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Yichao Wang, Katrina J Allen, Noor H A Suaini, Rachel L Peters, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Jennifer J Koplin
BACKGROUND: Asian children born in Australia have higher rates of eczema and nut allergy than non-Asian children. However, it is not known whether this country of birth differential exists for other allergies or anaphylaxis risk. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of maternal and child's country of birth on the prevalence of parent-reported eczema, asthma, food allergy, and being diagnosed by a doctor as being "at risk of anaphylaxis". METHODS: We assessed the relationship between mother and child country of birth and allergies using the 2010 School Entrant Health Questionnaire, completed for 57,005 5-year old children (85...
July 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Lin Wang, Chunpeng Fan
A sample size formula for comparing two groups of count data is derived using the method of moments by matching the first and second moments of the distribution of the count data, and it does not need any further distributional assumption. Compared to sample size formulas derived using a likelihood-based approach or using simulations, the proposed sample size formula applies to count data following any distribution in addition to the negative binomial distribution. The proposed sample size formula can be used even when the study is analyzed with a likelihood-based approach...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Mustafa Bseikri, Joyce C McCann, Ashutosh Lal, Edward Fong, Kirsten Graves, Alisa Goldrich, Devan Block, Ginny L Gildengoren, Michele Mietus-Snyder, Mark Shigenaga, Jung Suh, Karen Hardy, Bruce N Ames
Asthma in the obese is often severe, difficult to treat, and characterized by less eosinophilic inflammation than asthma in the nonobese. Obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation may be a causal factor. We previously reported that a nutrient- and fiber-dense bar [Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI)-bar], which was designed to fill gaps in poor diets, improved metabolism in healthy overweight/obese (OW/OB) adults. In this pilot trial, OW/OB adolescents with poorly controlled asthma were randomized to weekly nutrition/exercise classes with or without twice-daily CHORI-bar consumption...
July 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Alan L James, Peter B Noble, Su-Ann Drew, Thais Mauad, Tony R Bai, Michael J Abramson, Karen O McKay, Francis H Y Green, John G Elliot
In asthma, it is unclear if the airway smooth muscle cells proliferate more or are increased at the onset of asthma and remain stable. This study aimed to compare smooth muscle cell proliferation in individuals with and without asthma and correlate proliferation rates with cell size and number and with granulocytic airway inflammation. Post-mortem airway sections were labelled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and percent positive muscle cells calculated. On the same sections, smooth muscle cell size and number, and the number of eosinophils and neutrophils were estimated and compared in cases of nonfatal (n=15) and fatal (n=15) asthma, and control subjects (n=15)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
J M Molina Aragonés, R Bausà Peris, R Carreras Valls, A Carrillo Castillo, F Fiblà Nicolau, E Gaynés Palou, J Guerrero Monge, J Inglés Torruella, J A López Muñoz, E Martinez Martínez-Carrasco, J Matllo Aguilar, J A Medina Lavela, M T Mestre Prad, P Peña García, S Rodriguez Vallecillos, G Tapias Oller, M Vilardell Ynaraja
The presence of formaldehyde at workplace remains significant. Exposure to it results in local irritation of the eye, nose and upper respiratory tract mucous membranes, and it has been chronically related to a higher risk of cancer development at the paranasal sinuses, naso-oropharynx and lungs. The aim of our work has been the updating of the bibliography and the categorization of the most up to date scientific evidence of formaldehyde effects on human body. Bibliographic search on the electronic database Medline / PubMed, restricted to the last 10 years through a combination of free and controlled language...
July 2018: Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
Kan Kato, Hiroshi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Usefulness of carrying out the reversibility test after inhaling bronchodilator by forced oscillation technique (FOT) in addition to spirometry was investigated in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma (BA), cough variant asthma (CVA) and allergic rhinitis (AR) with prolonged or chronic cough. METHODS: The subjects were the 622 patients at Idaimaeminamiyojo Clinic in Sapporo who complained cough over three weeks, and underwent bronchial reversibility test with salbutamol by using spirometry and FOT...
