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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240976/clopidogrel-plus-aspirin-versus-aspirin-alone-for-preventing-cardiovascular-events
#1
REVIEW
Alessandro Squizzato, Marta Bellesini, Andrea Takeda, Saskia Middeldorp, Marco Paolo Donadini
BACKGROUND: Aspirin is the prophylactic antiplatelet drug of choice for people with cardiovascular disease. Adding a second antiplatelet drug to aspirin may produce additional benefit for people at high risk and people with established cardiovascular disease. This is an update to a previously published review from 2011. OBJECTIVES: To review the benefit and harm of adding clopidogrel to aspirin therapy for preventing cardiovascular events in people who have coronary disease, ischaemic cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, or were at high risk of atherothrombotic disease, but did not have a coronary stent...
December 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237008/pharmacokinetics-of-darunavir-cobicistat-and-etravirine-alone-and-co-administered-in-hiv-infected-patients
#2
José Moltó, Adrian Curran, Cristina Miranda, Elizabeth Challenger, José Ramón Santos, Esteban Ribera, Saye Khoo, Marta Valle, Bonaventura Clotet
Objectives: To determine the effect of etravirine on the pharmacokinetics of darunavir/cobicistat and vice versa. Safety and tolerability of this combination were also evaluated. Methods: Open-label, fixed-sequence trial in two cohorts of HIV-infected patients on therapy with darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily (DRV cohort; n = 15) or etravirine 400 mg once daily (ETR cohort; n = 15). Etravirine or darunavir/cobicistat were added on days 1-14 and 1-7 in participants in the DRV or ETR cohort, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234333/putative-microsatellite-dna-marker-based-wheat-genomic-resource-for-varietal-improvement-and-management
#3
Sarika Jaiswal, Sonia Sheoran, Vasu Arora, Ulavappa B Angadi, Mir A Iquebal, Nishu Raghav, Bharti Aneja, Deepender Kumar, Rajender Singh, Pradeep Sharma, G P Singh, Anil Rai, Ratan Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar
Wheat fulfills 20% of global caloric requirement. World needs 60% more wheat for 9 billion population by 2050 but climate change with increasing temperature is projected to affect wheat productivity adversely. Trait improvement and management of wheat germplasm requires genomic resource. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) being highly polymorphic and ubiquitously distributed in the genome, can be a marker of choice but there is no structured marker database with options to generate primer pairs for genotyping on desired chromosome/physical location...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233673/conventional-versus-traction-assisted-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-for-gastric-neoplasms-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-with-video
#4
Masao Yoshida, Kohei Takizawa, Sho Suzuki, Yoshiki Koike, Satoru Nonaka, Yasushi Yamasaki, Takeyoshi Minagawa, Chiko Sato, Chihiro Takeuchi, Ko Watanabe, Hiromitsu Kanzaki, Hiroyuki Morimoto, Takafumi Yano, Kosuke Sudo, Keita Mori, Takuji Gotoda, Hiroyuki Ono
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To clarify whether dental floss clip traction improves the technical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: A superiority, randomized control trial was conducted at 14 institutions across Japan. Patients with single gastric neoplasm meeting the indications of the Japanese guidelines for gastric treatment were enrolled and assigned to receive conventional ESD or dental floss clip traction ESD (DFC-ESD). Randomization was performed according to a computer-generated random sequence with stratification by institution, tumor location, tumor size, and operator experience...
