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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228354/effect-of-tamoxifen-on-spermatogenesis-and-testicular-steroidogenesis
#1
Rachna Verma, Amitabh Krishna
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vivo and in vitro treatments with selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen on testicular functions. The testis treated with tamoxifen, in vivo or in vitro, showed dose-dependent regressive changes in spermatogenesis. This study showed that the decreased estrogenic effect due to tamoxifen may be directly responsible for decreased testicular expression of aromatase, which in turn may be responsible for decreased synthesis of estradiol in the testis...
February 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185173/ovarian-function-suppression-in-premenopausal-women-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Matteo Lambertini, Lucia Del Mastro, Giulia Viglietti, Noam F Pondé, Cinzia Solinas, Evandro de Azambuja
Breast cancers arising in young women are biologically more aggressive, and most of these patients are candidates to receive aggressive treatments that include the use of chemotherapy. As most of these tumors express the hormone receptors (i.e., luminal disease), these patients are also candidates to adjuvant endocrine therapy. Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea showed to be prognostic in young patients with luminal breast cancer. However, the role of ovarian function suppression (OFS) in addition to standard adjuvant treatments has been largely debated over the past years...
January 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163101/identification-of-mirnas-as-biomarkers-for-acquired-endocrine-resistance-in-breast-cancer
#3
Penn Muluhngwi, Carolyn M Klinge
Therapies targeting estrogen receptor α (ERα) including tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and aromatase inhibitors (AI), e.g., letrozole, have proven successful in reducing the death rate for breast cancer patients whose initial tumors express ERα. However, about 40% of patients develop acquired resistance to these endocrine treatments. There is a critical need to develop sensitive circulating biomarkers that accurately identify signaling pathways altered in breast cancer patients resistant to endocrine therapies...
February 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155606/clinical-utility-of-neoadjuvant-endocrine-therapy-for-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#4
Hans-Christian Kolberg, Bahriye Aktas, Cornelia Liedtke
Primary endocrine therapy is an option in cases of hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative non-metastatic breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are considered therapy of choice in postmenopausal patients. In premenopausal patients aromatase inhibitors in combination with LHRH-analogues are regarded superior to tamoxifen. Three different settings have to be discriminated: • Patients too frail for surgery are candidates for primary endocrine therapy in order to control the disease. Treatment duration is determined by the course of the disease...
February 1, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155053/weight-changes-in-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-survivors-over-2%C3%A2-years-of-endocrine-therapy-a-retrospective-chart-review
#5
Kirsten A Nyrop, Allison M Deal, Jordan T Lee, Hyman B Muss, Seul Ki Choi, Samara Dixon, Amy Wheless, Lisa A Carey, Shlomit S Shachar
PURPOSE: Obesity and weight gain after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can affect cancer outcomes. This study explores the question of weight change during the first 2 years of endocrine treatment (ET) to identify the independent effects of BC diagnosis and treatment on post-diagnosis weight trajectories in early-stage postmenopausal BC survivors. METHODS: The study design is a retrospective chart review. Chi square tests and ANOVA were used to compare patients who gained >2 kg, lost >2 kg, or had stable weight...
February 2, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148596/longitudinal-changes-in-volumetric-breast-density-with-tamoxifen-and-aromatase-inhibitors
#6
Natalie J Engmann, Christopher Scott, Matthew R Jensen, Lin Ma, Kathleen R Brandt, Amir Mahmoudzadeh, Serghei Malkov, Dana H Whaley, Carrie Hruska, Fang-Fang Wu, Stacey Winham, Diana L Miglioretti, Aaron D Norman, John Heine, John Shepherd, Vernon S Pankratz, Celine M Vachon, Karla Kerlikowske
BACKGROUND: Reductions in breast density with tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors may be an intermediate marker of treatment response. We compare changes in volumetric breast density among breast cancer cases using tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (AI) to untreated women without breast cancer. METHODS: Breast cancer cases with a digital mammogram prior to diagnosis and after initiation of tamoxifen (n=366) or AI (n=403), and a sample of controls (n=2170) were identified from the Mayo Clinic Mammography Practice and San Francisco Mammography Registry...
