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Tamoxifen aromatase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526959/adjuvant-tamoxifen-but-not-aromatase-inhibitor-therapy-decreases-serum-levels-of-the-wnt-inhibitor-dickkopf-1-while-not-affecting-sclerostin-in-breast-cancer-patients
#1
Andy Göbel, Jan D Kuhlmann, Theresa Link, Pauline Wimberger, Andrew J Browne, Martina Rauner, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Tilman D Rachner
PURPOSE: Endocrine therapies, including tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, are indispensable for the treatment of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)- and/or progesterone-positive breast cancer. Whereas tamoxifen displays partial ER agonistic effects in bone, aromatase inhibitors increase bone resorption and fracture risk. The Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and sclerostin negatively impact bone formation and are considered targets for the treatment of bone disorders. However, the effect of endocrine therapies on serum DKK-1 and sclerostin levels in patients with primary breast cancer remains elusive...
May 19, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515111/racial%C3%A2-differences-in-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-use-and-discontinuation-in-association-with-mortality-among-medicare-breast-cancer-patients-by-receptor-status
#2
Albert J Farias, Xianglin L Du
BACKGROUND: There are racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. Our purpose was to determine whether racial/ethnic differences in use and discontinuation of AET differed by hormone receptor status and whether discontinuation was associated with mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with SEER/Medicare dataset of women age 65 years or older diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in Medicare Part-D from 2007-2009, stratified by hormone receptor status...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494403/her2-status-predicts-for-upfront-ai-benefit-a%C3%A2-trans-aiog-meta-analysis-of-12-129-patients-from%C3%A2-atac-big-1-98-and-team-with-centrally-determined-her2
#3
John M S Bartlett, Ikhlaaq Ahmed, Meredith M Regan, Ivana Sestak, Elizabeth A Mallon, Patrizia Dell'Orto, Beat Thürlimann, Caroline Seynaeve, Hein Putter, Cornelis J H Van de Velde, Cassandra L Brookes, John F Forbes, Giuseppe Viale, Jack Cuzick, Mitchell Dowsett, Daniel W Rea
BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis of the effects of HER2 status, specifically within the first 2-3 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy, has the potential to inform patient selection for upfront aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy or switching strategy tamoxifen followed by AI. The pre-existing standardisation of methodology for HER2 (immunohistochemistry/fluorescence in situ hybridization) facilitates analysis of existing data for this key marker. METHODS: Following a prospectively designed statistical analysis plan, patient data from 3 phase III trials Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination Trial (ATAC), Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 and Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multicentre Trial (TEAM)] comparing an AI to tamoxifen during the first 2-3 years of adjuvant endocrine treatment were collected and a treatment-by-marker analysis of distant recurrence-free interval-censored at 2-3 years treatment - for HER2 status × AI versus tamoxifen treatment was performed to address the clinical question relating to efficacy of 'upfront' versus 'switch' strategies for AIs...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491147/a-clinical-guide-to-the-management-of-genitourinary-symptoms-in-breast-cancer-survivors-on-endocrine-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Mariana S Sousa, Michelle Peate, Sherin Jarvis, Martha Hickey, Michael Friedlander
There is increasing attention and concern about managing the adverse effects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for women with early breast cancer as the side effects of therapy influence compliance and can impair quality of life (QoL). Most side effects associated with tamoxifen (TAM) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are directly related to estrogen deprivation, and the symptoms are similar to those experienced during natural menopause but appear to be more severe than that seen in the general population. Prolonged estrogen deprivation may lead to atrophy of the vulva, vagina, lower urinary tract and supporting pelvic structures, resulting in a range of genitourinary symptoms that can in turn lead to pain, discomfort, impairment of sexual function and negatively impact on multiple domains of QoL...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467729/long-term-follow-up-of-the-intergroup-exemestane-study
