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Tingting Li, Yuehai Ke, Hongqiang Cheng
Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways. Studies have found that neutrophils are crucial to airway inflammation in acute asthma, persistent asthma, particularly in asthma of poor response to glucocorticoid treatment. The role of neutrophils in development of bronchial asthma is complex, as they can release a potent source of cytokines and inflammatory mediators participating in asthma. Differing from eosinophilic inflammatory asthma, neutrophilic inflammatory asthma is not depend on helper T (Th)2 cells, but may be related to Th1 and Th17 cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Wen Hua, Huaqiong Huang, Huahao Shen
The revision in 2016 asthma management and prevention guideline includes both the diagnosis of asthma and the control-based asthma management. It points out that asthma is a heterogeneous disease, and the diagnosis of asthma should be based on the characteristic pattern of symptoms and evidence of variable airflow limitation, emphasizing the diagnosis of atypical asthma. Besides, the epidemiology of asthma, assessment of asthma, management severe asthma, special type of asthma and asthma in special populations have been added in this version...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Evelien Gerits, Isolde Van der Massen, Katleen Vandamme, Kaat De Cremer, Katrijn De Brucker, Karin Thevissen, Bruno P A Cammue, Serge Beullens, Maarten Fauvart, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Oral infections are among the most common diseases worldwide. Many protocols for the prevention and treatment of oral infections have been described, yet no golden standard has been developed so far. The antiseptic chlorhexidine and antibiotics are often used in these treatment procedures. However, long-term use of chlorhexidine can lead to side effects and extensive use of antibiotics can promote the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which in turn can compromise the effectiveness of the treatment...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Shuai Zhou, Yanmei Huang, Bingshao Liang, Hui Dong, Shuwen Yao, Yinshuang Chen, Yongqiang Xie, Yan Long, Sitang Gong, Zhenwen Zhou
PURPOSE: Previous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori infection and the frequency of allergic asthma. The neutrophil-activating protein (NAP) of Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a modulator possessing anti-Th2 inflammation activity. Here, we sought to determine whether systemic or mucosal pre-administration of recombinant Helicobacter pylori NAP (rNAP) could prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice. METHODS: Mice were exposed to purified rNAP through intraperitoneal injection or inhalation and then sensitized with ovalbumin...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Charles N Serhan
Practitioners of ancient societies from the time of Hippocrates and earlier recognized and treated the signs of inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain with agents that block or inhibit proinflammatory chemical mediators. More selective drugs are available today, but this therapeutic concept has not changed. Because the acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders, much of today's pharmacopeia can cause serious unwanted side effects, such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered pathophysiologic and is associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma, as well as classic inflammatory diseases (e...
January 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sai-Wai Ho, Ying-Hock Teng, Shun-Fa Yang, Han-Wei Yeh, Yu-Hsun Wang, Ming-Chih Chou, Chao-Bin Yeh
OBJECTIVES: Isolated minor rib fractures (IMRFs) after blunt chest traumas are commonly observed in emergency departments. However, the relationship between IMRFs and subsequent pneumonia remains controversial. This nationwide cohort study investigated the association between IMRFs and the risk of pneumonia in patients with blunt chest traumas. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based cohort study. SETTING: Patients with IMRFs were identified between 2010 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
Yun Hee Kim, Seung-Hyo Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that fungal infections are a main cause of respiratory tract diseases, such as asthma, bronchopneumonia, intoxication, and invasive fungal disease. Fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida species have become increasingly important pathogens as the global climate changes. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the toxicological potential of Aspergillus protease in the lower respiratory tract. Exposure of Aspergillus protease to A549 cells induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNAs and increased production of interleukin (IL)-8 and MCP-1 protein through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology
Joshua A Lawson, Luan M Chu, Donna C Rennie, Louise Hagel, Chandima P Karunanayake, Punam Pahwa, James A Dosman
BACKGROUND: Because of time and cost constraints, objective classification of atopic and nonatopic asthma has been limited in large epidemiologic studies. However, as we try to better understand exposure-outcome associations and ensure appropriate treatment of asthma, it is important to focus on phenotype-defined asthma classification. OBJECTIVE: To compare atopic and nonatopic asthma in rural children with regard to risk factors and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Saskatchewan, Canada, in 2011...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Sunny Jabbal, Gianluigi Poli, Brian Lipworth
We demonstrate that extra-fine particles are not associated with an appreciably higher exhaled fraction, hence explaining their efficacy profile in asthma.