February 1, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117994/novel-selective-estrogen-receptor-downregulators-serds-developed-against-treatment-resistant-breast-cancer
#7
Rui Xiong, Jiong Zhao, Lauren M Gutgesell, Yueting Wang, Sue Lee, Bhargava Karumudi, Huiping Zhao, Yunlong Lu, Debra A Tonetti, Gregory R J Thatcher
Resistance to the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen and to aromatase inhibitors that lower circulating estradiol occurs in up to 50% of patients, generally leading to an endocrine-independent ER+ phenotype. Selective ER downregulators (SERDs) are able to ablate ER and thus, theoretically, to prevent survival of both endocrine-dependent and -independent ER+ tumors. The clinical SERD fulvestrant is hampered by intramuscular administration and undesirable pharmacokinetics. Novel SERDs were designed using the 6-OH-benzothiophene (BT) scaffold common to arzoxifene and raloxifene...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106545/the-alterations-of-serum-fgf-21-levels-metabolic-and-body-composition-in-early-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy
#8
Murat Akyol, Ahmet Alacacioglu, Leyla Demir, Yuksel Kucukzeybek, Yasar Yildiz, Zehra Gumus, Mete Kara, Tarik Salman, Umut Varol, Halil Taskaynatan, Utku Oflazoglu, Vedat Bayoglu, Mustafa Oktay Tarhan
BACKGROUND: In early breast cancer patients, the effects of hormonal therapy (tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors) on plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), lipid levels and body composition have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between FGF-21 and body composition as well as the effects of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors on plasma lipid levels, FGF-21, and body composition. METHODS: A total of 72 patients were treated with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors due to their menopausal status after adjuvant radiotherapy...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058096/breast-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-a-literature-review-of-adjuvant-hormonal-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Stephen Kinsey-Trotman, Zumin Shi, Beverley Fosh
This review paper analyzed publications of adjuvant tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor use following surgery for breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Key endpoint analyses were risk of invasive and noninvasive malignancies and new contralateral breast cancers. Metaanalysis of three studies showed a relative risk of 0.69 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.79, P<0.05) for breast malignancies with tamoxifen treatment in a mixed radiotherapy treatment/naïve cohort. Subgroup analysis of DCIS populations in multiple studies showed a trend to benefit with aromatase inhibitor treatment...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053622/role-of-ovarian-function-suppression-in-premenopausal-women-with-early-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Woo-Chan Park
Historically, endocrine therapy for breast cancer began with ovarian ablation (OA) for the treatment of premenopausal patients. After the identification of estrogen receptors and the development of many antiestrogens, tamoxifen has been approved and used as the standard endocrine therapy for hormonal receptor (HR)-positive premenopausal patients to date. With the development of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, the paradigm of endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer began to change from OA to ovarian function suppression (OFS)...
December 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034069/association-between-out-of-pocket-costs-race-ethnicity-and-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-adherence-among-medicare-patients-with-breast-cancer
#11
Albert J Farias, Xianglin L Du
Purpose Previous studies suggest that adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) for patients with breast cancer is suboptimal, especially among minorities, and is associated with out-of-pocket medication costs. This study aimed to determine whether there are racial/ethnic differences in 1-year adherence to AET and whether out-of-pocket costs explain the racial/ethnic disparities in adherence. Methods This retrospective cohort study used the SEER-Medicare linked database to identify patients ≥ 65 years of age with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who were enrolled in Medicare Part D from 2007 to 2009...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011074/patient-database-analysis-of-fulvestrant-500%C3%A2-mg-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-european-perspective
#12
Paolo Marchetti, Nicolai Maass, Joseph Gligorov, Karin Berger, Finlay MacDougall, Jukka Montonen, Jan Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Clinical guidelines recommend that patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) should be preferentially treated with endocrine therapy. Fulvestrant (a selective estrogen receptor degrader) is approved for use in these patients following relapse after, or relapse or progression during, antiestrogen therapy. This descriptive study analyzed European treatment patterns for HR-positive MBC in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: The IMS Oncology Analyzer (OA), a retrospective cancer treatment database reporting physician-entered patient case histories, was used to identify records for postmenopausal women with HR-positive MBC from April 1, 2004 to June 30, 2013 in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain...
December 20, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998966/cardiotoxicity-of-aromatase-inhibitors-and-tamoxifen-in-post-menopausal-women-with-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
REVIEW
F Khosrow-Khavar, K B Filion, S Al-Qurashi, N Torabi, N Bouganim, S Suissa, L Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been associated with cardiovascular disease in adjuvant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing these drugs to tamoxifen. However, it is unclear whether this risk is real or due to cardioprotective effects of tamoxifen. To address this question, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all RCTs of AIs and tamoxifen in adjuvant and extended adjuvant setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase (OVID), Cochrane CENTRAL, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976369/clomiphene-and-other-antioestrogens-for-ovulation-induction-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Subfertility due to anovulation is a common problem in women. First-line oral treatment is with antioestrogens such as clomiphene citrate, but resistance may be apparent with clomiphene. Alternative and adjunctive treatments have been used including tamoxifen, dexamethasone, and bromocriptine. The effectiveness of these is to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative effectiveness of antioestrogen agents including clomiphene alone or in combination with other medical therapies in women with subfertility associated with anovulation, possibly caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome...
