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Rocco Barazzoni, Stephan Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Luca Busetto, Tommy Cederholm, Dror Dicker, Hermann Toplak, Andre Van Gossum, Volkan Yumuk, Roberto Vettor
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide due to increasingly pervasive obesogenic lifestyle changes. Obesity poses unprecedented individual, social, and multidisciplinary medical challenges by increasing the risk for metabolic diseases, chronic organ failures, and cancer as well as complication rates in the presence of acute disease conditions. Whereas reducing excess adiposity remains the fundamental pathogenic treatment for obese individuals, complex metabolic and lifestyle abnormalities as well as weight reduction therapies per se may also compromise the ability to preserve muscle function and mass, especially when chronic disease co-exists with obesity...
July 18, 2018: Obesity Facts
Stephen McKeever, Lisa Whiting, David Anderson, Alison Twycross
Professional, financial and ethical reasons necessitate nursing improves its understanding of student attrition. Previous studies identify causes of attrition as multifactorial. However, few studies focus on children's nursing. This study aimed to explore causes of pre-registration children's nursing attrition. Exploring the causes of attrition was achieved through quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three years of quantitative data relating to attrition rates and causes was obtained. These data informed semi-structured interviews of children's nursing students, from four London universities...
June 25, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Justin C Wong, Bradley S Schoch, Brian K Lee, Daniel Sholder, Thema Nicholson, Surena Namdari, Charles L Getz, Mark D Lazarus, Matthew L Ramsey, Gerald R Williams, Joseph A Abboud
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of positive cultures in shoulder surgery remains unclear. This study determined the rate and characteristics of positive intraoperative cultures in a cohort of patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: From February 2015 to March 2016, 94 patients, without prior surgery, underwent primary shoulder arthroplasty. Before surgery, all shoulders were prospectively enrolled and consented to obtain standardized intraoperative cultures...
August 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Akira Kodama, Takaya Mizuseki, Nobuo Adachi
BACKGROUND: On the basis of the intra-articular findings during Kudo type 5 elbow prosthesis revision surgery, we infer the mechanisms leading to implant failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed primary Kudo type 5 total elbow arthroplasty on 60 rheumatoid elbows in 45 patients between 1994 and 2003. Revision surgery was performed in 8 patients (9 elbows) because of implant failure. We radiographically assessed their status before this surgical procedure and then assessed the surgical intra-articular findings based on surgery records and photographs...
August 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Suveen Angraal, Rohan Khera, Shengfan Zhou, Yongfei Wang, Zhenqiu Lin, Kumar Dharmarajan, Nihar R Desai, Susannah M Bernheim, Elizabeth E Drye, Khurram Nasir, Leora I Horwitz, Harlan M Krumholz
BACKGROUND: Temporal changes in the readmission rates for patient groups and conditions that were not directly under the purview of Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) can help assess whether efforts to lower readmissions extended beyond targeted patients and conditions. METHODS: Using Nationwide Readmissions Database (2010-2015), we assessed trends in all-cause readmission rates for one of the 3 HRRP conditions (acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pneumonia) or conditions not targeted by HRRP in 6 age-insurance groups defined by age-groups (≥65 or <65 years) and payer (Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance)...
July 14, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Ran Xue, Qinghua Meng, Juan Li, Jing Wu, Qinwei Yao, Hongwei Yu, Yueke Zhu
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a serious life-threatening disease with high prevalence. Liver transplantation is the only efficient clinical treatment for ACLF. Because of the rapid progression and lack of liver donors, it is urgent to find an effective and safe therapeutic approach to ACLF. Recent studies showed that multipotent cell transplantation could improve the patients' liver function and enhance their preoperative condition. Cells such as mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells and autologous peripheral blood stem cells, which addressed in this study have all been used in multipotent cell transplantation for liver diseases...
