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Aspirin colorectal cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769213/chemopreventive-efficacy-of-the-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-inhibitor-celecoxib-is-predicted-by-adenoma-expression-of-cox-2-and-15-pgdh
#1
Jiping Wang, Nancy L Cho, Ann G Zauber, Meier Hsu, Dawn Dawson, Amitabh Srivastava, Kisha A Mitchell-Richards, Sanford D Markowitz, Monica M Bertagnolli
BACKGROUND: The APC trial showed that cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibitor, celecoxib, decreased adenoma development in patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. A prospectively planned analysis of the APC trial tested the hypothesis that expression of target enzymes in adenomas removed before beginning study treatment would identify individuals at high risk of adenoma development, and/or predict response to Cox-2 inhibition. METHODS: Pre-treatment adenomas were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess expression of Cox-2 (high vs...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763272/colorectal-cancer-screening-and-prevention
#2
Thad Wilkins, Danielle McMechan, Asif Talukder
Colorectal cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Most colorectal cancers arise from preexisting adenomatous or serrated polyps. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer can be reduced with screening of average-risk adults 50 to 75 years of age. Randomized controlled trials show evidence of reduced colorectal cancer-specific mortality with guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests and flexible sigmoidoscopy. There are no randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of colonoscopy to reduce colorectal cancer-specific mortality; however, several randomized controlled trials comparing colonoscopy with other strategies are in progress...
May 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730157/the-effect-of-small-or-diminutive-adenomas-at-baseline-colonoscopy-on-the-risk-of-developing-metachronous-advanced-colorectal-neoplasia-kasid-multicenter-study
#3
Chang Mo Moon, Sung-Ae Jung, Chang Soo Eun, Jae Jun Park, Geom Seog Seo, Jae Myung Cha, Sung Chul Park, Jaeyoung Chun, Hyun Jung Lee, Yunho Jung, Sun-Jin Boo, Jin Oh Kim, Young-Eun Joo, Dong Il Park
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of diminutive or small adenomas remains ill defined. AIMS: We evaluated the clinical impact of diminutive or small adenomas at baseline on the risk of developing metachronous advanced colorectal neoplasia (CRN). METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included 2252 patients with 1 or more colorectal adenomas at baseline and subsequent follow-up colonoscopy. Baseline colonoscopy findings were classified into 5 groups: 1 or 2 tubular adenomas (TAs) (<10 mm); 3-10 diminutive TAs (≤5 mm); 3-10 TAs, including 1 or 2 small adenomas (6-10 mm); 3-10 TAs, including 3 or more small adenomas; and advanced adenoma...
April 11, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705335/molecular-mechanisms-of-platelet-activation-and-aggregation-induced-by-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Marta Zarà, Ilaria Canobbio, Caterina Visconte, Jessica Canino, Mauro Torti, Gianni Francesco Guidetti
Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation represents a critical process both for successful metastatic spread of the tumor and for the development of thrombotic complications in cancer patients. To get further insights into this process, we investigated and compared the molecular mechanisms of platelet aggregation induced by two different breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and a colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2). All the three types of cancer cells were able to induce comparable platelet aggregation, which, however, was observed exclusively in the presence of CaCl2 and autologous plasma...
April 26, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695380/association-between-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-colorectal-cancer-a-population-based-case-control-study
#5
Chun-Nan Kuo, Jen-Jung Pan, Ya-Wen Huang, Hui-Ju Tsai, Wei-Chiao Chang
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenes-2 overexpression may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) occurrence. Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce CRC recurrence, but the efficacy of primary prevention in Asian populations is still elusive. Thus, we examined the primary preventive efficacy of aspirin and NSAIDs on CRC incidence in Taiwan. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan...
April 25, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681616/progress-in-preventive-therapy-for-cancer-a-reminiscence-and-personal-viewpoint
#6
REVIEW
Jack Cuzick
Prophylactic drug treatment with aspirin, statins and anti-hypertensive agents has had a major impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease and is now well established. Progress in therapeutic cancer prevention has been much slower; only recently have effective agents been clearly established. Breast cancer has led the way and endocrine agents used to treat it-notably tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors-have now been shown to have a substantial preventive effect as well. However, these agents carry some toxicity and thus identifying high-risk women who are likely to benefit most is a key priority...