December 9, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228183/plasma-oxysterols-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-spastic-paraplegia-type-5
#5
Cecilia Marelli, Foudil Lamari, Dominique Rainteau, Alexandre Lafourcade, Guillaume Banneau, Lydie Humbert, Marie-Lorraine Monin, Elodie Petit, Rabab Debs, Giovanni Castelnovo, Elisabeth Ollagnon, Julie Lavie, Julie Pilliod, Isabelle Coupry, Patrick J Babin, Claire Guissart, Imen Benyounes, Urielle Ullmann, Gaetan Lesca, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Pierre Labauge, Sylvie Odent, Claire Ewenczyk, Claude Wolf, Giovanni Stevanin, David Hajage, Alexandra Durr, Cyril Goizet, Fanny Mochel
The hereditary spastic paraplegias are an expanding and heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by spasticity in the lower limbs. Plasma biomarkers are needed to guide the genetic testing of spastic paraplegia. Spastic paraplegia type 5 (SPG5) is an autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia due to mutations in CYP7B1, which encodes a cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase implicated in cholesterol and bile acids metabolism. We developed a method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to validate two plasma 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) as diagnostic biomarkers in a cohort of 21 patients with SPG5...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217451/between-trial-heterogeneity-in-meta-analyses-may-be-partially-explained-by-reported-design-characteristics
#6
K M Rhodes, R M Turner, J Savović, H E Jones, D Mawdsley, J P T Higgins
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations between risk of bias judgments from Cochrane reviews for sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding and between-trial heterogeneity. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted to binary data from 117 meta-analyses, to estimate the ratio λ by which heterogeneity changes for trials at high/unclear risk of bias, compared to trials at low risk of bias. We estimated the proportion of between-trial heterogeneity in each meta-analysis that could be explained by the bias associated with specific design characteristics...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214771/detection-of-rare-mutations-in-egfr-arms-pcr-negative-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-sanger-sequencing
#7
Chaoyue Liang, Zhuolin Wu, Xiaohong Gan, Yuanbin Liu, You You, Chenxian Liu, Chengzhi Zhou, Ying Liang, Haiyun Mo, Allen M Chen, Jiexia Zhang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify potential epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer that went undetected by amplification refractory mutation system-Scorpion real-time PCR (ARMS-PCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 200 specimens were obtained from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from August 2014 to August 2015. In total, 100 ARMS-negative and 100 ARMS-positive specimens were evaluated for EGFR gene mutations by Sanger sequencing...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203982/patterns-and-the-occurrence-of-kras-mutations-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancers-a-study-from-indian-regional-cancer-centre
#8
C S Smitha, Babu M C Suresh, J A Linu, K C Lakshmaiah, Babu K Govind, D Lokanatha, R K Pretesh
Mutation analysis of the KRAS oncogene is established as a predictive biomarker in Colorectal cancer (CRC). Many prospective clinical trials have shown that only CRCs with wild-type KRAS respond to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) treatment. Hence, mutation analysis is mandatory before treatment of metastatic CRCs. There are very few studies on the KRAS mutation status in the Indian setting. Hence, this study was done to document the patterns of KRAS mutations in CRCs reporting to a regional cancer centre in South India...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202780/transforming-growth-factor-beta-tgf-%C3%AE-in-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#9
Vegard Bruun Wyller, Chinh Bkrong Nguyen, Judith Anita Ludviksen, Tom Eirik Mollnes
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition among adolescent. The disease mechanisms are unknown. Previous studies have suggested elevated plasma levels of several cytokines, but a recent meta-analysis of 38 articles found that of 77 different cytokines measured in plasma, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) was the only one that was elevated in patients compared to controls in a sufficient number of articles. In the present study we therefore compared the plasma levels of the three TGF-β isoforms in adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200659/electrochemical-detection-of-urinary-micrornas-via-sulfonamide-bound-antisense-hybridisation
#10
Daniel A Smith, Lucy J Newbury, Guido Drago, Timothy Bowen, James E Redman
Altered serum and plasma microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been observed in numerous human diseases, with a number of studies describing circulating miRNA biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment, and recruitment to clinical trials for miRNA-based drug therapy already underway. Electrochemical detection of biomarkers in urine has several significant advantages over circulating biomarker analysis including safety, cost, speed and ease of conversion to the point of care environment...
December 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198341/concomitant-use-of-corticosteroids-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-patients-with-hematologic-or-solid-neoplasms-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
A Garant, C Guilbault, T Ekmekjian, Z Greenwald, P Murgoi, T Vuong
PURPOSE: Clinical trials studying immune checkpoint inhibitors exclude patients on corticosteroids, due to the hypothesis that corticosteroids may antagonize immunotherapy. We performed a systematic review of the literature looking at the clinical outcomes of cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and concomitant corticosteroids. METHODS: The following databases were searched for relevant studies: MEDLINE, Embase Classic+Embase, BIOSIS Previews, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the CENTRAL Registry of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Scopus...
