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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092165/recommendations-for-best-disinfectant-practices-to-reduce-the-spread-of-infection-via-wrestling-mats
#1
Linda Mull Young, Vicki Abram Motz, Emily R Markey, Suzanne C Young, Ronald E Beaschler
CONTEXT:  At the request of the National Wrestling Coaches Association and the head wrestling coach at our university, we conducted a study of infection transmission in collegiate wrestlers. OBJECTIVE:  To examine disinfectant effectiveness and develop best-practice guidelines for minimizing the spread of skin infections via wrestling mats. DESIGN:  Controlled laboratory study and crossover study. SETTING:  Laboratory and two 15-college wrestling invitational meets...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090076/a-journey-into-the-brain-insight-into-how-bacterial-pathogens-cross-blood-brain-barriers
#2
Mathieu Coureuil, Hervé Lécuyer, Sandrine Bourdoulous, Xavier Nassif
The blood-brain barrier, which is one of the tightest barriers in the body, protects the brain from insults, such as infections. Indeed, only a few of the numerous blood-borne bacteria can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis. In this Review, we focus on invasive extracellular pathogens, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli, to review the obstacles that bacteria have to overcome in order to invade the meninges from the bloodstream, and the specific skills they have developed to bypass the blood-brain barrier...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088924/microbiology-of-otitis-media-in-indigenous-australian-children-review
#3
J Jervis-Bardy, A S Carney, R Duguid, A J Leach
OBJECTIVES: To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088526/subcutaneous-immunization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-gapdh-confers-effective-protection-in-mice-via-tlr2-and-tlr4
#4
Xiaoyu Sun, Jichao Wang, Jie Zhou, Hong Wang, Xiaofang Wang, Jingwen Wu, Yujuan He, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu
The surface localized Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is best known as housekeeping protein. Currently, GAPDH has been recognized as moonlighting protein and virulent factor. Therefore, we investigate whether GAPDH can act as a suitable vaccine candidate protein to prevent pneumococcal infection. In this study, mice received subcutaneous vaccination with recombinant GAPDH followed by challenge with D39 and 19F showing higher survival rate and lower bacterial loads in nasal washes and lung homogenates than control...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#5
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081446/host-to-host-transmission-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-is-driven-by-its-inflammatory-toxin-pneumolysin
#6
M Ammar Zafar, Yang Wang, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Jeffrey N Weiser
Host-to-host transmission is a critical step for infection. Here we studied transmission of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae in an infant mouse model. Transmission from nasally colonized pups required high levels of bacterial shedding in nasal secretions and was temporally correlated with, and dependent upon, the acute inflammatory response. Pneumolysin, a pore-forming cytotoxin and major virulence determinant, was both necessary and sufficient to promote inflammation, which increased shedding and allowed for intralitter transmission...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081444/host-to-host-transmission-of-the-pneumococcus-new-victims-of-a-toxic-relationship
#7
Claudia Trappetti, James C Paton
Host-to-host transmission is critical for survival of the human-adapted bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Zafar et al. (2017) show that transmission is dependent on nasopharyngeal inflammation elicited by the toxin pneumolysin, causing increased shedding and enhanced survival of the bacterium in the environment.
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080916/aerobic-microflora-and-endoparasites-of-freshly-shot-wild-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-in-trinidad-west-indies
#8
Rod Suepaul, Roxanne Charles, Francis Dziva
The agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina ) is a New World wild rodent hunted for its meat in Trinidad and other Latin American countries. Studies on agouti under captive conditions have yielded some data on health-related aspects, but relatively very little is known about their wild counterparts. The environment of the agouti can influence the microflora and parasites harbored by the animals, which may contain zoonotic pathogens. Here, the microflora found on the nasal mucosa and sections of the intestinal tract and endoparasites of freshly shot agouti from various areas of Trinidad are described...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077083/evaluation-of-the-line-probe-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-bacterial-meningitis-pathogens-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-from-children
#9
Ahmet Soysal, Demet Gedikbasi Toprak, Salih Türkoğlu, Mustafa Bakir
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of the line probe assay (LPA) with conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as real-time PCR for Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children during the multicenter national surveillance of bacterial meningitis between the years 2006 and 2009 in Turkey. RESULTS: During the study period 1460 subjects were enrolled and among them 841 (57%) met the criteria for probable bacterial meningitis...
