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A Kenneth MacLeod, Lesley A McLaughlin, Colin J Henderson, C Roland Wolf
Tamoxifen is an oestrogen-receptor (ER) antagonist used in the treatment of breast cancer. It is a pro-drug, converted by several P450 enzymes to a primary metabolite, N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDT), which is then further modified by CYP2D6 to a pharmacologically potent secondary metabolite, 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen). Anti-depressants (ADs), which are often co-prescribed to patients receiving tamoxifen, are also metabolised by CYP2D6 and evidence suggests that a drug-drug interaction (DDI) between these agents adversely affects the outcome of tamoxifen therapy by inhibiting endoxifen formation...
October 18, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
David A Shearer, William Sparkes, Jonny Northeast, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. DESIGN: This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. METHODS: Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Richard Jefferies, Ibrahim H N Sheriff, Jacob H Matthews, Olivia Jagger, Sarah Curtis, Peter Lees, Peter C Spurgeon, Daniel Mark Fountain
Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Mark B Powers, Michelle L Davis, Brooke Y Kauffman, Scarlett O Baird, Michael Zvolensky, David Rosenfield, Bess H Marcus, Timothy S Church, Georita Frierson, Michael W Otto, Jasper A J Smits
OBJECTIVES: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes. One reason may be that smokers with high AS smoke differently (i.e., to manage negative affect and uncomfortable bodily sensations) than other smokers, leading to stronger addiction (due to an affect/sensation based and thereby highly variable rather than a regular smoking routine). Thus, we examined the relationship between AS and smoking variability in a group of treatment-seeking smokers. METHODS: Participants (N = 136; 52...
September 2016: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
Isabelle Guilleret, Lorena Losi, Sonia T Chelbi, Sergio Fonda, Stéphanie Bougel, Sara Saponaro, Gaia Gozzi, Loredana Alberti, Richard Braunschweig, Jean Benhattar
Most types of cancer cells are characterized by aberrant methylation of promoter genes. In this study, we described a rapid, reproducible, and relatively inexpensive approach allowing the detection of multiple human methylated promoter genes from many tissue samples, without the need of bisulfite conversion. The Methylation Ligation-dependent Macroarray (MLM), an array-based analysis, was designed in order to measure methylation levels of 58 genes previously described as putative biomarkers of cancer. The performance of the design was proven by screening the methylation profile of DNA from esophageal cell lines, as well as microdissected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jiantao Zhao, Yao Xu, Qin Ding, Xinli Huang, Yating Zhang, Zhirong Zou, Mingjun Li, Lu Cui, Jing Zhang
Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Junji Su, Chaoyou Pang, Hengling Wei, Libei Li, Bing Liang, Caixiang Wang, Meizhen Song, Hantao Wang, Shuqi Zhao, Xiaoyun Jia, Guangzhi Mao, Long Huang, Dandan Geng, Chengshe Wang, Shuli Fan, Shuxun Yu
BACKGROUND: Early maturity is one of the most important and complex agronomic traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). To dissect the genetic architecture of this agronomically important trait, a population consisting of 355 upland cotton germplasm accessions was genotyped using the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) approach, of which a subset of 185 lines representative of the diversity among the accessions was phenotypically characterized for six early maturity traits in four environments...
2016: BMC Genomics
R R Burlakoti, S Gyawali, S Chao, K P Smith, R D Horsley, B Cooper, G J Muehlbauer, S M Neate
Pyrenophora teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch (SFNB), is an emerging pathogen of barley in the United States and Australia. Compared with net form of net blotch (NFNB), less is known in the U.S. Upper Midwest barley breeding programs about host resistance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SFNB in breeding lines. The main objective of this study was to identify QTL associated with SFNB resistance in the Upper Midwest two-rowed and six-rowed barley breeding programs using a genome-wide association study approach...
October 11, 2016: Phytopathology
Claudio F Narambuena, Fabricio O Sanchez Varretti, Antonio J Ramirez-Pastor
In this paper we develop the statistical thermodynamics of two-domain antifreeze proteins adsorbed on ice. We use a coarse-grained model and a lattice network in order to represent the protein and ice, respectively. The theory is obtained by combining the exact analytical expression for the partition function of non-interacting linear k-mers adsorbed in one dimension, and its extension to higher dimensions. The total and partial adsorption isotherms, and the coverage and temperature dependence of the Helmholtz free energy and configurational entropy are given...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
P E Teodoro, F E Torres, A M CorrĂȘa
The objectives of this study were to use mixed models to confirm the presence of genetic variability in 16 soybean genotypes, to compare clusters generated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) with those created by the Ward modified location model (MLM) technique, and to indicate parental combinations that hold promise for obtaining superior segregating populations of soybean. A field trial was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Aquidauana, MS. The experimental design consisted of four replications of randomized blocks, each containing 16 treatments...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jiangshuo Su, Fei Zhang, Pirui Li, Zhiyong Guan, Weimin Fang, Fadi Chen
Forty-five molecular markers were detected significantly associated with chrysanthemum' waterlogging tolerance, and four favorable parental lines were identified as potential donors for improving waterlogging tolerance in chrysanthemum. The productivity of chrysanthemum is downgraded by waterlogging soils, which has driven a search for germplasm showing an enhanced level of waterlogging tolerance (WT). As yet little is known regarding the mode of inheritance of WT in chrysanthemum. The study set out to characterize the extent of genetic variation for WT represented in a collection of one hundred chrysanthemum accessions by testing them under both greenhouse and field conditions...
