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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642139/clinical-characteristics-and-epidemiology-of-sepsis-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-the-era-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-a-retrospective-review
#1
Dawood Yusef, Tala Shalakhti, Samah Awad, Hana'a Algharaibeh, Wasim Khasawneh
BACKGROUND: Sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) remains one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality, especially for preterm newborns. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) are emerging as important pathogens that cause neonatal sepsis in NICU. Therefore, studying the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome caused by MDROs vs. non-MDROs, and identifying risk factors that may predispose patients to sepsis by MDROs are important. METHODS: Episodes of blood culture-proven sepsis (age: 0-90 days) in the NICU at our institution from January 2012 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641915/the-antimicrobial-spectrum-of-xeroform-%C3%A2
#2
David J Barillo, Anthony R Barillo, Sarah Korn, Kan Lam, Paul S Attar
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Xeroform(®) is a petrolatum-based fine mesh gauze containing 3% bismuth tribromophenate. Bismuth, similar to other metals, has antimicrobial properties. Xeroform(®) has been used for decades in burn and plastic surgery as a donor site dressing and as a covering for wounds or partial thickness burns. Despite this, the antimicrobial spectrum of Xeroform(®) remains largely unknown. We examined the in-vitro efficacy of Xeroform(®) against common burn pathogens using zone-of-inhibition methodology in a commercial research facility...
June 19, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641577/a-case-report-of-septic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-s-pneumoniae-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-despite-of-vaccination
#3
Josef Singer, Christoph Testori, Peter Schellongowski, Ammon Handisurya, Catharina Müller, Eva-Maria Reitter, Wolfgang Graninger, Paul Knöbl, Thomas Staudinger, Stefan Winkler, Florian Thalhammer
BACKGROUND AND CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of septic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a patient who had undergone splenectomy due to an autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is characterized as a dysfunction of immunoregulation. Although the patient was vaccinated with a conjugated polysaccharide vaccine after the splenectomy, he was still susceptible to S. pneumoniae infection, because the isolated serovar (24F), a serovar long thought to be apathogenic, is not covered by any vaccine currently approved, neither a conjugated nor an unconjugated polysaccharide one...
June 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641525/1-1%C3%AA-carbonyldiimidazole-cdi-mediated-facile-synthesis-structural-characterization-antimicrobial-activity-and-in-silico-studies-of-coumarin-3-carboxamide-derivatives
#4
Uzma Salar, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Muhammad Imran Fakhri, Shafqat Hussain, Saima Tauseef, Shagufta Ameer, Abdul Wadood, Huma Khan, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Despite of the availability of variety of antibacterial agents, re-emergance of pathogenic bacteria is still a serious medical concern. So, identification of new, safer, and selective antibacterial agents is the key interest in the medicinal chemistry research. METHOD: To explore the antimicrobial activity of coumarin-3-carboxamides for a range of bacterial and fungal strains, twenty eight derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid with a variety of aniline derivatives in the presence of 1,1ꞌ-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI)...
