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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636053/evidence-of-bad-recycling-practices-bfrs-in-children-s-toys-and-food-contact-articles
#1
A Guzzonato, F Puype, S J Harrad
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635556/executive-control-in-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study-on-the-moderating-role-of-comt-val158met-for-comorbid-alcohol-and-substance-use-disorders
#2
Giuseppe Carrà, Gabriella Nicolini, Cristina Crocamo, Annamaria Lax, Francesca Amidani, Francesco Bartoli, Filippo Castellano, Alessia Chiorazzi, Giulia Gamba, Costanza Papagno, Massimo Clerici
BACKGROUND: A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met) appears to influence cognition in people with alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) and in those with psychosis. METHODS: To explore the potential moderating effect of these factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted, randomly recruiting subjects with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia. AUD/SUD was rigorously assessed, as well as COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Executive control functioning was measured using the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED)...
February 14, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635522/dietary-intake-among-opioid-and-alcohol-using-pregnant-women
#3
Shikhar Shrestha, Elizabeth Jimenez, Laura Garrison, Peter Pribis, Dennis W Raisch, Julia M Stephen, Ludmila N Bakhireva
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse in nonpregnant adults has been associated with increased intake in calories and decreased intake of nutrient-dense foods; however, studies examining dietary intake in opioid-using and alcohol-using pregnant women are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary intake in opioid-using pregnant women with or without concurrent light-to-moderate alcohol use as compared to abstaining controls. METHODS: This prospective birth cohort included 102 pregnant women classified into four study groups: controls (n = 27), medication-assisted treatment (MAT; n = 26), alcohol (ALC; n = 22), and concurrent use of both substances (MAT + ALC; n = 27)...
February 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635521/assessment-of-an-innovative-voluntary-substance-abuse-treatment-program-designed-to-replace-compulsory-drug-detention-centers-in-malaysia
#4
Farrah Khan, Archana Krishnan, Mansur A Ghani, Jeffrey A Wickersham, Jeannia J Fu, Sin How Lim, Sangeeth Kaur Dhaliwal, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: As part of an ongoing initiative by the Malaysian government to implement alternative approaches to involuntary detention of people who use drugs, the National Anti-Drug Agency has created new voluntary drug treatment programs known as Cure and Care (C&C) Centers that provide free access to addiction treatment services, including methadone maintenance therapy, integrated with social and health services. OBJECTIVES:   We evaluated early treatment outcomes and client satisfaction among patients accessing C&C treatment and ancillary services at Malaysia's second C&C Center located in Kota Bharu, Kelantan...
February 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635345/avatar-assisted-therapy-a-proof-of-concept-pilot-study-of-a-novel-technology-based-intervention-to-treat-substance-use-disorders
#5
Michael S Gordon, Steven B Carswell, Mary Schadegg, Kayla Mangen, Kelly Merkel, Susan Tangires, Frank J Vocci
BACKGROUND: Avatar-assisted therapy (AAT) is a novel and emerging technology that uses the Internet to enable clinicians and clients in substance abuse treatment to participate in group counseling sessions from separate and remote locations in real time through the use of avatars and virtual environments. OBJECTIVES: The current study is a pilot proof-of-concept feasibility study involving individuals in outpatient substance abuse treatment. This report addresses two questions: (1) are individuals who present for substance abuse treatment interested in receiving AAT and (2) what factors are associated with better treatment success...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635344/trajectories-of-remission-and-mortality-over-13-years-after-intake-to-substance-use-treatment
#6
Andrea H Kline-Simon, Felicia W Chi, Jennifer R Mertens, Constance Weisner
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationships between long-term patterns of substance use and mortality risk among substance use disorder (SUD) patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine distinct patterns of remission and relapse of SUD over time and examine their relationship with mortality. METHODS: The study site was Kaiser Permanente of Northern California. Data for 997 adults who entered substance use treatment between 1994 and 1996 and 4,241 non-SUD patients with similar demographic distributions (35% women in both groups) were analyzed...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634759/current-applications-of-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-a-critical-review
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Pasin, Adam Cawley, Sergei Bidny, Shanlin Fu
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in recent years has resulted in the development of numerous analytical methods for the detection and identification of known and unknown NPS derivatives. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been identified as the method of choice for broad screening of NPS in a wide range of analytical contexts because of its ability to measure accurate masses using data-independent acquisition (DIA) techniques. Additionally, it has shown promise for non-targeted screening strategies that have been developed in order to detect and identify novel analogues without the need for certified reference materials (CRMs) or comprehensive mass spectral libraries...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634662/hiv-stigma-and-substance-use-among-hiv-positive-russians-with-risky-drinking
#8
E Jennifer Edelman, Karsten Lunze, Debbie M Cheng, Dmitry A Lioznov, Emily Quinn, Natalia Gnatienko, Carly Bridden, Christine E Chaisson, Alexander Y Walley, Evgeny M Krupitsky, Anita Raj, Jeffrey H Samet
The link between HIV stigma with substance use is understudied. We characterized individuals with high HIV stigma and examined whether HIV stigma contributes to substance use among HIV-positive Russians reporting risky alcohol use. We analyzed data from HERMITAGE, a randomized controlled trial of 700 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) with past 6-month risky sex and risky alcohol use in St. Petersburg, Russia (2007-2011). Participants who were female and reported depressive symptoms and lower social support were more likely to endorse high HIV stigma (all p's < 0...