April 23, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665624/risk-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding-and-benefit-from-colorectal-cancer-reduction-from-long-term-use-of-low-dose-aspirin-a-retrospective-study-of-612-509-patients
#7
Kelvin K F Tsoi, Felix C H Chan, Hoyee W Hirai, Joseph J Y Sung
BACKGROUND: Aspirin, commonly used for prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, is well-known to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC) but increases risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). AIM: This cohort study aims to evaluate the benefit of low-dose aspirin to prevent CRC and its associated risk of GIB. METHOD: A population-based dataset was used to compare incidence and mortality of CRC and GIB among patients receiving low-dose aspirin with sex-and-age matched controls (1:2)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617381/prevention-of-colonic-neoplasia-with-polyethylene-glycol-a-short-term-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-trial
#8
Ramesh K Wali, Laura Bianchi, Sonia Kupfer, Mart De La Cruz, Borko Jovanovic, Christopher Weber, Michael J Goldberg, L M Rodriguez, Raymond Bergan, David Rubin, Mary Beth Tull, Ellen Richmond, Beth Parker, Seema Khan, Hemant K Roy
Chemoprevention represents an attractive modality against colorectal cancer (CRC) although widespread clinical implementation of promising agents (e.g. aspirin/NSAIDS) have been stymied by both suboptimal efficacy and concerns over toxicity. This highlights the need for better agents. Several groups, including our own, have reported that the over-the-counter laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable efficacy in rodent models of colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we undertook the first randomized human trial to address the role of PEG in prevention of human colonic neoplasia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616131/chemoprevention-with-phosphatidylcholine-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#9
Lenard M Lichtenberger, Tri Phan, Dexing Fang, Elizabeth J Dial
The chemopreventive activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, has been well demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the primary side effect from this class of drug is gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which has limited the widespread use of NSAIDs for the prevention of cancer. The development of GI-safer NSAIDs, which are associated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) may provide a solution to this therapeutic problem. In the present study, the efficacy of two NSAIDs, aspirin and indomethacin, were compared using murine colon cancer cell line MC-26...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609509/bowel-cancer-screening-for-women-at-midlife
#10
I Olver
In Australia one in 15 women will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in their lifetime because of the high incidences of lifestyle risk factors. The risk could be reduced by taking aspirin. Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the prevention, early detection and management of colorectal cancer produced by Cancer Council Australia and approved by the National Health and Medical Research Council recommended that 'population screening in Australia, directed at those at average risk of colorectal cancer and without relevant symptoms, is immunochemical fecal occult blood testing every 2 years, starting at age 50 years and continuing to age 74 years...
April 3, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570772/risk-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-aspirin-and-folic-acid-for-the-prevention-of-colorectal-adenomas
#11
M N Passarelli, E L Barry, D Zhang, P Gangar, J R Rees, R S Bresalier, G McKeown-Eyssen, M R Karagas, J A Baron
BACKGROUND: Aspirin may reduce the risk of several types of cancer, but consistent evidence is lacking for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Little is known about whether folic acid is associated with BCC risk. METHODS: BCC incidence was evaluated in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of aspirin (81 mg/d or 325 mg/d for approximately 3 years) and/or folic acid (1 mg/d for approximately 6 years) for the prevention of colorectal adenomas among 1121 participants with a previous adenoma...
March 23, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552221/tgf-%C3%AE-1-mediates-the-effects-of-aspirin-on-colonic-tumor-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#12
Yuyi Wang, Chi Du, Nan Zhang, Mei Li, Yanyang Liu, Maoyuan Zhao, Feng Wang, Feng Luo
Previous studies have demonstrated that aspirin serves an important role in chemoprevention and the suppression of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanisms for this inhibition by aspirin remain unclear. Aspirin is capable of promoting apoptosis through prostaglandin-dependent orprostaglandin-independent signaling pathways. In the prostaglandin-dependent pathways, inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), particularly COX-2, is the primary mechanism known to be involved in aspirin-induced CRC suppression...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534696/associations-between-aspirin-use-and-the-risk-of-cancers-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#13
Yan Qiao, Tingting Yang, Yong Gan, Wenzhen Li, Chao Wang, Yanhong Gong, Zuxun Lu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have clarified the potential associations between regular aspirin use and cancers. However, it remains controversial on whether aspirin use decreases the risk of cancers risks. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis to assess the associations between aspirin use and cancers. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched up to March 2017 to identify relevant studies. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations...
March 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519806/cancer-and-platelet-crosstalk-opportunities-and-challenges-for-aspirin-and-other-antiplatelet-agents
#14
REVIEW
Xiaohong Ruby Xu, George M Yousef, Heyu Ni
Platelets have long been recognized as key players in hemostasis and thrombosis; however, growing evidence suggests that they are also significantly involved in cancer, the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that tumorigenesis and metastasis can be promoted by platelets through a wide variety of crosstalk between platelets and cancer cells. For example, cancer changes platelet behavior by directly inducing tumor-platelet aggregates, triggering platelet granule and extracellular vesicle release, altering platelet phenotype and platelet RNA profiles, and enhancing thrombopoiesis...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486728/low-dose-aspirin-use-and-survival-in-colorectal-cancer-results-from-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Ronan T Gray, Helen G Coleman, Carmel Hughes, Liam J Murray, Chris R Cardwell
BACKGROUND: Aspirin has been proposed as a novel adjuvant agent in colorectal cancer (CRC). Six observational studies have reported CRC-specific survival outcomes in patients using aspirin after CRC diagnosis but the results from these studies have been conflicting. Using a population-based cohort design this study aimed to assess if low-dose aspirin use after diagnosis reduced CRC-specific mortality. METHODS: A cohort of 8391 patients with Dukes' A-C CRC (2009-2012) was identified from the Scottish Cancer Registry and linked to national prescribing and death records...
