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Aspirin colorectal cancer

Song-Yi Park, Lynne R Wilkens, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand
BACKGROUND: Evidence has accumulated that long-term use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protects against colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested whether the inverse associations between NSAIDs and CRC is similarly observed across sexes and five racial/ethnic groups (Japanese, Latino, African American, Native Hawaiian, and white) in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. METHODS: During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, we identified 4,882 invasive incident CRC cases among 183,199 eligible participants...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Mariusz Dąbrowski, Elektra Szymańska-Garbacz, Zofia Miszczyszyn, Tadeusz Dereziński, Leszek Czupryniak
BACKGROUND: The risk of several types of cancer is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The earliest possible diagnosis of cancer - difficult within regular outpatient diabetes care - is of utmost importance for patients' survival. The aim of this multicenter, retrospective (years 1998-2015), case-control study was to identify risk factors associated with malignancy in subjects with diabetes treated in a typical outpatient setting. METHODS: In the databases of 3 diabetic and 1 primary care clinics 203 patients (115 women) with type 2 diabetes mellitus who developed malignancy while treated for diabetes were identified...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cancer
Yanni Chen, Michelle Peate, Rajneesh Kaur, Bettina Meiser, Tim Wong, Judy Kirk, Robyn L Ward, Annabel Goodwin, Finlay Macrae, Janet Hiller, Alison H Trainer, Gillian Mitchell
Recent research has shown that aspirin reduces the risk of cancers associated with Lynch Syndrome. However, uncertainty exists around the optimal dosage, treatment duration and whether the benefits of aspirin as a risk-reducing medication (RRM) outweigh adverse medication related side-effects. Little is known about clinicians' attitudes, current practice, and perceived barriers to recommending aspirin as a RRM. To explore the attitudes of clinicians who discuss risk management options with patients with Lynch Syndrome towards using aspirin as a RRM...
September 27, 2016: Familial Cancer
Sun-Hye Ko, Myong Ki Baeg, Woong Jin Bae, Pumsoo Kim, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients being treated for prostate cancer (PCa) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, whether PCa patients are inherently at a higher risk of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs) is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of CRNs in PCa patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed with PCa at a tertiary medical center and had colonoscopy within 1 year of the PCa diagnosis were investigated. Patients were propensity-matched 1:2 by age and body mass index to asymptomatic control subjects who had undergone colonoscopy for routine health screening...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Francesca Rauzi, Nicholas S Kirkby, Matthew L Edin, James Whiteford, Darryl C Zeldin, Jane A Mitchell, Timothy D Warner
Regular consumption of low-dose aspirin reduces the occurrence of colorectal, esophageal, stomach, and gastrointestinal cancers. The underlying mechanism is unknown but may be linked to inhibition of angiogenesis. Because the effective doses of aspirin are consistent with the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 in platelets, we used liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analyses and immunoassays of human platelet releasates coupled with angiogenesis assays to search for the mediator(s) of these effects...
September 15, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Riccardo Giampieri, Angelo Restivo, Valeria Pusceddu, Michela Del Prete, Elena Maccaroni, Alessandro Bittoni, Luca Faloppi, Kalliopi Andrikou, Maristella Bianconi, Francesco Cabras, Rossana Berardi, Luigi Zorcolo, Francesco Scintu, Stefano Cascinu, Mario Scartozzi
BACKGROUND: The potential clinical impact of aspirin use beyond its canonical indications is a novel matter of scientific debate. In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer failing all available options, regorafenib and TAS 102 represent the only chance of treatment. Although effective, these therapeutic options bring along a not-negligible burden in terms of economic costs and toxicity. In this setting, the indication to use aspirin in combination with chemotherapy would potentially represent a medical revolution under the economic and toxicity profile...
August 4, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Paola Patrignani, Carlo Patrono
The place of aspirin in primary prevention remains controversial, with North American and European organizations issuing contradictory treatment guidelines. More recently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended "initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer in adults aged 50 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
John Burn, Harsh Sheth
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the developed world and is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the UK and USA. Regular use of aspirin can reduce cancer incidence, recurrence, metastasis and cancer-related mortality. SOURCES OF DATA: Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: There is a wide body of evidence from observational studies and randomized trials that aspirin reduces risk of CRC...
September 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Robert H Fletcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Chul Kim, Xuehong Zhang, Andrew T Chan, Howard D Sesso, Nader Rifai, Meir J Stampfer, Jing Ma
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, the associations between plasma inflammatory markers and risk of colorectal cancer have been inconsistent. METHODS: In a nested case-control study in the Physicians' Health Study, we prospectively investigated the associations of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR-2) with risk of colorectal cancer, and whether aspirin modified these associations among 268 colorectal cancer patients and 446 age- and smoking-matched controls...
