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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453405/a-meta-analysis-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-for-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Ayebo E Sadoh, Stephen K Obaro
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia causes an enormous burden of childhood disease globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Pneumococcus is the most common bacterial aetiology of pneumonia; however, antimicrobials are limited and may not adequately address the local epidemiology of the region. AIM: To undertake a review and meta-analysis of pneumonia studies in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in childhood pneumonia. METHODS: Articles published in PubMed and Google between 2006 and 2016 which evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pneumococcal pneumonia in children in sub-Saharan Africa were identified...
April 28, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447330/seawater-drowning-associated-pneumonia-a-10-year-descriptive-cohort-in-intensive-care-unit
#2
Alexandre Robert, Pierre-Éric Danin, Hervé Quintard, Nicolas Degand, Nihal Martis, Denis Doyen, Céline Pulcini, Raymond Ruimy, Carole Ichai, Gilles Bernardin, Jean Dellamonica
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of the major complications of drowning, but the optimal empirical antibiotic treatment is not clearly defined. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and fungi have been identified in a recent series of freshwater drowning-associated pneumonia. However, microbial data in seawater drowning are scarce. The objective of the study is to describe the microorganisms isolated in early respiratory specimens obtained from seawater drowning-associated pneumonia and to provide their antibiotic susceptibility pattern...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444395/effects-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-on-the-membrane-vesicle-release-and-growth-of-respiratory-pathogens
#3
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Pauline H M Hellebrand, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
Bacterial infections contribute to the disease progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by stimulating mucus production in the airways. This increased mucus production and other symptoms are often alleviated when patients are treated with mucolytics such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Moreover, NAC has been suggested to inhibit bacterial growth. Bacteria can release membrane vesicles in response to stress and recent studies report a role for these pro-inflammatory membrane vesicles (MVs) in the pathogenesis of airways disease...
April 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443585/pneumococcal-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-young-healthy-children-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-turkey
#4
Ahmet Arvas, Haluk Çokuğraş, Emel Gür, Nevriye Gönüllü, Zeynep Taner, Hrisi Bahar Tokman
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children aged 0-6 years who were vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 healthy Turkish children aged between 1 month and 6 years of age. Serotyping was performed and risk factors of carriage were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall carriage rate was 14%...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443235/seronegative-complicated-hydatid-cyst-of-the-lung-a-case-report
#5
Eva Letty Susanne Engström, Goran Nadir Salih, Lothar Wiese
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important helminthic zoonotic disease that commonly affects the liver and lungs. Imaging methods and serology establish the diagnosis in most cases. Chest x-ray can diagnose uncomplicated pulmonary hydatid cysts, whereas superinfection and/or rupture of the hydatid cyst (complicated cysts) may change the radiographic appearance and lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient with hemoptysis and chest pain, where computer tomography scan of the lung suggested a large, ruptured hydatid cyst...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443070/crystal-structure-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-from-the-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogen-a-vaginae-an-immunoevasive-factor-that-interacts-with-the-human-c5a-anaphylatoxin
#6
Javier Querol-García, Francisco J Fernández, Ana V Marin, Sara Gómez, Daniel Fullà, Cecilia Melchor-Tafur, Virginia Franco-Hidalgo, Sebastián Albertí, Jordi Juanhuix, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, José R Regueiro, M Cristina Vega
The Gram-positive anaerobic human pathogenic bacterium Atopobium vaginae causes most diagnosed cases of bacterial vaginosis as well as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In addition to its well-established role in carbohydrate metabolism, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae have been reported to act as extracellular virulence factors during streptococcal infections. Here, we report the crystal structure of GAPDH from A. vaginae (AvGAPDH) at 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442909/tat-functionalized-liposomes-for-the-treatment-of-meningitis-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Caterina Bartomeu Garcia, Di Shi, Thomas J Webster
Bacterial meningitis has become a global concern, because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It has been demonstrated that liposomes can enter bacteria, thus providing a possible treatment for numerous infections, including meningitis. Fusogenic liposomes are pH-sensitive with a high capacity to fuse with the bacteria membrane and promote intracellular drug release. Moreover, this ability can be improved by using cell-penetrating peptides (such as Tat47-57, which is a peptide derived from the Tat protein of HIV)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441365/efficacy-and-safety-of-3-nasal-packing-materials-used-after-functional-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis-a-comparative-study-in-china
#8
Xi-Ling Zheng, Yu-Xiang Zhao, Min Xu
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 3 nasal packing products (silicone tube, Beschitin-F, and Aquacel1-Ag) after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-six CRS patients undergoing FESS surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups (22 patients in each group): the silicone tube group, the Beschitin-F group, and the Aquacel1-Ag group. Postoperative headache, nasal pain, nasal bleeding, and swelling of the nasal mucosa were observed at 1 month after FESS surgery...
