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Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650866/obesity-and-metabolic-stone-disease
#1
Daniel A Wollin, Andreas Skolarikos, Glenn M Preminger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we aim to review the data regarding associations between obesity and nephrolithiasis to assist with workup and treatment of these intersecting disorders. As obesity has a multifactorial influence on the risk for urinary stone disease, the complicated mechanisms will be discussed to improve diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome interact with nephrolithiasis risk factors to produce a myriad of bodily responses that induce stone formation...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643673/-allergy-to-drugs-experience-in-771-procedures
#2
María Cecilia Juri, Diego S Fernández Romero, Blas Larrauri, Eloísa Malbrán, Gabriela Torre, Alejandro Malbrán
Drug hypersensitivity reactions (RHD) are those that present clinically as allergic. They can or cannot involve an immunologic mechanism of lesion. They are frequent and, occasionally, life threatening. Patients with RHD repeat the reaction when they are re-exposed to the drug, limiting the therapeutic options and exposing them to more expensive and toxic drugs. It is difficult to identify the responsible drug when the reaction was not recent or when it occurred in the context of therapy with multiple drugs or confusing concurrent diseases...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641752/congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
Matthew T Harting
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a complex entity wherein a diaphragmatic defect allows intrathoracic herniation of intra-abdominal contents and both pulmonary parenchymal and vascular development are stifled. Pulmonary pathology and pathophysiology, including pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension, are hallmarks of CDH and are associated with disease severity. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is sustained, supranormal pulmonary arterial pressure, and among patients with CDH (CDH-PH), is driven by hypoplastic pulmonary vasculature, including alterations at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels, along with pathophysiologic pulmonary vasoreactivity...
June 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641304/hyperemesis-gravidarum-a-review-of-recent-literature
#4
Viktoriya London, Stephanie Grube, David M Sherer, Ovadia Abulafia
BACKGROUND: In the United States, hyperemesis gravidarum is the most common cause of hospitalization during the first half of pregnancy and is second only to preterm labor for hospitalizations in pregnancy overall. In approximately 0.3-3% of pregnancies, hyperemesis gravidarum is prevalent and this percentage varies on account of different diagnostic criteria and ethnic variation in study populations. Despite extensive research in this field, the mechanism of the disease is largely unknown...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640080/immature-enteric-ganglion-cells-were-observed-in-a-13-year-old-colon-signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Huili Li, Kun Huang, Hui Wang, Lin Wang, Ming Yang, Lixia Wang, Rong Lin, Hongli Liu, Jinbo Gao, Xiaoming Shuai, Xinghua Liu, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang
RATIONALE: All the enteric ganglion cells are fully mature by 2 to 5 years of age in human. No one had reported the presentation of immature enteric ganglion cells in elder ones. Colorectal carcinoma is also rare in the adolescent population. The coincidence of these 2 rare events in a 13-year-old boy has never been reported elsewhere, which may suggest some linkage between them. PATIENT CONCERN: A 13-year-old boy presented with progressive abdominal pain and melena for 3 months...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638822/extracellular-vesicles-in-renal-pathophysiology
#6
REVIEW
Margherita A C Pomatto, Chiara Gai, Benedetta Bussolati, Giovanni Camussi
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous population of microparticles released by virtually all living cells which have been recently widely investigated in different biological fields. They are typically composed of two primary types (exosomes and microvesicles) and are recently commanding increasing attention as mediators of cellular signaling. Indeed, these vesicles can affect recipient cells by carrying and delivering complex cargos of biomolecules (including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids), protected from enzymatic degradation in the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637606/inter-examiner-classification-reliability-of-mechanical-diagnosis-and-therapy-for-extremity-problems-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Hiroshi Takasaki, Kousuke Okuyama, Richard Rosedale
BACKGROUND: Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) is used in the treatment of extremity problems. Classifying clinical problems is one method of providing effective treatment to a target population. Classification reliability is a key factor to determine the precise clinical problem and to direct an appropriate intervention. OBJECTIVES: To explore inter-examiner reliability of the MDT classification for extremity problems in three reliability designs: 1) vignette reliability using surveys with patient vignettes, 2) concurrent reliability, where multiple assessors decide a classification by observing someone's assessment, 3) successive reliability, where multiple assessors independently assess the same patient at different times...