June 22, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641406/novel-antimicrobial-activities-of-a-peptide-derived-from-a-japanese-soybean-fermented-food-natto-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-bacillus-subtilis-group-strains
#5
Manabu Kitagawa, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Soh Yamamoto, Ryosuke Kutomi, Yasuo Ohkoshi, Toyotaka Sato, Hideki Wakui, Hideaki Itoh, Atsushi Miyamoto, Shin-Ichi Yokota
We recently isolated a tumoricidal peptide from Natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food. In the present study, antimicrobial activity of the Natto peptide was examined. The peptide consisted of 45 amino acid residues, and its structure was predicted to be rich in α-helix. It excreted antimicrobial activity only against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis group (B. subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus licheniformis). Lesser antimicrobial activity was observed for Streptococcus species other than S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638805/increased-zinc-availability-enhances-initial-aggregation-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#6
Lindsey R Brown, Rachel C Caulkins, Tyler E Schartel, Jason W Rosch, Erin S Honsa, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Sean Cherry, Justin A Thornton
Bacteria growing within biofilms are protected from antibiotics and the immune system. Within these structures, horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors, and promoting antibiotic resistance occurs, making biofilms an extremely important aspect of pneumococcal colonization and persistence. Identifying environmental cues that contribute to the formation of biofilms is critical to understanding pneumococcal colonization and infection. Iron has been shown to be essential for the formation of pneumococcal biofilms; however, the role of other physiologically important metals such as copper, zinc, and manganese has been largely neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637873/disease-linked-mutations-in-factor-h-reveal-pivotal-role-of-cofactor-activity-in-self-surface-selective-regulation-of-complement-activation
#7
Heather Kerr, Edwin Wong, Elisavet Makou, Yi Yang, Kevin Marchbank, David Kavanagh, Anna Richards, Andrew P Herbert, Paul N Barlow
Spontaneous activation enables the complement system to respond very rapidly to diverse threats. Activation is efficiently suppressed by complement factor H (CFH) on self surfaces but not foreign surfaces. The surface selectivity of CFH, a soluble protein containing 20 CCP modules (CCPs 1-20), may be compromised by disease-linked mutations. Which of the several functions of CFH drives its self-surface selectivity remains unknown. We made human CFH mutants in Pichia pastoris. In benchmark studies of CCP-1 variants, recombinant I62-CFH (protective against age-related macular degeneration) and V62-CFH functioned equivalently, matching or outperforming plasma-derived CFH while R53H-CFH, linked to atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS), was defective in C3bBb decay-accelerating activity (DAA) and factor I-cofactor activity (CA)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637806/the-pneumococcal-serotype-15c-capsule-is-partially-o-acetylated-and-allows-for-limited-evasion-of-ppv23-elicited-anti-serotype-15b-antibodies
#8
Brady L Spencer, Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela, Moon H Nahm
As a species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) utilizes a diverse array of capsular polysaccharides to evade the host. In contrast to large variations in sugar composition and linkage formation, O-acetylation is a subtle capsular modification that nonetheless has a large impact on capsular shielding and recognition of the capsule by vaccine-elicited antibodies. Serotype 15B, which is included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), encodes the putative O-acetyltransferase gene wciZ...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637805/conjugation-of-pspa4pro-with-capsular-streptococcus-pneumoniae-polysaccharide-serotype-14-does-not-reduce-the-induction-of-cross-reactive-antibodies
#9
Míriam A da Silva, Thiago R Converso, Viviane M Gonçalves, Luciana C C Leite, Martha M Tanizaki, Giovana C Barazzone
Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data shows increasing incidence of infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The use of Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help preventing serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637209/purification-and-characterization-of-two-new-cell-bound-bioactive-compounds-produced-by-wildlactococcus-lactisstrain
#10
Margarete Alice Fontes Saraiva, Dag Anders Brede, Ingolf Figved Nes, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Marisa Vieira de Queiroz, Célia Alencar de Moraes
Novel compounds and innovative methods are required considering that antibiotic resistance has reached a crisis point. In the study, two cell-bound antimicrobial compounds produced by L. lactis ID1.5 were isolated and partially characterized. Following purification by cationic exchange and a solid phase C18 column, antimicrobial activity was recovered after three runs of RPC using 60% (v/v) and 100% (v/v) of 2-propanol for elution, suggesting that more than one antimicrobial compound were produced by L. lactis ID1...
June 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634177/pneumococcal-pulmonary-valve-endocarditis
#12
Apostolos Vrettos, Paula Mota, James Nash, Iain Thorp, Max Baghai, Max Baghai
Pulmonary valve endocarditis is an rare type of infective endocarditis (IE). Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that is uncommonly associated with IE. A 50 year-old man was referred to us to an incidental echocardiographic finding of a pulmonary valve vegetation. He had a recent admission for drainage of a scrotal abscess from which streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated, complicated by hospital acquired pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. Analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction of the surgically resected mass revealed signs of 16S rDNA consistent with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection...