December 2016: Planta
Na Liu, Yadong Xue, Zhanyong Guo, Weihua Li, Jihua Tang
Kernel starch content is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.) as it accounts for 65-75% of the dry kernel weight and positively correlates with seed yield. A number of starch synthesis-related genes have been identified in maize in recent years. However, many loci underlying variation in starch content among maize inbred lines still remain to be identified. The current study is a genome-wide association study that used a set of 263 maize inbred lines. In this panel, the average kernel starch content was 66...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martine Cm Willems, Thijs Hendriks, Roger Mlm Lomme, Ben M de Man, J Adam van der Vliet
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressant agents are inevitable for solid organ recipients, but may have a negative effect on wound healing that is difficult to measure because of clinical use of a polydrug regime. The evidence on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is scarce and contradictory. This study aims to investigate the effect of MMF administration on wound healing. METHODS: Ninety-six male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups underwent anastomotic construction in ileum and colon at day 0...
June 2016: Transplantation Direct
R Woodbridge, M P Sullivan, E Harding, S Crutch, K J Gilhooly, Mlm Gilhooly, A McIntyre, L Wilson
Difficulty with everyday activities is a key symptom and defining feature of dementia, relating to subjective reports of well-being and overall quality of life. One way to support individuals in their daily activities is by modifying the physical environment to make it easier to interact with during activity performance. This systematic review explores the range of studies available using physical environmental strategies to support performance in everyday activities for people with dementia. Seventy-two relevant studies were identified by the search...
August 4, 2016: Dementia
Jason D Rights, Sonya K Sterba
Multilevel data structures are common in the social sciences. Often, such nested data are analysed with multilevel models (MLMs) in which heterogeneity between clusters is modelled by continuously distributed random intercepts and/or slopes. Alternatively, the non-parametric multilevel regression mixture model (NPMM) can accommodate the same nested data structures through discrete latent class variation. The purpose of this article is to delineate analytic relationships between NPMM and MLM parameters that are useful for understanding the indirect interpretation of the NPMM as a non-parametric approximation of the MLM, with relaxed distributional assumptions...
November 2016: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Sean Ekins, Alexander L Perryman, Alex M Clark, Robert C Reynolds, Joel S Freundlich
The renewed urgency to develop new treatments for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection has resulted in large-scale phenotypic screening and thousands of new active compounds in vitro. The next challenge is to identify candidates to pursue in a mouse in vivo efficacy model as a step to predicting clinical efficacy. We previously analyzed over 70 years of this mouse in vivo efficacy data, which we used to generate and validate machine learning models. Curation of 60 additional small molecules with in vivo data published in 2014 and 2015 was undertaken to further test these models...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Qiushi Xie, Yang Chen, Fei Liu, Zeyu Zhong, Kaijing Zhao, Zhaoli Ling, Fan Wang, Xiange Tang, Zhongjian Wang, Li Liu, Xiaodong Liu
Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) is a natural lignan product which has drawn much attention due to its pharmacological properties including antitumor effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate interspecies differences in metabolism of DPT in hepatic microsomes from human (HLM), cynomolgus monkey (CyLM), rat (RLM), mouse (MLM) and dog (DLM). Incubation of DPT with hepatic microsomes from five species in the presence of NADPH resulted in formation of seven metabolites, five of which were compared with the synthetic standards...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Ai-Hong Yang, Na Wei, Peter W Fritsch, Xiao-Hong Yao
Understanding adaptive genetic variation and its relation to environmental factors are important for understanding how plants adapt to climate change and for managing genetic resources. Genome scans for the loci exhibiting either notably high or low levels of population differentiation (outlier loci) provide one means of identifying genomic regions possibly associated with convergent or divergent selection. In this study, we combined Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) genome scan and environmental association analysis to test for signals of natural selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Chinese Tulip Tree; Magnoliaceae) along a latitudinal transect...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yu-Mei Hsu, Andrzej Bytnerowicz, Mark E Fenn, Kevin E Percy
Due to the potential ecological effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems from atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, this study was implemented to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) inputs. Passive samplers were used to measure ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid/nitrous acid (HNO3/HONO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the AOSR. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in winter were higher than those in summer, while seasonal differences of NH3 and HNO3/HONO showed an opposite trend, with higher values in summer...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Nicola Gianotti, Laura Galli, Andrea Poli, Stefania Salpietro, Silvia Nozza, Alessia Carbone, Marco Merli, Marco Ripa, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
The aim of the study was to evaluate in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) trajectories during treatment with different protease inhibitors (PIs) or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) plus tenofovir (TDF) or abacavir (ABC) and lamivudine or emtricitabine (xTC).Retrospective study of patients followed at a single clinical center; all patients who started TDF or ABC for the first time with a NNRTI or lopinavir/r (LPV/r) or atazanavir/r (ATV/r) or darunavir/r (DRV/r), for whom at least 1 eGFR value before the start and during the studied treatment was known, were included in this analysis...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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