June 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634426/prevalence-and-consequences-of-perinatal-substance-use-growing-worldwide-concerns
#9
EDITORIAL
Alice Ordean, Lisa Graves, Brian Chisamore, Lorraine Greaves, Adrian Dunlop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634286/conjugate-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-substance-use-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Paul T Bremer, Kim D Janda
Substance use disorder, especially in relation to opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, is a significant public health issue and has intensified in recent years. As a result, substantial interest exists in developing therapeutics to counteract the effects of abused drugs. A promising universal strategy for antagonizing the pharmacology of virtually any drug involves the development of a conjugate vaccine, wherein a hapten structurally similar to the target drug is conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634168/contributions-of-children-with-multiple-chronic-conditions-to-pediatric-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#11
Jay G Berry, Arlene S Ash, Eyal Cohen, Fareesa Hasan, Chris Feudtner, Matt Hall
BACKGROUND: Children with multiple chronic conditions (CMCC) are increasingly using hospital care. We assessed how much of US pediatric inpatient care is used by CMCC and which chronic conditions are the key drivers of hospital use. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all 2.3 million US acute-care hospital discharges in 2012 for children age 0 to 18 years in the Kids' Inpatient Database. The ∼4.5 million US hospitalizations for pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn and neonatal care were not assessed...
June 20, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634058/apoptotic-gene-expression-profiles-and-dna-damage-levels-in-rat-liver-treated-with-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-and-protective-role-of-curcumin
#12
Dilek Eke, Ayla Çelik, Bertan Yilmaz, Nurcan Aras, Sabriye Kocatürk Sel, Davut Alptekin
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS and PFOA, are xenobiotics that can be detected worldwide in the environment and humans. PFOS (C8F17SO3(-)) is a fluorinated organic compound has been used for decades in industrial and commercial products. We investigated the genotoxic and apoptotic impact of PFOS in rat liver using comet assay, micronucleus test and apoptotic gene expression methods for caspase 3, caspase 8 and the protective role of curcumin on the PFOS- induced damage under chronic exposure. In this study, rats were treated either with three different PFOS doses only (0...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634053/using-short-term-bioassays-to-evaluate-the-endocrine-disrupting-capacity-of-the-pesticides-linuron-and-fenoxycarb
#13
Petra Spirhanzlova, Bert De Groef, Freda E Nicholson, Sylvia V H Grommen, Giulia Marras, Anthony Sébillot, Barbara A Demeneix, Sophie Pallud-Mothré, Gregory F Lemkine, Andrew J Tindall, David Du Pasquier
Several short-term whole-organism bioassays based on transgenic aquatic models are now under validation by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to become standardized test guidelines for the evaluation of the endocrine activity of substances. Evaluation of the endocrine disrupting capacity of pesticides will be a domain of applicability of these future reference tests. The herbicide linuron and the insecticide fenoxycarb are two chemicals commonly used in agricultural practices...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634009/the-fish-parasite-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis-host-immunology-vaccines-and-novel-treatments
#14
REVIEW
Louise von Gersdorff Jørgensen
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (Ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. The parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease, making vaccine strategies feasible. However, there is no prophylactic treatment available and repetitive treatments with auxiliary substances are needed to control the infection. Historically, a variety of drugs and chemicals have been used to combat the disease but due to changing regulations and recognition of carcinogenic and environmentally damaging effects the most efficient compounds are prohibited...
