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Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy

A V Sakharov, A S Ozornin, S E Golygina, A O Vinogradova, M S Shvets
AIM: To study microcirculation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia by laser Doppler flowmetry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients at the age from 18 to 38 years with a diagnosis of 'paranoid schizophrenia' (F20.0) were examined in the acute psychotic state and after 3 weeks of therapy. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. To assess microcirculation, the noninvasive technique of laser Doppler flowmetry using a laser blood flow analyzer was used...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Steven K M Lau, Bhavani S Gannavarapu, Kristen Carter, Ang Gao, Chul Ahn, Jeffrey J Meyer, David J Sher, Aminah Jatoi, Rodney Infante, Puneeth Iyengar
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) influences health care outcomes, but the influence of primary payer on cancer-associated wasting is unknown. We hypothesized that primary payer as an indicator of SES would influence pretreatment cancer-associated weight loss and treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records identified 1,366 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) consecutively treated at a tertiary care health system between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2013...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Yan Liu, Pengcheng Zhang, Feifei Li, Xiaodong Jin, Jin Li, Weiqiang Chen, Qiang Li
Radiotherapy is one of the major therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. In the past decade, there has been growing interest in using high Z (atomic number) elements (materials) as radiosensitizers. New strategies in nanomedicine could help to improve cancer diagnosis and therapy at cellular and molecular levels. Metal-based nanoparticles usually exhibit chemical inertness in cellular and subcellular systems and may play a role in radiosensitization and synergistic cell-killing effects for radiation therapy...
2018: Theranostics
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
According to Professor Basil T. Darras, Professor of Neurology (Pediatrics) at Harvard Medical School and Director of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Program at Boston Children's Hospital in Boston (MA, USA), the diagnosis of SMA type I is clinical and is based on detailed general physical and neurological examinations. SMA type I remains the most common genetic disease resulting in death in infancy and is really devastating for the child, the parents, as well as the medical professionals with the privilege of caring for patients with SMA and their parents...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jonathan Welti, Adam Sharp, Wei Yuan, David I Dolling, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Ines Figueiredo, Veronica Gil, Antje Neeb, Matthew Clarke, George Seed, Mateus Crespo, Semini Sumanasuriya, Jian Ning, Eleanor Knight, Jeffrey C Francis, Ashley Hughes, Wendy S Halsey, Alec Paschalis, Ram S Mani, Ganesh V Raj, Steve Plymate, Suzanne Carreira, Gunther Boysen, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Amanda Swain, Johann S de Bono
PURPOSE:  Persistent androgen receptor (AR) signaling drives castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and confers resistance to AR targeting therapies. Novel therapeutic strategies to overcome this are urgently required. We evaluated how bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors (BETi) abrogate aberrant AR signaling in CRPC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:  We determined associations between BET expression, AR driven transcription and patient outcome; and the effect and mechanism by which chemical BETi (JQ1 and GSK1210151A; I-BET151) and BET family protein knockdown regulates AR-V7 expression and AR signaling in prostate cancer (PC) models...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Chiara Preziosa, Federico Corvi, Marco Pellegrini, Sara Bochicchio, Ana P Rosar, Giovanni Staurenghi
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To document by optical coherence tomography angiography, the onset of a choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to traumatic choroidal rupture and describe its changes after an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 20-year-old woman presented referring vision loss after a blunt ocular trauma in her left eye. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200...
March 16, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
M Sacchetti, I Abicca, A Bruscolini, C Cavaliere, M Nebbioso, A Lambiase
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) includes a wide spectrum of clinical entities characterized by different incidence, age of onset, natural course, clinical outcome and response to treatment. Taken together, they represent one of the most frequent ocular surface diseases affecting more than 30% of the young-adult population and show an increasing incidence over the years. Moreover, comorbidities with other systemic atopic conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinitis require a multidisciplinary approach...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Leslie Duplaquet, Zoulika Kherrouche, Simon Baldacci, Philippe Jamme, Alexis B Cortot, Marie-Christine Copin, David Tulasne
Targeted therapies against receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are currently used with success on a small proportion of patients displaying clear oncogene activation. Lung cancers with a mutated EGFR provide a good illustration. The efficacy of targeted treatments relies on oncogene addiction, a situation in which the growth or survival of the cancer cells depends on a single deregulated oncogene. MET, a member of the RTK family, is a promising target because it displays many deregulations in a broad panel of cancers...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
Vincent-Philippe Lavallée, Jalila Chagraoui, Tara MacRae, Miriam Marquis, Arnaud Bonnefoy, Jana Krosl, Sébastien Lemieux, Anne Marinier, Caroline Pabst, Georges-Étienne Rivard, Josée Hébert, Guy Sauvageau
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a medical emergency because of associated lethal early bleeding, a condition preventable by prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The mechanisms underlying the hemostatic anomalies of APL are not completely elucidated. RNA-sequencing-based characterization of APL (n = 30) was performed and compared to that of other acute myeloid leukemia (n = 400) samples and normal promyelocytes. Perturbations in the transcriptome of coagulation and fibrinolysis-related genes in APL extend beyond known culprits and now include Thrombin, Factor X and Urokinase Receptor...