#5
James P Morden, Isabel Alvarez, Gianfilippo Bertelli, Alan S Coates, Robert Coleman, Lesley Fallowfield, Jacek Jassem, Stephen Jones, Lucy Kilburn, Per E Lønning, Olaf Ortmann, Claire Snowdon, Cornelis van de Velde, Jørn Andersen, Lucia Del Mastro, David Dodwell, Stig Holmberg, Hanna Nicholas, Robert Paridaens, Judith M Bliss, R Charles Coombes
Purpose The Intergroup Exemestane Study, an investigator-led study of 4,724 postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer (clinical trial information: ISRCTN11883920), has previously demonstrated that a switch from adjuvant endocrine therapy after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen to exemestane was associated with clinically relevant improvements in efficacy. Here, we report the final efficacy analyses of this cohort. Patients and Methods Patients who remained disease free after 2 to 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen were randomly assigned to continue tamoxifen or switch to exemestane to complete a total of 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459598/practices-and-attitudes-regarding-women-undergoing-fertility-preservation-a-survey-of-the-national-physicians-cooperative
#6
Pietro Bortoletto, Rafael Confino, Brigid M Smith, Teresa K Woodruff, Mary Ellen Pavone
PURPOSE: To describe physician attitudes and variations in oncofertility treatment strategies. METHODS: An exploratory online survey administered between December 1, 2014 and January 27, 2015 to 185 members of the National Physicians Cooperative (NPC). RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent (52 of 185) of NPC members responded to the online survey. Fifty percent of respondents were obstetrician-gynecologists working largely in academic medical centers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442026/neuromodulatory-effect-of-oestradiol-in-the-metabolism-of-ovarian-progesterone-and-oestradiol-during-dioestrus-ii-participation-of-the-superior-mesenteric-ganglion
#7
Adriana Vega Orozco, Cynthia Bronzi, Sandra Vallcaneras, Zulema Sosa, Marilina Casais
The aims of the present study were to determine: (1) whether oestradiol (E2) in the superior mesenteric ganglion (SMG) modifies the release of ovarian progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A2) and E2, the activity and gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 20α-HSD and the expression of P450 aromatase (Cyp19a1) and (2) whether any such modifications are related to changes in ovarian nitric oxide (NO) and noradrenaline (NA) levels during dioestrus II. Using an ex vivo SMG-ovarian nervous plexus-ovary system, ovarian P4 release was measured following the addition E2 plus tamoxifen (Txf) (10-6M) to the ganglion, whereas A2, E2, NA and NO were measured following the addition of E2 alone...
April 26, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439796/adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-in-breast-cancer-evolving-paradigms-in-premenopausal-women
#8
REVIEW
Lorenzo Rossi, Olivia Pagani
In the last few years, new adjuvant endocrine treatment options have become available in young women with early breast cancer, such as the addition of ovarian function suppression to tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. Treatment duration has been also adapted in the latest guidelines based on the individual risk of recurrence. The oncologist is therefore challenged to precisely assess the risk of recurrence according to currently available predictive and prognostic factors in order to offer the most appropriate therapeutic option to the individual patient, considering also potential side effects, quality of life, pregnancy planning and patients' preferences...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438054/evaluation-of-active-hexose-correlated-compound-ahcc-in-combination-with-anticancer-hormones-in-orthotopic-breast-cancer-models
#9
Lata Mathew, Anjali Gaikwad, Anneliese Gonzalez, Elizabeth K Nugent, Judith A Smith
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact on antitumor activity when active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) in combination with anticancer hormonal agents in orthotopic mouse models of human estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and evaluate impact of AHCC on aromatase activity. METHODS: The study consisted of 7 treatment arms (n=10) conducted in 2 breast cancer mouse models: MCF-7 and ZR-75. Treatment groups included untreated, vehicle, AHCC 50 mg/kg, AHCC 50 mg/kg + tamoxifen 10 mg/kg, tamoxifen 10 mg/kg, AHCC 50 mg/kg + letrozole 10 µg/mouse, or letrozole 10 µg/mouse...