January 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074049/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-%C3%AE-methoxyimino-acylide-derivatives-against-macrolide-resistant-pathogens-and-mutation-analysis-in-23s-rrna
#10
Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Ippei Yoshida, Mayumi Ueki, Katsuhiko Tanabe, Akira Manaka, Keiichi Hiramatsu
We characterized in vitro activities of α-methoxyimino acylides against macrolide-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Mycoplasma pneumoniae with ribosome modification or substitution and selected acylide-resistant mutants to clarify the binding point of the acylides. The acylides had low MICs against erm(B) gene-containing S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes (MIC90s, 1-4 μg ml(-1)). For M. pneumoniae, although they had poor potencies against macrolide-resistant strains with the A2058G (Escherichia coli numbering) mutation in 23S rRNA (MICs, >32 μg ml(-1)), one of them showed in vitro activities against macrolide-resistant strains with the A2058U or A2059G mutations (MICs, 0...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072501/nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-respiratory-pathogens-in-warao-amerindians-significant-relationship-with-stunting
#11
Lilly M Verhagen, Meyke Hermsen, Ismar A Rivera-Olivero, María Carolina Sisco, Marien I de Jonge, Peter W M Hermans, Jacobus H de Waard
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. METHODS: In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0 - 4 years, 227 children aged 5 - 10 years, and 333 caregivers. Written questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographics and environmental risk factors. Anthropometric measurements were performed in children aged 0 - 4 years...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070562/biological-and-chemical-adaptation-to-endogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-production-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-d39
#12
John P Lisher, Ho-Ching Tiffany Tsui, Smirla Ramos-Montañez, Kristy L Hentchel, Julia E Martin, Jonathan C Trinidad, Malcolm E Winkler, David P Giedroc
The catalase-negative, facultative anaerobe Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 is naturally resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced endogenously by pyruvate oxidase (SpxB). Here, we investigate the adaptive response to endogenously produced H2O2. We show that lactate oxidase, which converts lactate to pyruvate, positively impacts pyruvate flux through SpxB and that ΔlctO mutants produce significantly lower H2O2. In addition, both the SpxB pathway and a candidate pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) pathway contribute to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) production during aerobic growth, and the pyruvate format lyase (PFL) pathway is the major acetyl-CoA pathway during anaerobic growth...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069783/secondary-asplenia-as-a-complication-of-severe-meningococcal-sepsis
#13
Lourdes Castillo-Campos, Luis Bachiller-Carnicero, María José Megía-Sevilla, María Isabel González-Tomé
We report the case of an 11-month-old infant who had a medical history of meningococcal septicaemia 6 months prior to this admission and presented to hospital with an episode of fever due to Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia. During this second admission, an abdominal ultrasound scan revealed secondary asplenia.