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
Kunio Dobashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
Michael Kvasnicka, Thomas Siedler, Nicolas R Ziebarth
This paper studies the short-term impact of public smoking bans on hospitalizations in Germany. It exploits the staggered implementation of smoking bans over time and across the 16 federal states along with the universe of hospitalizations from 2000 to 2008 and daily county-level weather and pollution data. Smoking bans in bars and restaurants have been effective in preventing 1.9 hospital admissions (-2.1%) due to cardiovascular diseases per day, per 1 million population. We also find a decrease by 0.5 admissions (-6...
July 18, 2018: Health Economics
Lindsey Eldridge, Elizabeth M Wagner
Both systemic (tracheal and bronchial) and pulmonary circulations perfuse the lung. However, documentation of angiogenesis of either is complicated by the presence of the other. Well-documented angiogenesis of the systemic circulations have been identified in asthma, cystic fibrosis, chronic thromboembolism, and primary carcinomas. Angiogenesis of the vasa vasorum, which are branches of bronchial arteries, is seen in the walls of large pulmonary vessels after a period of chronic hypoxia. Documentation of increased pulmonary capillaries has been shown in models of chronic hypoxia, after pneumonectomy, and in some carcinomas...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Bridget L Ryan, Krista Bray Jenkyn, Salimah Z Shariff, Britney Allen, Richard H Glazier, Merrick Zwarenstein, Martin Fortin, Moira Stewart
OBJECTIVES: To determine volumes and rates of multimorbidity in Ontario by age group, sex, material deprivation, and geography. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was completed using linked provincial health administrative databases. Ontario residents were classified as having multimorbidity (3+ chronic conditions) or not, based on the presence of 17 chronic conditions. The volumes (number of residents) of multimorbidity were determined by age categories in addition to crude and age-sex standardized rates...
July 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Xia Meng, Xinrong Sun, Yonghong Zhang, Hongyang Shi, Wenjing Deng, Yanqin Liu, Guizuo Wang, Ping Fang, Shuanying Yang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone (PGZ) exhibits potential protective effects in asthma. Recently, regulator of G protein 4 (RGS4) has been reported to be associated with immunological and inflammatory responses. However, no evidence has shown the influence of PPARγ on RGS4 expression in airway disorders. In this study, BALB/c mice received ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization followed by OVA intranasal challenge for 90 days to establish a chronic asthma mouse model. Accompanied with OVA challenge, the mice received administration of PPARγ agonist PGZ (10 mg/kg) intragastrically or RGS4 inhibitor CCG 63802 (0...
July 19, 2018: Inflammation
Shauna McKibben, Andy Bush, Mike Thomas, Chris Griffiths
The National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) identified high prescribing of short-acting beta2 -agonists (SABAs) as a key factor in over 40% of deaths. We interviewed asthma experts from both a hospital background (n = 5) and a primary care background (n = 8), and general practitioners delivering asthma care (n = 8), to identify how SABA use is defined and perceived. We identified disparity in how acceptable SABA use is defined, ranging from 0.5 (100 doses/year) to 12 SABA inhalers (2400 doses/year), and complacency in the perception that over-use did not represent a marker for risk of asthma death...
July 18, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Tommy L H Chan, David D Kim, Manas Sharma, Donald H Lee, J Alexander Fraser
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and radiologic features of 3 patients in whom prolonged vigorous coughing/Valsalva triggered the development of pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) that persisted even after the coughing attacks had stopped and to discuss how this novel proximate trigger supports a "hydraulic model" of PTCS pathogenesis. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of 3 patients seen between January 2011 and July 2017 in a tertiary care neuro-ophthalmology clinic...
July 18, 2018: Neurology
Hooman Mirzakhani, Amal A Al-Garawi, Vincent J Carey, Weiliang Qiu, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss
Cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has been reported in association with risk of early life recurrent wheeze. In a subset of infants who participated in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, we demonstrated that higher cord blood 25OHD at birth (>31 ng/mL) was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent wheeze in the first year of life. We then identified a module of co-expressed genes associated with cord blood 25OHD levels >31 ng/mL. Genes in this module are involved in biological and immune pathways related to development and progression of asthma pathogenesis including the Notch1 and transforming growth factor-beta signalling pathways...