April 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435399/serum-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-a-suspected-biomarker-of-breast-cancer
#10
Maha E Houssen, Hayam F Ghazy, Kamel Farag, Mona Abo Bakr El-Hussiny, Mohamed A El Ghaffar, Sahar Alsayed Mohamed Alsayed, Omar Farouk
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess serum levels of ANP in breast cancer female patients and its relationship to metastasis and some clinical parameters among those patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred breast cancer patients with and without metastasis along with 20 healthy closely matched controls, were enrolled in the present cross sectional study. Background: To assess the serum levels of atrial natriuretic peptide in breast cancer Serum levels of ANP were assessed using ELISA...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423398/treatment-restarting-after-discontinuation-of-adjuvant-hormone-therapy-in-breast-cancer-patients
#11
Wei He, Karin E Smedby, Fang Fang, Henrik Olsson, Sara Margolin, Per Hall, Kamila Czene
Background: Over half of breast cancer patients discontinue their adjuvant hormone therapy, permanently or temporarily. We aimed to identify predictors of treatment restarting after discontinuation of adjuvant hormone therapy and to test the hypothesis that treatment restarting is associated with better breast cancer outcomes. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study by linking data from the Stockholm-Gotland Breast Cancer Register, the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, and a self-reported questionnaire...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416639/absent-progesterone-receptor-expression-in-the-lymph-node-metastases-of-er-positive-her2-negative-breast-cancer-is-associated-with-relapse-on-tamoxifen
#12
Cameron E Snell, Madeline Gough, Kathryn Middleton, Michael Hsieh, Lauren Furnas, Brenton Seidl, Kristen Gibbons, Christopher Pyke, Catherine Shannon, Natasha Woodward, Jane E Armes
AIMS: Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is prognostic in early stage breast cancer. There are several reports of discordant expression between primary tumour and axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis expression of oestrogen receptor (ER) and PR. We sought to determine whether expression of these biomarkers in the synchronous ALN metastases of ER positive (+), HER2 negative (-) breast cancer could provide more accurate prognostic information. METHODS: The retrospective cohort included 229 patients from a single institution with ER+, HER2- breast cancer who had synchronous ALN metastatic disease (2005-2014)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403774/pharmacogenetics-of-aromatase-inhibitors-in-endocrine-responsive-breast-cancer-lessons-learnt-from-tamoxifen-and-cyp2d6-genotyping
#13
Karin Jeanne Baatjes, Magda Conradie, Justus Paul Apffelstaedt, Maritha Kotze
BACKGROUND: Genetics play a significant role in drug metabolism of endocrine therapy of breast cancer. These aspects have been studied extensively in patients on tamoxifen, but the pharmacogenetics of aromatase inhibitors are less established. In contrast to the protective effect of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors are linked with an increased risk for bone loss and fractures. OBJECTIVE: This review outlines key issues around implementation of pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 and tamoxifen as a model for optimal use of aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer...
April 12, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396978/a-novel-strategy-to-co-target-estrogen-receptor-and-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-with-hybrid-drugs-for-breast-cancer-therapy
#14
Irida Kastrati, Marton I Siklos, Svitlana D Brovkovych, Gregory R J Thatcher, Jonna Frasor
Nearly 75% of breast tumors express estrogen receptor (ER), and will be treated with endocrine therapy, such as selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen, or aromatase inhibitors. Despite their proven success, as many as 40-50% of ER+ tumors fail to respond to endocrine therapy and eventually recur as aggressive, metastatic cancers. Therefore, preventing and/or overcoming endocrine resistance in ER+ tumors remains a major clinical challenge. Deregulation or activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathway has been implicated in endocrine resistance and poor patient outcome in ER+ tumors...