June 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633984/herbal-medicinal-products-in-pregnancy-which-data-are-available
#15
REVIEW
Jacqueline Wiesner, Werner Knöss
This review aims to highlight recent approaches concerning usage of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in pregnancy and to discuss appropriate strategies to handle limited information. Therefore, published monographs of the Committee on Herbal Medicinal products (HMPC) and selected publicly funded webpages, medicinal handbooks, publications and industry and health care organisations webpages were evaluated. While within the monographs of the HMPC a rather conservative approach could be found (mainly because of lacking nonclinical and/or clinical studies), all other sources display a wide variety of information or assessments, thereby often giving contradictory recommendations...
June 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633598/metabolism-of-inhaled-methylethylketone-in-rats
#16
Frédéric Cosnier, Stéphane Grossmann, Hervé Nunge, Céline Brochard, Samuel Muller, Anne-Marie Lambert-Xolin, Sylvie Sebillaud, Benoît Rieger, Aurélie Thomas, Marie-Josèphe Décret, Manuella Burgart, Laurent Gaté, Benoît Cossec, Pierre Campo
Methylethylketone (MEK) is widely used in industry, often in combination with other compounds. Although nontoxic, it can make other chemicals harmful. This study investigates the fate of MEK in rat blood, brain and urine as well as its hepatic metabolism following inhalation over 1 month (at 20, 200 or 1400 ppm). MEK did not significantly accumulate in the organism: blood concentrations were similar after six-hour or 1-month inhalation periods, and brain concentrations only increased slightly after 1 month's exposure...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633191/-urothelial-cancer-update-on-systemic-treatment-options
#17
Günter Niegisch
Perioperative chemotherapy is likely to improve survival in both the neoadjuvant and the adjuvant setting. Therefore, it is an integral part of the modern treatment of patients with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer. All patients who are suitable for cisplatin-based chemotherapy should be involved in a corresponding concept.Cisplatin-based combinations are standard regimens in the perioperative and palliative systemic treatment of urothelial cancer. Carboplatin is only an inferior substitute for "unfit" patients in the palliative treatment situation...
June 20, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633174/do-us-medical-licensing-applications-treat-mental-and-physical-illness-equivalently
#18
Katherine J Gold, Elizabeth R Shih, Edward B Goldman, Thomas L Schwenk
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: State medical licensing boards are responsible for evaluating physician impairment. Given the stigma generated by mental health issues among physicians and in the medical training culture, we were interested in whether states asked about mental and physical health conditions differently and whether questions focused on current impairment. METHODS: Two authors reviewed physician medical licensing applications for US physicians seeking first-time licensing in 2013 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia...
June 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633110/emerging-contaminants-related-to-the-occurrence-of-forest-fires-in-the-spanish-mediterranean
#19
Julian Campo, María Lorenzo, Erik L H Cammeraat, Yolanda Picó, Vicente Andreu
Forest fires can be a source of contamination because, among others, of the use of chemicals to their extinction (flame retardants, FRs), or by the production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from high temperature alteration of organic matter. Up to our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the direct (PAHs 16 on the USA EPA's priority list), and indirect [tri- to hepta- brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)] contamination related to forest fires...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633063/serum-perfluoroalkyl-acids-pfaas-and-associations-with-behavioral-attributes
#20
Rebecca Siebenaler, Rochelle Cameron, Craig M Butt, Kate Hoffman, Christopher P Higgins, Heather M Stapleton
The ubiquitous use of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a variety of industrial and consumer products has resulted in chronic exposure in most industrialized nations, and led to measurable concentrations in blood and other tissues in humans across all life stages; however, behavioral attributes that relate to exposure are not well studied. To further investigate how behavior may relate to PFAS exposure, 37 adults were recruited from central North Carolina. Participants provided blood samples and behavioral questionnaires were administered, asking questions about a variety of household, dietary, and behavioral outcomes...
June 9, 2017: Chemosphere
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