December 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197834/study-protocol-for-statin-web-based-investigation-of-side-effects-statinwise-a-series-of-randomised-controlled-n-of-1-trials-comparing-atorvastatin-and-placebo-in-uk-primary-care
#12
Emily Herrett, Elizabeth Williamson, Danielle Beaumont, Danielle Prowse, Nabila Youssouf, Kieran Brack, Jane Armitage, Ben Goldacre, Thomas MacDonald, Tjeerd van Staa, Ian Roberts, Haleema Shakur-Still, Liam Smeeth
INTRODUCTION: Statins are effective at preventing cardiovascular disease, widely prescribed and their use is growing. Uncertainty persists about whether they cause symptomatic muscle adverse effects, such as pain and weakness, in the absence of statin myopathy. Discrepancies between data from observational studies, which suggest statins are associated with excess muscle symptoms, and from randomised trials, which suggest no such excess, have caused confusion. N-of-1 trials offer the opportunity to establish whether muscle symptoms during statin use are caused by statins in particular individuals...
December 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196579/clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-kcnt1-related-severe-early-onset-epilepsy
#13
Amy McTague, Umesh Nair, Sony Malhotra, Esther Meyer, Natalie Trump, Elena V Gazina, Apostolos Papandreou, Adeline Ngoh, Sally Ackermann, Gautam Ambegaonkar, Richard Appleton, Archana Desurkar, Christin Eltze, Rachel Kneen, Ajith V Kumar, Karine Lascelles, Tara Montgomery, Venkateswaran Ramesh, Rajib Samanta, Richard H Scott, Jeen Tan, William Whitehouse, Annapurna Poduri, Ingrid E Scheffer, W K Kling Chong, J Helen Cross, Maya Topf, Steven Petrou, Manju A Kurian
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotypic spectrum, molecular genetic findings, and functional consequences of pathogenic variants in early-onset KCNT1 epilepsy. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 31 patients with epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and screened for variants in KCNT1 using direct Sanger sequencing, a multiple-gene next-generation sequencing panel, and whole-exome sequencing. Additional patients with non-EIMFS early-onset epilepsy in whom we identified KCNT1 variants on local diagnostic multiple gene panel testing were also included...
December 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195078/a-next-generation-connectivity-map-l1000-platform-and-the-first-1-000-000-profiles
#14
Aravind Subramanian, Rajiv Narayan, Steven M Corsello, David D Peck, Ted E Natoli, Xiaodong Lu, Joshua Gould, John F Davis, Andrew A Tubelli, Jacob K Asiedu, David L Lahr, Jodi E Hirschman, Zihan Liu, Melanie Donahue, Bina Julian, Mariya Khan, David Wadden, Ian C Smith, Daniel Lam, Arthur Liberzon, Courtney Toder, Mukta Bagul, Marek Orzechowski, Oana M Enache, Federica Piccioni, Sarah A Johnson, Nicholas J Lyons, Alice H Berger, Alykhan F Shamji, Angela N Brooks, Anita Vrcic, Corey Flynn, Jacqueline Rosains, David Y Takeda, Roger Hu, Desiree Davison, Justin Lamb, Kristin Ardlie, Larson Hogstrom, Peyton Greenside, Nathanael S Gray, Paul A Clemons, Serena Silver, Xiaoyun Wu, Wen-Ning Zhao, Willis Read-Button, Xiaohua Wu, Stephen J Haggarty, Lucienne V Ronco, Jesse S Boehm, Stuart L Schreiber, John G Doench, Joshua A Bittker, David E Root, Bang Wong, Todd R Golub
We previously piloted the concept of a Connectivity Map (CMap), whereby genes, drugs, and disease states are connected by virtue of common gene-expression signatures. Here, we report more than a 1,000-fold scale-up of the CMap as part of the NIH LINCS Consortium, made possible by a new, low-cost, high-throughput reduced representation expression profiling method that we term L1000. We show that L1000 is highly reproducible, comparable to RNA sequencing, and suitable for computational inference of the expression levels of 81% of non-measured transcripts...