February 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634592/euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis-with-prolonged-glucosuria-associated-with-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-canagliflozin
#9
Daniel A Kelmenson, Kelsey Burr, Yusra Azhar, Paul Reynolds, Chelsea A Baker, Neda Rasouli
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve glycemic control by a reversible inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporters in the renal proximal tubules resulting in increased urinary glucose. This unique mechanism, independent of insulin secretion and beta cell function, has made this class of medication desirable in patients with type 2 diabetes. However in May 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a safety warning pertaining to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632924/metabolomics-as-a-driver-in-advancing-precision-medicine-in-sepsis
#10
Michelle Eckerle, Lilliam Ambroggio, Michael Puskarich, Brent Winston, Alan E Jones, Theodore J Standiford, Kathleen A Stringer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to explain the science of metabolomics-a science of systems biology that measures and studies endogenous small molecules (metabolites) that are present in a single biological sample-and its application to the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. In addition, we discuss how discovery through metabolomics can contribute to the development of precision medicine targets for this complex disease state and the potential avenues for those new discoveries to be applied in the clinical environment...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631531/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-anakinra-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-corticosteroids-in-the-management-of-critically-ill-adult-patients-with-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#11
Philipp Wohlfarth, Hermine Agis, Guido A Gualdoni, Johannes Weber, Thomas Staudinger, Peter Schellongowski, Oliver Robak
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) causes multiple organ dysfunction frequently leading to intensive care unit (ICU) referral and/or death. We report on a series of critically ill adult patients treated with a non-etoposide-based regimen including interleukin 1 antagonist anakinra, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and/or corticosteroids (CS) for HLH. METHODS: Eight adult (≥18 years) ICU patients having received treatment with anakinra ± IVIG ± CS for HLH between March 2014 and March 2016 at a large tertiary care university hospital (Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria) were retrospectively analyzed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630232/long-noncoding-rna-h19-promotes-neuroinflammation-in-ischemic-stroke-by-driving-histone-deacetylase-1-dependent-m1-microglial-polarization
#12
Jue Wang, Haiping Zhao, Zhibin Fan, Guangwen Li, Qingfeng Ma, Zhen Tao, Rongliang Wang, Juan Feng, Yumin Luo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Long noncoding RNA H19 is repressed after birth, but can be induced by hypoxia. We aim to investigate the impact on and underlying mechanism of H19 induction after ischemic stroke. METHODS: Circulating H19 levels in stroke patients and mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. H19 siRNA and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) plasmid were used to knock down H19 and overexpress HDAC1, respectively...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627685/metabolomic-analysis-based-on-1h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-metabolic-profiles-in-tuberculous-malignant-and-transudative-pleural-effusion
#13
Cheng Wang, Jingjin Peng, Yanling Kuang, Jiaqiang Zhang, Luming Dai
Pleural effusion is a common clinical manifestation with various causes. Current diagnostic and therapeutic methods have exhibited numerous limitations. By involving the analysis of dynamic changes in low molecular weight catabolites, metabolomics has been widely applied in various types of disease and have provided platforms to distinguish many novel biomarkers. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are few studies regarding the metabolic profiling for pleural effusion. In the current study, 58 pleural effusion samples were collected, among which 20 were malignant pleural effusions, 20 were tuberculous pleural effusions and 18 were transudative pleural effusions...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625914/prioritizing-disease-causing-microbes-based-on-random-walking-on-the-heterogeneous-network
#14
Xianjun Shen, Yao Chen, Xingpeng Jiang, Xiaohua Hu, Tingting He, Jincai Yang
As we all know, the microbiota show remarkable variability within individuals. At the same time, those microorganisms living in the human body play a very important role in our health and disease, so the identification of the relationships between microbes and diseases will contribute to better understanding of microbes interactions, mechanism of functions. However, the microbial data which are obtained through the related technical sequencing is too much, but the known associations between the diseases and microbes are very less...