July 18, 2018: Thorax
Ruth Semprini, Nick Shortt, Stefan Ebmeier, Alex Semprini, Rachel Varughese, Cecile T J Holweg, John G Matthews, James Fingleton, Mark Weatherall, Richard Beasley, Irene Braithwaite
We investigated the time course of change of type-2 asthma biomarkers after a severe asthma exacerbation. Blood eosinophils were lowest immediately after treatment was initiated (0.07 vs 0.33×109 /L, p<0.001) while serum IgE levels were at their highest (339 vs 249 U/L, p<0.001). Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide levels were lowest 2 weeks after treatment (23 vs 33 ppb, p=0.06) and serum periostin levels were lowest 1 week after treatment (45·9 vs 50·9 ng/mL, p<0.001). A delay of 4-8 weeks following a severe exacerbation is required if these biomarkers are used to guide the ongoing management of patients with asthma...
July 18, 2018: Thorax
Guojun Qian, Wei Jiang, Benkun Zou, Jintao Feng, Xiaofang Cheng, Jie Gu, Tianqing Chu, Chen Niu, Rui He, Yiwei Chu, Mingfang Lu
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily mediated by Th2 immune mechanisms. Numerous studies have suggested that early life exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is negatively associated with allergic asthma. One proposed mechanism invokes desensitization of lung epithelial cells by LPS. We report here that acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), a host lipase that degrades and inactivates LPS, renders mice more susceptible to house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma. Lung epithelial cells from Aoah-/- mice are refractory to HDM stimulation, decreasing dendritic cell activation and Th2 responses...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Kim Han, An Nguyen, Javier Traba, Xianglan Yao, Maryann Kaler, Rebecca D Huffstutler, Stewart J Levine, Michael N Sack
A fasting mimetic diet blunts inflammation, and intermittent fasting has shown ameliorative effects in obese asthmatics. To examine whether canonical inflammatory pathways linked with asthma are modulated by fasting, we designed a pilot study in mild asthmatic subjects to assess the effect of fasting on the NLRP3 inflammasome, Th2 cell activation, and airway epithelial cell cytokine production. Subjects with documented reversible airway obstruction and stable mild asthma were recruited into this study in which pulmonary function testing (PFT) and PBMCextraction was performed 24 h after fasting, with repeated PFT testing and blood draw 2...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Sun-Hye Ko, Jaewook Jeong, Myong Ki Baeg, Kyung-Do Han, Hwan Soo Kim, Jong-Seo Yoon, Hyun Hee Kim, Jin Tack Kim, Yoon Hong Chun
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia contribute to the development of a pro-inflammatory state in asthma. However, studies investigating the association between asthma and dyslipidemia have reported conflicting results. This study aimed to uncover the relationship between asthma and lipid profiles in adolescents using a national health and nutrition survey. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and included 2841 subjects aged 11-18 years with fasting blood sample data...
July 18, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Nathan Rout-Pitt, Nigel Farrow, David Parsons, Martin Donnelley
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that arises due to mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene, which encodes for a protein responsible for ion transport out of epithelial cells. This leads to a disruption in transepithelial Cl-, Na + and HCO3 - ion transport and the subsequent dehydration of the airway epithelium, resulting in infection, inflammation and development of fibrotic tissue. Unlike in CF, fibrosis in other lung diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has been well characterised...
July 18, 2018: Respiratory Research
Nora Drick, Benjamin Seeliger, Tobias Welte, Jan Fuge, Hendrik Suhling
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-5 (IL-5) antibodies represent a promising therapeutic option for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. To date, no official treatment response criteria exist. In this study, simple criteria for treatment response applicable to all asthma patients were used to evaluate clinical efficacy and predictors for treatment response in a real-life setting. METHODS: Data from 42 patients with severe eosinophilic asthma treated with mepolizumab for at least six months were analysed...
July 18, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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