April 25, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439602/antibiogram-profile-of-septic-meningitis-among-children-in-duhok-iraq
#9
Abdulrahman T Saadi, Nadir A Garjees, Aveen H Rasool
  To determine the prevalence of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the antibiogram profile in pediatric patients with suspected meningitis. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2016 in the Hevi Paediatric Teaching Hospital in Duhok, Iraq. The CSF samples were withdrawn from 432 pediatric patients suspected of meningitis. The samples were cultured, and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed.  Results: There were 33 (7.6%) culture positive cases among 432 CSF samples...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438972/position-of-o-acetylation-within-the-capsular-repeat-unit-impacts-the-biological-properties-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-33a-and-33f
#10
Brady L Spencer, Jamil S Saad, Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela, Moon H Nahm
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) produces many capsule types that differ in their abilities to evade host immune recognition. To explain these serotype-dependent protective capacities, many studies have investigated capsular thickness or the interaction of the capsule with complement proteins, but the effects of small chemical modifications of the capsule on its function have not been studied. One small chemical modification found frequently among pneumococcal capsules is O-acetylation. Pneumococcal serotype 33A has two membrane-bound O-acetyltransferase genes, wciG and wcjE A 33A wcjE-deficient variant, 33F, occurs naturally and is increasing in prevalence in the wake of widespread conjugate vaccine use, but no wciG-deficient variants have been reported...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438705/tigr4-strain-causes-more-severe-disease-than-wu2-strain-in-a-mouse-model-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-a-common-pathogenic-role-for-interferon-%C3%AE
#11
Belinda Yau, Lay Khoon Too, Helen J Ball, Nicholas H Hunt
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis causes debilitating neurological symptoms and acute fatalities in patients, and long-term neurological sequelae in some survivors. Current vaccines do not protect against all 94 known S. pneumoniae capsular serotypes, many of which are capable of causing pneumococcal meningitis (PM). We here compare the pathogenic outcomes of two clinically virulent isolates of S. pneumoniae, serotype 3 strain WU2 and serotype 4 strain TIGR4, in a murine model of PM. At an identical infectious dosage of 10(3) CFU administered via the intracerebroventricular route, significantly greater mortality, interleukin (IL)1β and IL6 production, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction occurred in TIGR4-induced PM compared to PM caused by WU2...