June 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624903/early-diagnosis-of-sepsis-is-an-integrated-omics-approach-the-way-forward
#15
REVIEW
Raymond J Langley, Hector R Wong
Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in the USA and it is expected to get worse as the population ages. Moreover, the standard of care, which recommends aggressive treatment with appropriate antibiotics, has led to an increase in multiple drug-resistant organisms. There is a dire need for the development of new antibiotics, improved antibiotic stewardship, and therapies that treat the host response. Development of new sepsis therapeutics has been a disappointment as no drugs are currently approved to treat the various complications from sepsis...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622169/molecular-aspects-of-allergens-in-atopic-dermatitis
#16
Raffaela Campana, Sheron Dzoro, Irene Mittermann, Elena Fedenko, Olga Elisyutina, Musa Khaitov, Alexander Karaulov, Rudolf Valenta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Molecular allergology uses pure, mainly recombinant and structurally defined allergen molecules and allergen-derived epitopes to study mechanisms of IgE-associated allergy, to diagnose, and even predict the development of allergic manifestations and to treat and prevent IgE-associated allergies. Atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease is almost always associated with IgE sensitization to allergens. However, also non-IgE-mediated pathomechanisms seem to be operative in atopic dermatitis and it is often difficult to identify the disease-causing allergens...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620499/intrauterine-death-following-intraamniotic-triiodothyronine-and-thyroxine-therapy-for-fetal-goitrous-hypothyroidism-associated-with-polyhydramnios-and-caused-by-a-thyroglobulin-mutation
#17
Pradeep Vasudevan, Corrina Powell, Adeline K Nicholas, Ian Scudamore, James Greening, Soo-Mi Park, Nadia Schoenmakers
In the absence of maternal thyroid disease or iodine deficiency, fetal goitre is rare and usually attributable to dyshormonogenesis, for which genetic ascertainment is not always undertaken in the UK. Mechanical complications include tracheal and oesophageal compression with resultant polyhydramnios, malpresentation at delivery and neonatal respiratory distress. We report an Indian kindred in which the proband (first-born son) had congenital hypothyroidism (CH) without obvious neonatal goitre. His mother's second pregnancy was complicated by fetal hypothyroid goitre and polyhydramnios, prompting amniotic fluid drainage and intraamniotic therapy (with liothyronine, T3 and levothyroxine, T4)...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615115/circulatory-collapse-in-a-parturient-undergoing-cesarean-delivery-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#18
M M Tawfik, M E Taman, A I Tarbay, M Sayed, K A Awad
Embolic events including thromboembolism, air embolism, and amniotic fluid embolism can cause cardiovascular collapse during cesarean delivery. Differentiation between the three conditions is challenging because they share many of the initial clinical and echocardiographic findings, but an accurate, definitive diagnosis allows the administration of specific therapy that may help in saving the life of the mother and/or the fetus. We report a case of cardiovascular collapse during cesarean delivery under general anesthesia; massive pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected and unfractionated heparin was administered...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614862/-thoracic-trauma-prehospital-treatment
#19
Michael Hansen, Thomas Hachenberg
Penetrating thoracic injuries are rare in Germany and common in urban regions. 10 percent of the patients in Emergency Departments suffer from blunt thoracic trauma. Mechanism of trauma can predict the severity of the injuries. Very fast life-threatening injuries with hemodynamic problems like tension pneumothorax or cardiac tamponade have to be diagnosed. Prehospital emergency physicians need skills in ultrasound for diagnosis and in invasive therapy like chest tube or pericardium drainage tube. The application of an algorithm in exploration of a thoracic trauma seems to be useful...
June 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612615/-new-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-the-elderly
#20
Z Šustková, M Čulen, L Semerád, I Ježíšková, D Dvořáková, Z Ráčil, J Mayer
BACKGROUND: At the time of diagnosis, most patients with acute myeloid leukemia are older than 65 years of age. Treatment of this group of patients is challenging because they become less tolerant to aggressive chemotherapy with increasing age. Less than one-third of elderly patients are considered eligible for intensive treatment; nevertheless, the survival analysis for this population remains poor. Due to numerous comorbidities and an overall deteriorating condition, most elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia receive only palliative or best supportive care, which are associated with a high mortality rate...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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