June 23, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Alauddin Kochai, Mehmet Türker, Özgür Çiçekli, Uğur Özdemir, Levent Bayram, Ünal Erkorkmaz, Erhan Şükür
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the three most commonly used fixation techniques: tension-band wire fixation, partially threaded cannulated screws, and fully threaded cannulated headless compression screws. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety patients with medial malleolus fractures were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups. Group A included patients who underwent tension-band wire fixation (n=26), Group B partially threaded cannulated compression screws (n=32), and Group C fully threaded cannulated headless compression screws (n=32)...
August 2018: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
Zofia Bartovská, Milan Zlámal, Irena Murínová, Tomáš Tyll, Michal Holub
We report a case of a 39-year-old male admitted for respiratory failure. On admission, the patient was diagnosed with advanced HIV infection and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). The patient's condition improved following specific PJP therapy but then deteriorated. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and treated with ganciclovir. The severe course of both opportunistic infections required long-term care at an intensive care unit. Despite complications, the patient was discharged after 108 inpatient days in a stable clinical condition...
March 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Vinay Bahadur Panday, Ivandito Kuntjoro, Ting Ting Low, James W L Yip, Edgar Tay Lik Wui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Karan R Chadda, Ibrahim T Fazmin, Shiraz Ahmad, Haseeb Valli, Charlotte E Edling, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Heart failure (HF) affects 23 million people worldwide and results in 300,000 annual deaths. It is associated with many comorbidities, such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and risk factors for both conditions overlap. 11% of HF patients have OSA and 7.7% of OSA patients have left ventricular ejection fraction <50% with arrhythmias being a significant comorbidity in HF and OSA patients. 40% of HF patients develop atrial fibrillation (AF) and 30-50% of deaths from cardiac causes in HF patients are from sudden cardiac death...
July 16, 2018: Sleep
Neil Volk, Corey A Siegel
Over the past 2 decades, advances in biologic and small molecule therapeutics have resulted in a rapid increase in our armamentarium of therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. Despite these advancements, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis remain chronic and progressive diseases. One of the primary reasons for persistent inflammation and bowel damage is failure of medical therapy. With growing therapeutic options, there is an increased temptation to quickly move to the next therapy and label the prior therapy as a failure; however, this can lead to inadequate optimization of medications and poor control of disease...
July 16, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Sirirat Surinkaew, Mona Aflaki, Abhijit Takawale, Yu Chen, Xiao-Yan Qi, Marc-Antoine Gillis, Yan-Fen Shi, Jean-Claude Tardif, Nipon Chattipakorn, Stanley Nattel
Aims: Heart failure (HF) produces left atrial (LA)-selective fibrosis and promotes atrial fibrillation. HF also causes adrenergic activation, which contributes to remodeling via a variety of signaling molecules, including the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). Here, we evaluate the effects of Epac1-signaling on LA-fibroblast (FB) function and its potential role in HF-related atrial remodeling. Methods and Results: HF was induced in adult male mongrel dogs by ventricular tachypacing (VTP)...
July 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Steven Sanche, Thibault Mesplède, Nancy L Sheehan, Jun Li, Fahima Nekka
Most HIV-infected patients who initiate combination antiretroviral therapy experience a viral load decline in several phases. These phases are characterized by different rates of viral load decay that decrease when transitioning from one phase to the next. There is no consensus as to the origin of these phases. One hypothesis put forward is that short- and long-lived infected cells are responsible for the first and second phases of decay, respectively. However, significant differences in drug concentrations are observed in monocytes from various tissues, suggesting the first two phases of decay in viral loads could instead be attributed to short-lived cells being differently exposed to drugs...
2018: PloS One
Erica Herc, Bobbi Pritt, Taylor Huizenga, Richard Douce, Matthew Hysell, Duane Newton, Jennifer Sidge, Eve Losman, John Sherbeck, Daniel R Kaul
We report an asplenic patient who was infected with Babesia divergens-like/MO-1. The clinical course was complicated by multiorgan failure that required intubation and dialysis. The patient recovered after an exchange transfusion and antimicrobial drug therapy. Physicians should be alert for additional cases, particularly in asplenic persons.