October 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Matthew Frampton, Richard S Houlston
PURPOSE: This study investigated the utility of modeling modifiable lifestyle risk factors in addition to genetic variation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening/prevention. METHODS: We derived a polygenic risk score for CRC susceptibility variants in combination with the established nongenetic risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adiposity, alcohol, red meat, fruit, vegetables, smoking, physical activity, and aspirin. We used the 37 known risk variants and 50 and 100% of all risk variants as calculated from a heritability estimate...
August 4, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Yin Cao, Reiko Nishihara, Zhi Rong Qian, Mingyang Song, Kosuke Mima, Kentaro Inamura, Jonathan A Nowak, David A Drew, Paul Lochhead, Katsuhiko Nosho, Teppei Morikawa, Xuehong Zhang, Kana Wu, Molin Wang, Wendy S Garrett, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Andrew T Chan, Shuji Ogino
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aspirin use reduces colorectal cancer risk. Aspirin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibits prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2 or cyclooxygenase-2); PTGS2 promotes inflammation and suppresses T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity. We investigated whether the inverse association of aspirin use with colorectal carcinoma risk was stronger for tumors with lower degrees of lymphocytic infiltrates than for tumors with higher degrees of lymphocytic infiltrates...
July 27, 2016: Gastroenterology
Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Edward L Giovannucci
OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Lucía Cea Soriano, Montse Soriano-Gabarró, Luis A García Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: We conducted three differently designed nested case-control studies to evaluate whether the protective effect of low-dose aspirin against colorectal cancer (CRC) is explained by selection bias. METHODS: Using a large validated UK primary care database, we followed different cohorts of patients, who varied in their demographic and clinical characteristics, to identify first ever cases of CRC. In Studies 1 and 2, two cohorts were followed, i) new users of low-dose aspirin at start of follow-up (N = 170,336 in Study 1, N = 171,527 in Study 2) and either ii) non-users of low-dose aspirin (Study 1, N = 170,336) or new users of paracetamol (Study 2, N = 149,597) at start of follow-up...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth D Kantor, Xuehong Zhang, Kana Wu, Lisa B Signorello, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Edward L Giovannucci
Recent epidemiologic evidence has emerged to suggest that use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements may be associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We therefore evaluated the association between use of these non-vitamin, non-mineral supplements and risk of CRC in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Regular use of glucosamine and chondroitin was first assessed in 2002 and participants were followed until 2010, over which time 672 CRC cases occurred...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Guoqiang Ai, Rakesh Dachineni, D Ramesh Kumar, Lloyd F Alfonso, Srinivasan Marimuthu, G Jayarama Bhat
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, and generates ribose sugars, which are required for nucleic acid synthesis, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for neutralization of oxidative stress. The expression of G6PD is elevated in several types of tumor, including colon, breast and lung cancer, and has been implicated in cancer cell growth. Our previous study demonstrated that exposure of HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells to aspirin caused acetylation of G6PD, and this was associated with a decrease in its enzyme activity...
August 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Samia Mora, JoAnn E Manson
IMPORTANCE: Clinical decision making regarding the appropriate use of aspirin for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events is complex, and requires an individualized benefit to risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: To review advances in the individualized assessment for ASCVD and bleeding risk, and to provide an update of the randomized clinical trial evidence that examined the use of aspirin for primary prevention (primarily for ASCVD, and secondarily for colorectal cancer)...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Gurpreet Singh Ranger
Considerable interest has emerged over the last decade regarding the role of aspirin in prevention of colorectal cancer. This disease is one of the commonest cancers in the Western World, therefore, the existence of a simple "everyday" agent, which could have the ability to prevent the disease, represents an invaluable opportunity clinicians may be able to exploit. Evidence from case-control and cohort studies, and recent updates of randomised controlled trials have been very encouraging-indicating benefit from long term use of aspirin at low dose...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Simer J Bains, Milada Mahic, Tor Åge Myklebust, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Sheraz Yaqub, Liv Marit Dørum, Bjørn Atle Bjørnbeth, Bjørn Møller, Kristoffer Watten Brudvik, Kjetil Taskén
PURPOSE: Regular use of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is associated with reduced incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, aspirin as primary prevention is debated because of the risk of hemorrhagic adverse effects. Aspirin as secondary prevention may be more justified from a risk-benefit perspective. We have examined the association between aspirin use after the diagnosis of CRC with CRC-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational, population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted by linking patients diagnosed with CRC from 2004 through 2011 (Cancer Registry of Norway) with data on their aspirin use (The Norwegian Prescription Database)...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Adriana Albini, Andrea DeCensi, Franco Cavalli, Alberto Costa
At several recent, internationally attended scientific meetings, including the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)'s "Shaping the Future of Cancer Prevention: A Roadmap for Integrative Cancer Science and Public Health" summit in Leesburg (VA) and the AACR Annual Meeting in New Orleans, the focus on cancer prevention to reduce cancer-related deaths was extensively discussed with renewed attention and emphasis. Cancer prevention should be actively proposed even to healthy individuals, and not just to individuals with high cancer risk...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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