November 30, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192397/ustekinumab-for-treating-moderately-to-severely-active-crohn-s-disease-after-prior-therapy-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#15
Robert Hodgson, Matthew Walton, Mousumi Biswas, Teumzghi Mebrahtu, Nerys Woolacott
As part of the single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Janssen to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of their drug ustekinumab, an interleukin-12/23 inhibitor, for treating moderate-to-severe active Crohn's disease (CD). The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) and Centre for Health Economics (CHE) Technology Appraisal Group at the University of York was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
November 30, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190660/actionable-mutations-in-canine-hemangiosarcoma
#16
Guannan Wang, Ming Wu, Martha A Maloneyhuss, John Wojcik, Amy C Durham, Nicola J Mason, David B Roth
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcomas (AS) are rare in humans, but they are a deadly subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. Discovery sequencing in AS, especially the visceral form, is hampered by the rarity of cases. Most diagnostic material exists as archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue which serves as a poor source of high quality DNA for genome-wide sequencing. We approached this problem through comparative genomics. We hypothesized that exome sequencing a histologically similar tumor, hemangiosarcoma (HSA), that occurs in approximately 50,000 dogs per year, may lead to the identification of potential oncogenic drivers and druggable targets that could also occur in angiosarcoma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188301/organic-amendments-in-a-long-term-field-trial-consequences-for-the-bulk-soil-bacterial-community-as-revealed-by-network-analysis
#17
Christoph A O Schmid, Peter Schröder, Martin Armbruster, Michael Schloter
This study intended to elucidate the long-term effects of organic soil amendments on bacterial co-occurrence in bulk soil with and without addition of mineral fertiliser. Previous research mostly neglected the bacterial co-occurrence structure and focussed mainly on the parameters species diversity and abundance changes of species. Here we present a systematic comparison of two frequently used soil amendments, manure and straw, with regard to their impact on bacterial co-occurrence in a long-term field trial in Speyer, Germany...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187887/long-non-coding-rna-xist-promotes-glioma-tumorigenicity-and-angiogenesis-by-acting-as-a-molecular-sponge-of-mir-429
#18
Zhihua Cheng, Zhenshengnan Li, Ke Ma, Xiaoyu Li, Nan Tian, Jinyue Duan, Xu Xiao, Yi Wang
Glioma is a worldwide malignancy, which displays significantly active metastasis and angiogenesis. Interaction between long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to play crucial role in regulating tumor properties. However, the potential of lncRNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) to function as a miRNA regulator and its relevance in glioma tumorigenicity and angiogenesis have so far remained unclear. Expression analysis of lncRNA XIST in glioma cells revealed its significant up-regulation...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187242/statistical-analysis-plan-for-the-eurohyp-1-trial-european-multicentre-randomised-phase-iii-clinical-trial-of-the-therapeutic-hypothermia-plus-best-medical-treatment-versus-best-medical-treatment-alone-for-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#19
Per Winkel, Philip M Bath, Christian Gluud, Jane Lindschou, H Bart van der Worp, Malcolm R Macleod, Istvan Szabo, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Stefan Schwab
BACKGROUND: Cooling may reduce infarct size and improve neurological outcomes in patients with ischaemic stroke. In phase II trials, cooling awake patients with ischaemic stroke has been shown to be feasible and safe, but the effects in functional outcomes has not yet been investigated in an adequately sized randomised clinical trial. METHODS/DESIGN: The EuroHYP-1 trial is a multinational, randomised, superiority phase III clinical trial with masked outcome assessment testing the benefits and harms of therapeutic cooling in awake adult patients with acute ischaemic stroke...
November 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186554/preclinical-validation-of-a-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-based-comprehensive-chromosome-screening-methodology-in-human-blastocysts
#20
R S Zimmerman, X Tao, D Marin, M Werner, K Hong, A Lonczak, J Landis, D Taylor, Y Zhan, R T Scott, N R Treff
STUDY QUESTION: Can a novel targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS) platform accurately detect whole chromosome aneuploidy in a trophectoderm biopsy and provide additional information to improve testing? SUMMARY ANSWER: Karyotypes obtained by tNGS were concordant with other validated platforms and SNP genotyping information obtained can be used for improved detection and quality control. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: qPCR-based whole chromosome aneuploidy screening is highly accurate in comparison to other common methods and has been shown to improve IVF success in two randomized clinical trials...
November 25, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
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