January 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Anne Borgmeyer, Patricia M Gyr, Emily Ahmad, Patrick M Ercole, Karen Balakas
Despite traditional education regarding the Asthma Action Plan (AAP), providers in the inpatient setting of a pediatric hospital reported lack of knowledge regarding the AAP and lack of confidence in teaching the AAP to patients and families. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP)-led class incorporating simulation on resident physician knowledge of the AAP and confidence in teaching families the AAP. The study setting was a 250 bed Midwest academic pediatric hospital...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Ming-Tsung Lee, Chih-Chiang Wu, Chia-Yu Ou, Jen-Chieh Chang, Chieh-An Liu, Chih-Lu Wang, Hau Chuang, Ho-Chang Kuo, Te-Yao Hsu, Chie-Pein Chen, Kuender D Yang
BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases are thought to be inherited. Prevalence of allergic diseases has, however, increased dramatically in last decades, suggesting environmental causes for the development of allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We studied risk factors associated with the development of atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma (AS) in children of non-atopic parents in a subtropical country. METHODS: In a birth cohort of 1,497 newborns, parents were prenatally enrolled and validated for allergic diseases by questionnaire, physician-verified and total or specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels; 1,236 and 756 children, respectively, completed their 3-year and 6-year follow-up...
January 9, 2017: Oncotarget
Jianrong Ye, Ailaiti Talaiti, Yan Ma, Qin Zhang, Long Ma, Hong Zheng
A history of allergy or allergic condition has been reported to be associated with reduced risk of some types of malignancies. However, the understanding of this association for colorectal cancer (CRC) is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of CRC risk in individuals who had history of allergy compared to those without the history of allergic condition. Pumbed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies. The adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled using the random-effects model...
January 11, 2017: Oncotarget
Yan-Liang Qu, Jun Liu, Li-Xin Zhang, Chun-Min Wu, Ai-Jie Chu, Bao-Lei Wen, Chao Ma, Xu-Yan Yan, Xin Zhang, De-Ming Wang, Xin Lv, Shu-Jian Hou
Some studies found that there was a significant association between asthma and the risk of lung cancer. However, the results are inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis. We searched the electronic databases for all relevant articles. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to calculate the strength of the association between asthma and lung cancer risk. Asthma was significantly associated with the increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.44; 95% CI 1.31-1.59; P < 0.00001; I2 = 83%)...
January 11, 2017: Oncotarget
Giuseppe Santini, Nadia Mores, Mario Malerba, Chiara Mondino, Roberta Anzivino, Giuseppe Macis, Paolo Montuschi
Introduction Dupilumab (REGN668/SAR231893), produced by a collaboration between Regeneron and Sanofi, is a monoclonal antibody currently in phase III for moderate-to-severe asthma. Dupilumab is directed against the α-subunit of the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor and blocks the IL-4 and IL-13 signal transduction. Areas Covered Pathophysiological role of IL-4 and IL-13 in asthma; mechanism of action of dupilumab; pharmacology of IL-4 receptor; phase I and phase II studies with dupilumab; regulatory affair. Expert opinion Patients with severe asthma who are not sufficiently controlled with standard-of-care represent the target asthma population for dupilumab...
January 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Jaideep Dhariwal, Aoife Cameron, Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo, Ajerico Del Rosario, Eteri Bakhsoliani, Malte Paulsen, David J Jackson, Michael R Edwards, Batika M J Rana, David J Cousins, Trevor T Hansel, Sebastian L Johnston, Ross P Walton
RATIONALE: Newly characterised type 2 innate lymphoid cells display potent type 2 effector functionality, however their contribution to allergic airways inflammation and asthma is poorly understood. Mucosal biopsy used to characterise the airway mucosa is invasive, poorly tolerated and does not allow sequential sampling. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of type 2 innate lymphoid cells during nasal allergen challenge in subjects with allergic rhinitis, using novel non-invasive methodology...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Cem Hasan Razi, Nazlı Cörüt, Nesibe Andıran
The object of this study was to determine whether high doses of inhaled budesonide provide additional benefits to a standardized treatment regimen that includes systemic steroids and salbutamol in preschool patients presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute wheezing attacks. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial was conducted in children, 6 months-6 years with moderate or severe acute wheezing epizode, as determined based on a pulmonary index score (PIS) of 7-13 points...
January 13, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Jose L Gomez, Naftali Kaminski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Alessandro Gobbi, Raffaele L Dellacá, Gregory King, Cindy Thamrin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Y S Prakash, Andrew J Halayko, Reinoud Gosens, Reynold A Panettieri, Blanca Camoretti-Mercado, Raymond B Penn
BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulatory issues that deter progress of AR research and development of therapeutics targeting AR and to propose approaches and solutions to these specific problems. This Statement is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on any disease in which AR is observed and/or plays a role...
January 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Yueh-Ying Han, Juan C Celedón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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