February 23, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
D Valenzuela, F Moya, M Luco, J L Tapia
50 years ago, Northway described Broncopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants exposed to mechanical ventilation. Since then, their survival has increased, nevertheless a "new BPD" has appeared and its incidence has not diminished. One of the characteristics of this pathology is the the abnormal vascular remodeling, which in its most severe expression is known as Pulmonary Hyper tension (PH); with an incidence of 17% in patients with BPD, which is proportional to the severity of the disease (33% in severe BPD), and as mortality factor (up to 48% 2-year mortality in PH-BPD)...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Zhong Ni, Xiting Wang, Tianchen Zhang, Linlin Li, Jianxue Li
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the subtype of lung cancer with the highest degree of malignancy and the lowest degree of differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of SCLC using bioinformatics analysis, and to provide new ideas for the early diagnosis and targeted therapy of SCLC. Microarray data were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SCLC were compared with the normal lung samples and identified. Gene Ontology (GO) function and pathway analysis of DEGs was performed through the DAVID database...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Viola Andresen, Peter Layer
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) counts among the most prevalent chronic diseases. Clinically, the IBS is characterized by abdominal symptoms combined with irregular defecation, which are not explained by routine diagnostic tests. IBS is often triggered by enteric bacterial infections, and its pathogenesis involves disturbed enteric, gut-brain, and cerebral mechanisms. Diagnostic work-up must aim to establish a positive IBS diagnosis, and to exclude serious underlying differential diagnoses (such as neoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and others)...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Bruce Cv Campbell, Mark W Parsons
This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the use of imaging to guide stroke treatment. Brain imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of stroke and identification of the mechanism of stroke, which is relevant to acute treatment, prognosis, and secondary prevention. The chief potential modalities are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, most imaging occurs in hospital but mobile stroke units have expanded CT brain imaging into the prehospital field...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Zachary Niday, Anastasios V Tzingounis
Exome and targeted sequencing have revolutionized clinical diagnosis. This has been particularly striking in epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders, for which new genes or new variants of preexisting candidate genes are being continuously identified at increasing rates every year. A surprising finding of these efforts is the recognition that gain of function potassium channel variants are actually associated with certain types of epilepsy, such as malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy or early-onset epileptic encephalopathy...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Hiroshi Tamura, Tatsuo Kanda, Tadasu Chida, Hitoshi Kameyama, Ukihide Tateishi, Toshifumi Wakai, Makoto Naito
BACKGROUND: Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a rare disease characterized by multiple gas-filled cysts in the intestinal wall and is associated with various comorbidities. We report herein a case of intractable paralytic ileus caused by primary PCI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old man visited out hospital complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. He had been hospitalized twice for intestinal obstruction in the past 2 months. Based on his history of appendectomy, mechanical bowel obstruction caused by adhesion was diagnosed, and the patient underwent surgery...
March 14, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Yasutaka Tajima, Mariko Matsumura, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito
A 27-year-old woman with optic neuritis and cervical myelitis developed hypertrophic demyelinating polyneuropathy. It was hypothesized that the diagnosis was combined central and peripheral demyelination. A hypertrophic nerve was observed subcutaneously, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated marked hypertrophy of the nerve roots. The patient was negative for anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies. Her anti-neurofascin 155 antibody levels was slightly elevated, but it was not definitely positive. Pulsed steroid therapy and the administration of immunoglobulin ameliorated her symptoms...
2018: Internal Medicine
Decai Ji, Lining Jiang, Yingjie Li
Bladder cancer has been identified as one of the most malignant cancers with high incidence and mortality. The underlying mechanisms by which regulate the tumorigenesis of bladder cancer deserve further investigation. Here, we found that miR-192-5p was downregulated in human bladder cancer cell lines and tissues. Overexpression of miR-192-5p significantly inhibited the growth of bladder cancer cells, while depletion of miR-192-5p exerted opposite effect. Bioinformatics analysis and molecular mechanism study identified that miR-192-5p targeted the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and decreased the expression level of YY1...
March 13, 2018: Human Cell
Rafi Sakhi, Dominic A M J Theuns, Rohit E Bhagwandien, Michelle Michels, Arend F L Schinkel, Tamas Szili-Torok, F Zijlstra, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Sing-Chien Yap
PURPOSE: In patients with structural heart disease (SHD) or inherited primary arrhythmia syndrome (IPAS), the occurrence of unexplained syncope or palpitations can be worrisome as they are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. An implantable loop recorder (ILR) can be a useful diagnostic tool. Our purpose was to compare the diagnostic yield, arrhythmia mechanism, and management in patients with SHD, patients with IPAS, and those without heart disease. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study in consecutive patients who underwent an ILR implantation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Georgia Brown, Tilman Humpl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) complicates the course of many cardiovascular, pulmonary and other systemic diseases in children. The physiological sequelae (pulmonary hypertension and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance) can overwhelm the right ventricle and lead to circulatory collapse. Despite the common end-point, the preceding pathophysiology is complex and variable and requires a tailored approach to diagnosis and management. In this article, we will review the most recent evidence and explore an approach to current controversies in the diagnosis and management of common or challenging patient subgroups...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Aaron M Rutman, Justin E Vranic, Mahmud Mossa-Basha
Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is a relatively rare but potentially devastating finding in patients with high-energy blunt force trauma or direct cervical and/or craniofacial injury. The radiologist plays an essential role in identifying and grading the various types of vascular injury, including minimal intimal injury, dissection with raised intimal flap or intraluminal thrombus, intramural hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, occlusion, transection, and arteriovenous fistula. Early identification of BCVI is important, as treatment with antithrombotic therapy has been shown to reduce the incidence of postinjury ischemic stroke...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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