February 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456855/metformin-and-aspirin-treatment-could-lead-to-an-improved-survival-rate-for-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-stage-ii-and-iii-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-relative-to-non-diabetic-patients
#16
Ariella De Monte, Davide Brunetti, Luigi Cattin, Francesca Lavanda, Erica Naibo, Maria Malagoli, Giorgio Stanta, Serena Bonin
Metformin, the drug of choice in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), in addition to aspirin (ASA), the drug prescribed for cardioprotection of diabetic and non-diabetic patients, have an inhibitory effect on cancer cell survival. The present population-based study conducted in the province of Trieste (Italy), aimed to investigate the prevalence of DM2 in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) and survival for CRC in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. All permanent residents diagnosed with a CRC between 2004 and 2007 were ascertained through the regional health information system...
March 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445907/management-of-serrated-polyps-of-the-colon
#17
REVIEW
Claire Fan, Adam Younis, Christine E Bookhout, Seth D Crockett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the management of serrated colorectal polyps (SPs), with a particular focus on the most common premalignant SP, sessile serrated adenoma or polyp (SSA/P). These lesions present a challenge for endoscopists with respect to detection and resection, and are also susceptible to pathologic misdiagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with SSA/Ps are at an increased risk of future colorectal neoplasia, including advanced polyps and cancer...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444936/aspirin-alone-and-combined-with-a-statin-suppresses-eicosanoid-formation-in-human-colon-tissue
#18
Heike Gottschall, Christoph Schmöcker, Dirk Hartmann, Nadine Rohwer, Katharina Rund, Laura Kutzner, Fabian Nolte, Annika I Ostermann, Nils Helge Schebb, Karsten H Weylandt
Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes, are broadly bioactive lipid mediators and increase colon tumorigenesis possibly through chronic inflammatory mechanisms. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) helps prevent colorectal cancer (CRC), possibly through cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated suppression of eicosanoid, particularly PGE2 , formation. Recent studies suggest that statins prevent CRC and improve survival after diagnosis. We identified patients on ASA and/or statin treatment undergoing routine colonoscopy and measured eicosanoid levels in colonic mucosa with targeted metabolomics technology (LC-MS/MS)...
May 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435322/effect-of-aspirin-on-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-faecal-immunochemical-test-for-colorectal-advanced-neoplasia
#19
Luis Bujanda, Cristina Sarasqueta, Pablo Vega, María Salve, Enrique Quintero, Victoria Alvarez-Sánchez, Fernando Fernández-Bañares, Jaume Boadas, Rafel Campo, Ana Garayoa, Angel Ferrandez, Leyanira Torrealba, Daniel Rodríguez-Alcaide, Mauro D'Amato, Vicent Hernández, Joaquin Cubiella
Background: Aspirin (ASA) is a drug that can cause gastrointestinal lesions and symptoms. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most prevalent type of cancer in Western countries. We assessed the effect of aspirin on the diagnostic accuracy of the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for CRC and/or advanced neoplasia (AN) in patients undergoing colonoscopy for gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: We conducted a prospective multicentre observational study of diagnostic tests that included patients with gastrointestinal symptoms undergoing colonoscopy between March 2012 and 2014 (the COLONPREDICT study)...
February 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425227/interaction-between-polymorphisms-in-aspirin-metabolic-pathways-regular-aspirin-use-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-case-control-study-in-unselected-white-european-populations
#20
Harsh Sheth, Emma Northwood, Cornelia M Ulrich, Dominique Scherer, Faye Elliott, Jennifer H Barrett, David Forman, C Roland Wolf, Gillian Smith, Michael S Jackson, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Robert Haile, Graham Casey, Mark Jenkins, Aung Ko Win, John L Hopper, Loic Le Marchand, Noralane M Lindor, Stephen N Thibodeau, John D Potter, John Burn, D Timothy Bishop
Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Variation in aspirin's chemoprevention efficacy has been attributed to the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a meta-analysis using two large population-based case-control datasets, the UK-Leeds Colorectal Cancer Study Group and the NIH-Colon Cancer Family Registry, having a combined total of 3325 cases and 2262 controls. The aim was to assess 42 candidate SNPs in 15 genes whose association with colorectal cancer risk was putatively modified by aspirin use, in the literature...
2018: PloS One
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