC for which correspondent inhibitors are available. Areas covered: The main state-of-the-art synthetic anticancer drugs in the groups of chemotherapeutics, epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors for NSCLC treatment, are reviewed and discussed from phase III randomized practice-changing trials onwards...
January 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067012/venous-thromboembolism-in-pediatric-trauma-patients-ten-year-experience-and-long-term-follow-up-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#7
Christine M Leeper, Madhav Vissa, James D Cooper, Lynn M Malec, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Pediatric trauma patients are at high risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our objective is to describe incidence, risk factors, and timing of development of VTE, anticoagulation complications, and long-term VTE outcomes in a critically injured pediatric population. PROCEDURE: We did a retrospective review of pediatric (0-17 years) trauma admissions to intensive care unit from 2005 to 2014. Our center employs VTE screening and prevention protocols for high-risk patients based on hypercoagulable history, age, injuries, and medical interventions...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065518/membranous-nephropathy-integrating-basic-science-into-improved-clinical-management
#8
REVIEW
Daniel C Cattran, Paul E Brenchley
Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (INM) remains a common cause of the nephrotic syndrome in adults. The autoimmune nature of IMN was clearly delineated in 2009 with the identification of the glomerular-deposited IgG to be a podocyte receptor, phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in 70% to 75% of cases. This anti-PLA2R autoantibody, predominantly the IgG4 subclass, has been quantitated in serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and has been used to aid diagnosis and monitor response to immunosuppressive therapy...
January 5, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063002/gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
R Gao, Z Gao, L Huang, H Qin
The gut microbiota is considered as a forgotten organ in human health and disease. It maintains gut homeostasis by various complex mechanisms. However, disruption of the gut microbiota has been confirmed to be related to gastrointestinal diseases such as colorectal cancer, as well as remote organs in many studies. Colorectal cancer is a multi-factorial and multi-stage involved disorder. The role for microorganisms that initiate and facilitate the process of colorectal cancer has become clear. The candidate pathogens have been identified by culture and next sequencing technology...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062618/use-of-biomarkers-in-predicting-the-onset-monitoring-the-progression-and-risk-stratification-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin M Scirica
BACKGROUND: As the worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases, it is even more important to develop cost-effective methods to predict and diagnose the onset of diabetes, monitor progression, and risk stratify patients in terms of subsequent cardiovascular and diabetes complications. CONTENT: Nonlaboratory clinical risk scores based on risk factors and anthropomorphic data can help identify patients at greatest risk of developing diabetes, but glycemic indices (hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and oral glucose tolerance tests) are the cornerstones for diagnosis, and the basis for monitoring therapy...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060554/current-molecular-and-genetic-aspects-of-pancreatic-cancer-the-role-of-metastasis-associated-proteins-mta-a-review
#11
Efstathios T Pavlidis, Theodoros E Pavlidis
: Purpose/aim: To focus on current molecular and genetic aspects and MTA proteins, since pancreatic cancer is a lethal malignant with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential step, contributing to potential curative resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search of relevant articles published up to August 2016 was performed to identify current information about pancreatic cancer regarding molecular biomarkers, with emphasis on carcinogenesis, novel therapeutic targets, and MTA proteins...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059841/insights-into-cardiorenal-interactions-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#12
Feras M Bader, Nizar Attallah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is one of the biggest challenges in the management of chronic heart failure. Despite the advances in medical and device therapy, high readmission and mortality rates continue to be a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. One of the strongest predictors of adverse outcomes in ADHF is renal dysfunction, referred to as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1. This review discusses some of the recently introduced findings related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of this disorder...
January 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057057/is-platelet-transfusion-associated-with-hospital-acquired-infections-in-critically-ill-patients
#13
Cécile Aubron, Andrew W Flint, Michael Bailey, David Pilcher, Allen C Cheng, Colin Hegarty, Antony Martinelli, Michael C Reade, Rinaldo Bellomo, Zoe McQuilten
BACKGROUND: Platelets are commonly transfused to critically ill patients. Reports suggest an association between platelet transfusion and infection. However, there is no large study to have determined whether platelet transfusion in critically ill patients is associated with hospital-acquired infection. METHODS: We conducted a multi-centre study using prospectively maintained databases of two large academic intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia. Characteristics of patients who received platelets in ICUs between 2008 and 2014 were compared to those of patients who did not receive platelets...
January 6, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056297/-potential-mechanism-and-prognostic-value-of-promoter-methylation-of-prdm1-gene-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#14
X Y Zhang, Z P Ma, W L Cui, R Chen, Abulajiang Glinaer, N Miao, X X Li
Objective: To investigate PRDM1 gene methylation status, immune classification and their prognostic significance in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for CD20, CD10, bcl-2, bcl-6, PRDM1/Blimp-1 and MUM1 was carried out in 100 cases of DLBCL specimens and 20 reactive lymphoid proliferation samples. All patients were classified into germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype according to Hans' algorithmin. PRDM1 gene methylation was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and its relationship with clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed...