April 21, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435909/self-assembled-particulate-psaa-as-vaccine-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#12
Majela González-Miro, Laura Rodríguez-Noda, Mildrey Fariñas-Medina, Dagmar García-Rivera, Vicente Vérez-Bencomo, Bernd H A Rehm
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen responsible for the majority of childhood pneumonia and media otitis cases worldwide. The diversity of its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) results in more than 91 serotypes of which at least 23 are virulent. Various CPS conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins are currently licensed and provide protection against the infection caused by the respective serotypes but not against new and emerging virulent serotypes. In this study, we considered the conserved protein antigen PsaA, the pneumococcal surface adhesin A, in order to overcome the limitations of CPS antigens...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432093/diversity-of-integrative-and-conjugative-elements-of-streptococcus-salivarius-and-their-intra-and-interspecies-transfer
#13
Narimane Dahmane, Virginie Libante, Florence Charron-Bourgoin, Eric Guédon, Gérard Guédon, Nathalie Leblond-Bourget, Sophie Payot
Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) are widespread chromosomal mobile genetic elements, which can transfer autonomously by conjugation in bacteria. Thirteen ICEs with a conjugation module closely related to that of ICESt3 of Streptococcus thermophilus were characterized in Streptococcus salivarius by whole genome sequencing. Sequence comparison highlighted ICE evolution by shuffling of 3 different integration/excision modules (for integration in the 3' end of fda, rpsI or rpmG genes) with the conjugation module of the ICESt3 subfamily...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431934/etiological-analysis-and-epidemiological-comparison-among-adult-cap-and-nhcap-patients-in-okinawa-japan
#14
Gretchen Parrott, Daijiro Nebeya, Takeshi Kinjo, Kazuya Miyagi, Shusaku Haranaga, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
BACKGROUND: Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues for CAP and NHCAP. Despite the availability of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality ensues. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the etiology of 200 pneumonia patients at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Patients were categorized into CAP (n = 97) or NHCAP (n = 103), according to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines. Diagnoses were made using clinical tests including, Gram stain, bacterial culture, serum and urinary tests...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#15
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429163/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacterial-isolates-from-patients-presenting-with-ear-nose-and-throat-ent-infections-in-the-german-community-healthcare-setting
#16
B Olzowy, M Kresken, M Havel, D Hafner, B Körber-Irrgang
Empiric initial antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections is based primarily upon the susceptibility of the most common causative pathogens. The purpose of this study was to provide susceptibility data on six bacterial species known to cause ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections. A total of 1066 isolates collected during a nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study were analysed. All Streptococcus pyogenes isolates were penicillin (PEN)-susceptible, indicating that natural penicillins can still be recommended as the first-line treatment for group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427991/impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-serotype-distribution-of-adult-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-tokai-region-japan-2008-2016
#17
Yuri Furuya, Yuka Yamagishi, Hayato Okade, Takumi Kadota, Tori Funatsu, Maki Eto, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and changed serotype distribution in Japan. In November 2013, PCV7 was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from adult patients. A total of 504 pneumococcal isolates were collected during 4 periods between 2008 and 2016 (Period 1; between June 2008 and April 2009, Period 2; between September 2010 and March 2011, Period 3; between October 2011 and March 2012, Period 4; between August 2015 and January 2016)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424248/splenic-ly6g-high-mature-and-ly6g-int-immature-neutrophils-contribute-to-eradication-of-s-pneumoniae
#18
Justin F Deniset, Bas G Surewaard, Woo-Yong Lee, Paul Kubes
The spleen plays an integral protective role against encapsulated bacterial infections. Our understanding of the associated mechanisms is limited to thymus-independent (TI) antibody production by the marginal zone (MZ) B cells, leaving the contribution of other splenic compartments such as the red pulp (RP) largely unexplored despite asplenic patients succumbing to the infection in the first 24 h, suggesting important antibody-independent mechanisms. In this study, using time-lapse intravital imaging of the spleen, we identify a tropism for Streptococcus pneumoniae in this organ mediated by tissue-resident MZ and RP macrophages and a protective role for two distinct splenic neutrophil populations (Ly6G(hi) and Ly6G(intermediate)) residing in the splenic RP...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424247/location-in-the-spleen-dictates-the-function-of-murine-neutrophils
#19
Patrizia Scapini, Marco A Cassatella
In this issue of JEM, Deniset et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20161621) provide new data that extend our knowledge on the mechanisms whereby Streptococcus pneumoniae is cleared by the spleen. The authors identify novel populations of murine splenic neutrophils that localize in the red pulp and the marginal zone. During the acute phases of S. pneumoniae infection, these populations of splenic neutrophils act in concert with specialized macrophage and B cell populations to provide very rapid innate immune protection...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422083/nasopharyngeal-carriage-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-among-children-under-five-in-southwest-ethiopia
#20
Tiglu Gebre, Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Dagne Feye, Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Dinberu Seyoum, Mekidim Mekonnen
Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is found to play an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we assessed the nasopharyngeal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of S. pneumoniae among children under five. A total of 361 children under five attending the outpatient department of Shanan Gibe Hospital in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia were enrolled from June to September 2014. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected using sterile plastic applicator rayon tipped swab and inoculated on tryptone soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 5 µg/mL gentamycin...
April 19, 2017: Children
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