June 20, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632827/-occult-bacteremia-in-s%C3%A3-tero-del-r%C3%A3-o-hospital-experience-after-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccine
#13
Isolda Budnik, Alejandra Sandoval, Alejandra Prado, Marcela Labbé, Anamaría Peña, Tamara Viviani
BACKGROUND: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. OBJECTIVE: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. RESULTS: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#14
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630792/corneal-collagen-crosslinking-treatment-in-a-case-with-pneumococcal-keratitis
#15
Ayşe Bozkurt Oflaz, Banu Bozkurt, Ümit Kamış, Bengü Ekinci Köktekir
Bacterial keratitis is a serious ocular infectious disease that can threaten vision. The disease generally progresses rapidly and can lead to corneal scar, stromal abscess formation, perforation, and dissemination to adjacent tissues if not treated properly. Recent studies showed that corneal collagen crosslinking (CCC) using ultraviolet-A/riboflavin is effective in the treatment of bacterial keratitis refractory to topical antibiotic treatment. In addition to being bactericidal, CCC also decreases risk of perforation by strengthening the corneal collagen structure...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630688/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-pathogens-from-blood-cultures-results-from-a-laboratory-based-nationwide-surveillance-in-ghana
#16
Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) are critical medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of information on BSI from surveillance studies in Ghana. AIM: This study sought to demonstrate how useful BSI data can be gleaned from population-based surveillance, especially from resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from a nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) in Ghana were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630241/multipathogenic-necrotising-supraglottitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#17
Jacob Joseph Ahmed, James Douglas Constable, Tawakir Kamani, Mriganka De
Supraglottitis is a potentially life-threatening condition. It is now uncommon due to the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccination and is more recently caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, H. influenzae non-type B, H. parainfluenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella multocida Very rarely, it can cause necrotising supraglottitis/epiglottitis, and this has been reported in immunocompromised individuals. We present a unique case of multipathogenic supraglottitis causing laryngeal fibrinoid necrosis in an immunocompetent patient...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630198/genome-evolution-to-penicillin-resistance-in-serotype-3-streptococcus-pneumoniae-by-capsular-switching
#18
Naoko Chiba, Somay Y Murayama, Miyuki Morozumi, Satoshi Iwata, Kimiko Ubukata
Streptococcus pneumoniae of serotype 3 was collected from cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (n = 124) throughout Japan from April 2010 to March 2013. A penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) isolate from an adult patient, KK0981 of serotype 3, was identified among these strains. Whole-genome analysis characterized this PRSP as a recombinant strain derived from PRSP of serotype 23F with the cps-locus (20.3 kb) replaced by that of a penicillin-susceptible strain of serotype 3.
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630064/pneumolysin-dependent-calpain-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-in-macrophages-infected-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#19
Rendong Fang, Rui Wu, Huihui Du, Meilan Jin, Yajing Liu, Guihua Lei, Bing Jiang, Zehui Lei, Yuanyi Peng, Kui Nie, Kohsuke Tsuchiya
Pneumolysin (PLY), a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a pore-forming cytolysin that modulates host innate responses contributing to host defense against and pathogenesis of pneumococcal infections. Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) has been shown to be involved in tissue damage in a pneumococcal pneumonia model, however, the mechanism by which this cytokine is produced during S. pneumoniae infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of PLY in IL-1α production. Although the strains induced similar levels of pro-IL-1α expression, wild-type S...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628455/concurrent-infection-with-hepatitis-c-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#20
Thomas J Marrie, Gregory J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
Little is known about concurrent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which causes invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We hypothesized that co-infection with HCV and S. pneumoniae would increase risk for death and complications. We captured sociodemographic and serologic data for adults with IPD in a population-based cohort study in northern Alberta, Canada, during 2000-2014. IPD patients infected with HCV were compared with IPD patients not infected with HCV for risk of in-hospital deaths and complications by using multivariable logistic regression...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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