December 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054314/turning-back-the-wheel-inducing-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-via-wilms-tumor-1-knockdown-in-human-mesothelioma-cell-lines-to-influence-proliferation-invasiveness-and-chemotaxis
#15
Till Plönes, Mitja Fischer, Kerstin Höhne, Hiromi Sato, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Gernot Zissel
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumor that arises from the surface of the pleura and is associated with a history of asbestos exposure. The tumor is characterized by a strong local invasiveness and a poor response to any single modality therapy. Therefore clinical outcome of patients with MPM is poor and median survival time of untreated patients with MPM is 7 months from initial diagnosis. The Wilms Tumor Protein 1 (WT1) is a transcription factor which is highly expressed by MPM and is involved in cellular development and survival...
January 4, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053515/gender-differences-in-the-t-cell-profiles-of-the-airways-in-copd-patients-associated-with-clinical-phenotypes
#16
Helena Forsslund, Mingxing Yang, Mikael Mikko, Reza Karimi, Sven Nyrén, Benita Engvall, Johan Grunewald, Heta Merikallio, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Jan Wahlström, Åsa M Wheelock, C Magnus Sköld
T lymphocytes are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). How T cells are recruited to the lungs and contribute to the inflammatory process is largely unknown. COPD is a heterogeneous disease, and discriminating disease phenotypes based on distinct molecular and cellular pathways may provide new approaches for individualized diagnosis and therapies. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were obtained from 40 never-smokers, 40 smokers with normal lung function, and 38 COPD patients...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053147/bone-and-joint-infections-caused-by-mucormycetes-a-challenging-osteoarticular-mycosis-of-the-twenty-first-century
#17
Saad J Taj-Aldeen, Maria N Gamaletsou, Blandine Rammaert, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Valerie Zeller, Emmanuel Roilides, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Michael Henry, Vidmantas Petraitis, Brad Moriyama, David W Denning, Olivier Lortholary, Thomas J Walsh
Osteomyelitis and arthritis caused by mucormycetes are rare diseases that rank among the most challenging complications in orthopedic and trauma surgery. The aim of this work is to review the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the osteoarticular mucormycosis with particular emphasis on high-risk patients. A systematic review of osteoarticular mucormycosis was performed using PUBMED and EMBASE databases from 1978 to 2014. Among 34 patients with median age 41 (0.5-73 years), 24 (71%) were males...
January 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052955/hypoxia-and-sterile-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis-airways-mechanisms-and-potential-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Samuel T Montgomery, Marcus A Mall, Anthony Kicic, Stephen M Stick
Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common autosomal recessive genetic diseases in Caucasian populations. Diagnosis via newborn screening and targeted nutritional and antibiotic therapy have improved outcomes, however respiratory failure remains the key cause of morbidity and mortality. Progressive respiratory disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation associated with structural airway damage leading to bronchiectasis and decreased lung function. Mucus obstruction is a characteristic early abnormality in the cystic fibrosis airway, associated with neutrophilic inflammation often in the absence of detectable infection...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052018/targeting-micrornas-a-new-action-mechanism-of-natural-compounds
#19
REVIEW
Qian Lin, Leina Ma, Zhantao Liu, Zhihong Yang, Jin Wang, Jia Liu, Guohui Jiang
Unlike genetics, epigenetics involves the modification of genome without changes in DNA sequences, including DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling and noncoding RNA regulation. MicroRNA (miRNA), a member of noncoding RNAs superfamily, participates in RNA interference through a unique mechanism. Currently, microRNAs have been found to be regulated by some natural compounds. Through altering the expression of miRNAs and influencing the downstream signaling pathways or target genes, several natural compounds exhibit its bioactivity in the prevention, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis and drug resistance of human diseases, such as cancer...
December 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049695/dysregulated-dna-methyltransferase-3a-upregulates-igfbp5-to-suppress-trophoblast-cell-migration-and-invasion-in-preeclampsia
#20
Yuanhui Jia, Ting Li, Xiaojie Huang, Xianghong Xu, Xinyao Zhou, Linyan Jia, Jingping Zhu, Dandan Xie, Kai Wang, Qian Zhou, Liping Jin, Jiqin Zhang, Tao Duan
Preeclampsia is a unique multiple system disorder during human pregnancy, which affects ≈5% to 8% of pregnancies. Its risks and complications have become the major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although abnormal placentation to which DNA methylation dysregulation is always linked is speculated to be one of the reasons causing preeclampsia, the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive to date. Here we revealed that aberrant DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) plays a critical role in preeclampsia...
January 3, 2017: Hypertension
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