15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967255/endocrine-therapy-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#15
Simon P Langdon, Charlie Gourley, Hani Gabra, Barbara Stanley
The estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed at high levels in many epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) and represents a potential target for endocrine therapy. Both anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors have been evaluated in phase II clinical trials. Areas covered: We present an overview of the phase II and phase III trials of anti-estrogens (tamoxifen and fulvestrant) and aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrazole and exemestane) undertaken in epithelial ovarian cancer identified through a Pubmed search. We describe predictive biomarkers that are being investigated to identify responsive cancers...
February 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894075/mammographic-density-a-potential-monitoring-biomarker-for-adjuvant-and-preventative-breast-cancer-endocrine-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Michael S Shawky, Hilary Martin, Honor J Hugo, Thomas Lloyd, Kara L Britt, Andrew Redfern, Erik W Thompson
Increased mammographic density (MD) has been shown beyond doubt to be a marker for increased breast cancer risk, though the underpinning pathobiology is yet to be fully elucidated. Estrogenic activity exerts a strong influence over MD, which consequently has been observed to change predictably in response to tamoxifen anti-estrogen therapy, although results for other selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors are less consistent. In both primary and secondary prevention settings, tamoxifen-associated MD changes correlate with successful modulation of risk or outcome, particularly among pre-menopausal women; an observation that supports the potential use of MD change as a surrogate marker where short-term MD changes reflect longer-term anti-estrogen efficacy...
November 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852186/supportive-care-of-women-with-breast-cancer-key-concerns-and-practical-solutions
#17
Nicholas Zdenkowski, Stephanie Tesson, Janine Lombard, Melanie Lovell, Sandra Hayes, Prudence A Francis, Haryana M Dhillon, Frances M Boyle
Patients diagnosed with breast cancer may have supportive care needs for many years after diagnosis. High quality multidisciplinary care can help address these needs and reduce the physical and psychological effects of breast cancer and its treatment. Ovarian suppression and extended endocrine therapy benefits are associated with vasomotor, musculoskeletal, sexual and bone density-related side effects. Aromatase inhibitor musculoskeletal syndrome is a common reason for treatment discontinuation. Treatment strategies include education, exercise, simple analgesia and a change to tamoxifen or another aromatase inhibitor...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848887/metabolism-and-toxicological-implications-of-commonly-used-chemopreventive-drugs-against-breast-cancer-carcinogenesis
#18
Aliyu Muhammad, Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Ochuko Lucky Erukainure, Ibrahim Malami, Hadiza Sani, Hafsat Abdullahi Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been reported to be among the frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide despite advances in early detection and treatment. Several drugs are currently used for chemoprevention as a result of a number of drawbacks associated with breast cancer therapy. AIM: This review focuses on the metabolism and toxicological implications of these drugs against breast cancer/carcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY: Relevant articles on the commonly used anti-breast cancer drugs (raloxifene, tamoxifen, anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane) used in chemoprevention were searched using the major scientific databases including Scopus, Embase, PubMed/ Medline, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843622/review-of-hormone-based-treatments-in-postmenopausal-patients-with-advanced-breast-cancer-focusing-on-aromatase-inhibitors-and-fulvestrant
#19
REVIEW
Iben Kümler, Ann S Knoop, Christina A R Jessing, Bent Ejlertsen, Dorte L Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Endocrine therapy constitutes a central modality in the treatment of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive advanced breast cancer. PURPOSE: To evaluate the evidence for endocrine treatment in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer focusing on the aromatase inhibitors, letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane and fulvestrant. METHODS: A review was carried out using PubMed. Randomised phase II and III trials reporting on ≥100 patients were included...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823654/aromatase-inhibitors-in-premenopause-great-expectations-fulfilled
#20
REVIEW
Rosalba Torrisi, Selene Rota, Agnese Losurdo, Monica Zuradelli, Giovanna Masci, Armando Santoro
Tamoxifen and GnRH analogues (GnRHa) represent the mainstay of endocrine manipulations in premenopausal women. The estrogen blockade obtained by aromatase inhibitors (AIs) plus GnRHa suppresses circulating estrogens more deeply than tamoxifen plus GnRHa. Retrospective and prospective evidence confirm a substantial activity for AIs and GnRHa in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. In early breast cancer inconsistent evidence emerged from 2 large randomized studies with anastrozole performing as tamoxifen in terms of DFS, but significantly worse as of OS while exemestane outperformed tamoxifen as of DFS particularly in very young and high-risk women...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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