August 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nipunie S Rajapakse, Kevin Ellsworth, Rachael M Liesman, Mai Lan Ho, Nancy Henry, Elitza S Theel, Adam Wallace, Ana Catarina Ishigami Alvino, Luisa Medeiros de Mello, Jucille Meneses
Since the first identification of neonatal microcephaly cases associated with congenital Zika virus infection in Brazil in 2015, a distinctive constellation of clinical features of congenital Zika syndrome has been described. Fetal brain disruption sequence is hypothesized to underlie the devastating effects of the virus on the central nervous system. However, little is known about the effects of congenital Zika virus infection on the peripheral nervous system. We describe a series of 4 cases of right unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in infants with congenital Zika syndrome suggesting peripheral nervous system involvement and Zika virus as a unique congenital infectious cause of this finding...
August 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Andrew J Bowen, Tiffany L Huang, Amy S Nowacki, Douglas Trask, James Kaltenbach, Rachel Taliercio, Michael S Benninger, Claudio F Milstein, Paul C Bryson
Objective Unexplained chronic cough (UCC) is a perplexing condition treated with neuromodulators. Although previous literature describes the effectiveness of neuromodulators, there is little on the development of tachyphylaxis or dependence to neuromodulators over time. Our objective is to capture the experience of a large cohort of patients with UCC over an extended period, looking for these 2 phenomena. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with UCC from 2010 to 2014...
July 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Yingxue Wang, Bridgette A Christopher, Kirkland A Wilson, Deborah Muoio, Robert W McGarrah, Henri Brunengraber, Guo-Fang Zhang
High concentrations of propionate and its metabolites are found in several diseases that are often associated with the development of cardiac dysfunction, such as obesity, diabetes, propionic acidemia, and methylmalonic acidemia. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope-based metabolic flux approach to understand propionate-mediated perturbation of cardiac energy metabolism. Propionate led to accumulation of propionyl-CoA (increased by ~101-fold) and methylmalonyl-CoA (increased by 36-fold). This accumulation caused significant mitochondrial CoA trapping and inhibited fatty acid oxidation...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Vibhor Wadhwa, Narendra B Gutta, Premal S Trivedi, Kshitij Chatterjee, Osman Ahmed, Robert K Ryu, Sanjeeva P Kalva
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with a higher mortality rate in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) than in those without heart failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement provides any mortality benefit in patients admitted with CHF and PE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 2005-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used for this study. Adults (≥ 18 years old) with PE were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes...
July 17, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Nilay Patel, Juan Viles-Gonzalez, Kanishk Agnihotri, Shilpkumar Arora, Nileshkumar J Patel, Ekta Aneja, Mahek Shah, Apurva O Badheka, Naga Venkata Pothineni, Krishna Kancharla, Siva Mulpuru, Peter Noseworthy, Fred Kusumoto, Yong Mei Cha, Abhishek Deshmukh
BACKGROUND: The utilization of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) has increased significantly since its initial approval for use in selected patients with heart failure. Limited data exits regarding current trends in implant related in-hospital complications and cost utilization. The aim of our study was to examine in-hospital complication rates associated with CRT-D and their trends over the last decade. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we estimated 378,248 CRT-D procedures from 2003 to 2012...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Jie Zhou, Jin Sun, Huaiwen Chen, Qing Peng
As the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide, lung cancer is often associated with therapy failure and decreases in survival; these factors are often attributed to lung cancer-initiating cells (CICs). In addition, sufficient evidence has suggested that simultaneous targeting of CICs, together with cancer cells, is critical for the achievement of preferable therapeutic efficacy, due to the spontaneous conversion between CICs and cancer cells. Salinomycin sodium (SS) is an antibacterial therapeutic agent that exerts potent activity against CICs in various types of cancer, including lung cancer...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
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