April 10, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380313/cholesterol-cholesterol-lowering-medication-use-and-breast-cancer-outcome-in-the-big-1-98-study
#15
Signe Borgquist, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Thomas P Ahern, Judy E Garber, Marco Colleoni, István Láng, Marc Debled, Bent Ejlertsen, Roger von Moos, Ian Smith, Alan S Coates, Aron Goldhirsch, Manuela Rabaglio, Karen N Price, Richard D Gelber, Meredith M Regan, Beat Thürlimann
Purpose Cholesterol-lowering medication (CLM) has been reported to have a role in preventing breast cancer recurrence. CLM may attenuate signaling through the estrogen receptor by reducing levels of the estrogenic cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol. The impact of endocrine treatment on cholesterol levels and hypercholesterolemia per se may counteract the intended effect of aromatase inhibitors. Patients and Methods The Breast International Group (BIG) conducted a randomized, phase III, double-blind trial, BIG 1-98, which enrolled 8,010 postmenopausal women with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer from 1998 to 2003...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374222/the-evolving-role-of-the-estrogen-receptor-mutations-in-endocrine-therapy-resistant-breast-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Rinath Jeselsohn, Carmine De Angelis, Myles Brown, Rachel Schiff
Recurrent ligand-binding domain ESR1 mutations have recently been detected in a substantial number of patients with metastatic ER+ breast cancer and evolve under the selective pressure of endocrine treatments. In this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the biological and clinical significance of these mutations. The preclinical studies revealed that these mutations lead to constitutive ligand-independent activity, indicating resistance to aromatase inhibitors and decreased sensitivity to tamoxifen and fulvestrant...
May 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369967/a-simulation-study-to-compare-the-treatment-effect-of-tamoxifen-by-cyp2d6-genotypes-and-third-generation-aromatase-inhibitors
#17
Gwan Cheol Park, Jin-A Jung, Kyun-Seop Bae, Hyeong-Seok Lim
Some prospective, randomized clinical trials, including ATAC and BIG 1-98, demonstrated superior treatment effect of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) versus tamoxifen in postoperative therapy for patients with breast cancer. In retrospective genotyping analyses of the 2 studies using tumor samples, no difference in the treatment effect of tamoxifen was observed by CYP2D6 genotypes. However, those analyses did not consider loss of heterozygosity that could have occurred when genotyping using tumor tissue...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365336/associations-between-patient-and-anthropometric-characteristics-and-aromatase-inhibitor-discontinuation
#18
N Lynn Henry, Kelly Speth, Anneleen Lintermans, Kelley M Kidwell, Rachel Carlson, Daniel F Hayes, Patrick Neven
BACKGROUND: Toxicity can lead to noncontinuation of adjuvant endocrine therapy. We hypothesized that endocrine therapy-induced changes in grip strength would predict for early discontinuation of therapy because of musculoskeletal toxicity and would be associated with a patient's body mass index. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women with breast cancer starting a new adjuvant endocrine therapy were enrolled in the present study. The patients were monitored for 12 months to assess their symptoms, endocrine therapy adherence and change in grip strength and baseline body mass index...
March 11, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356008/the-evolutionary-tale-and-future-directions-of-aromatase-inhibitors-in-breast-carcinoma
#19
Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, Meena K Kumari, S Avin, Mohan V Babu Amberkar
Aromatase inhibitors have often been likened to that of 'medical scalpels' for the treatment of breast carcinoma. By inhibiting the singular step of aromatisation, they have proven to be extremely effective allies in the treatment of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. However, their relevance soon may not be limited to the post-menopausal age group alone. Recent studies have hinted at their utility amongst the pre-menopausal women; combined with ovarian ablation techniques, aromatase inhibitors may prove to be equally effective and more, as compared to tamoxifen in this age-group...
March 27, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351480/melasma-treatment-a-novel-approach-using-a-topical-agent-that-contains-an-anti-estrogen-and-a-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-inhibitor
#20
Philip R Cohen
Melasma is an acquired disorder of pigmentation that presents with asymptomatic symmetric darkening of the face. The pathogenesis of this condition is multifactorial and influenced by several factors including female sex hormones, genetic predisposition and ultraviolet light exposure. The management of melasma is usually directed at more than one of the causative etiologic factors and often incorporates a combination of topical agents, with or without the addition of physical modalities. Estrogen and angiogenesis are significant factors in the etiology of melasma...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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