January 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068884/evaluation-of-protein-spectra-cluster-analysis-for-streptococcus-spp-identification-from-various-swine-clinical-samples
#14
Carlos E C Matajira, Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana Paula S Silva, Renan E Mesquita, Daniela S Doto, Franco F Calderaro, Fernando N de Souza, Ana Paula G Christ, Maria Inês Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno
Traditional microbiological methods enable genus-level identification of Streptococcus spp. isolates. However, as the species of this genus show broad phenotypic variation, species-level identification or even differentiation within the genus is difficult. Herein we report the evaluation of protein spectra cluster analysis for the identification of Streptococcus species associated with disease in swine by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 250 S...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068663/collectin-kidney-1-plays-an-important-role-in-innate-immunity-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#15
Insu Hwang, Kenichiro Mori, Katsuki Ohtani, Yasuyuki Matsuda, Nitai Roy, YounUck Kim, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Nobutaka Wakamiya
Collectins are C-type lectins that are involved in innate immunity as pattern recognition molecules. Recently, collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) has been discovered, and in vitro studies have shown that CL-K1 binds to microbes and activates the lectin complement pathway. However, in vivo functions of CL-K1 against microbes have not been elucidated. To investigate the biological functions of CL-K1, we generated CL-K1 knockout (CL-K1-/-) mice and then performed a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection analysis. First, we found that recombinant human CL-K1 bound to S...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067813/pneumococcal-colonization-in-the-familial-context-and-implications-for-anti-pneumococcal-immunization-in-adults-results-from-the-binocolo-project-in-sicily
#16
Fabio Tramuto, Emanuele Amodio, Giuseppe Calamusa, Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Francesco Vitale, On Behalf Of The Binocolo Group
The spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae within families has been scarcely investigated so far. This feasibility study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in school-aged children and co-habiting relatives and to explore the potential link between the family environment and the sharing of pneumococcal serotypes covered by the vaccine. Oropharyngeal samples of 146 subjects belonging to 36 different family groups were molecularly tested for pneumococcal detection and serotyping. The overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 65...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067778/quorum-sensing-regulation-of-competence-and-bacteriocins-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-mutans
#17
REVIEW
Erin Shanker, Michael J Federle
The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence...
January 5, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065808/bacterial-meningitis-in-alcoholic-patients-a-population-based-prospective-study
#18
Kiril E B van Veen, Matthijs C Brouwer, Arie van der Ende, Diederik van de Beek
OBJECTIVES: To study clinical features and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients. METHODS: Patients with a history of alcoholism were selected from our nationwide, prospective cohort on community-acquired bacterial meningitis performed from March 2006 to October 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were prospectively collected. RESULTS: Of 1359 included episodes, 88 episodes (6%) occurred in 88 alcoholic patients...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062575/substitutions-in-pbp2b-from-%C3%AE-lactam-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-have-different-effects-on-enzymatic-activity-and-drug-reactivity
#19
Philippe Calvez, Eefjan Breukink, David I Roper, Mélanie Dib, Carlos Contreras-Martel, André Zapun
Pneumococcus resists β-lactams by expressing variants of its target enzymes, the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), with many amino acid substitutions. Up to 10% of the sequence can be modified. These altered PBPs have a much reduced reactivity with the drugs but retain their physiological activity of cross-linking the peptidoglycan, the major constituent of the bacterial cell wall. However, as β-lactams are chemical and structural mimics of the natural substrate, resistance mediated by altered PBPs raises the following paradox: how PBPs that react poorly with the drugs maintain a sufficient level of activity with the physiological substrate? This question is addressed for the first time in this study, which compares the peptidoglycan cross-linking activity of PBP2b from susceptible and resistant strains with their inhibition by different β-lactams...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062316/discovery-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serogroup-35-variants-in-australian-patients
#20
Megan Staples, Rikki M A Graham, Vicki Hicks, Janet Strachan, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Jade Peverall, Veyatie Wicks, Amy V Jennison
OBJECTIVES: S. pneumoniae isolates from Australian invasive pneumococcal disease cases displaying an atypical 35B phenotype. Whole genome sequencing was used to analyse these strains and identify changes to the capsule gene regions. METHODS: Four atypical serogroup 35 isolates from Australian reference laboratories were unable to be assigned to one of the four known group 35 serotypes by the Quellung serotyping method. Genetic characterisation of the capsule locus was performed by bioinformatic analysis of whole genome sequencing data for all isolates RESULTS: Genetic analysis identified four independent disruptions to the wciG gene, which encodes an O-acetyltransferase responsible for the O-acetylation of the 6Galβ1 residue in the capsular polysaccharide repeat unit of serotype 35B...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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