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Jeffrey Schwartz
Although Linnaeus coined Homo sapiens in 1735, it was Blumenbach forty years later who provided the first morphological definition of the species. Since humans were not then allowed to be ante-Diluvian, his effort applied to the genus, as well. After the Feldhofer Grotto Neanderthal disproved this creationist notion, and human-fossil hunting became legitimate, new specimens were allocated either to sapiens or new species within Homo, or even to new species within new genera. Yet as these taxonomic acts reflected the morphological differences between specimens, they failed to address the question: What constitutes H...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
Pierre-Francois Puech, Bernard Puech
This paper is an essay to connect with the stone Age coastal hunters who sheltered 28,000 years ago in the caves of today's italian Mediterranean sea shore cliffs. We have focused on the archaeological Gravettian layer in the Cavillon cave from Grimaldi occupied by Cro Magnons (informal name for Anatomically Modern Humans of the European Upper Paleolithic), which demonstrates the technical skills of the phase. Cro Magnons, like Neanderthals, were seasonally nomadic; however, the diversity of the resources exploited within the territory along the Grimaldi sea coast suggests a longer term site within which a complex symbolic culture developed...
2012: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Gerald Forhan, Jean-Louis Martiel, Michael G B Blum
There is an ongoing debate in the field of human evolution about the possible contribution of Neanderthals to the modern human gene pool. To study how the Neanderthal private alleles may have spread over the genes of Homo sapiens, we propose a deterministic model based on recursive equations and ordinary differential equations. If the Neanderthal population was large compared to the Homo sapiens population at the beginning of the contact period, we show that genetic introgression should have been fast and complete meaning that most of the Neanderthal private alleles should be found in the modern human gene pool in case of ancient admixture...
November 2008: Mathematical Biosciences
David Caramelli, Lucio Milani, Stefania Vai, Alessandra Modi, Elena Pecchioli, Matteo Girardi, Elena Pilli, Martina Lari, Barbara Lippi, Annamaria Ronchitelli, Francesco Mallegni, Antonella Casoli, Giorgio Bertorelle, Guido Barbujani
BACKGROUND: DNA sequences from ancient specimens may in fact result from undetected contamination of the ancient specimens by modern DNA, and the problem is particularly challenging in studies of human fossils. Doubts on the authenticity of the available sequences have so far hampered genetic comparisons between anatomically archaic (Neandertal) and early modern (Cro-Magnoid) Europeans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We typed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I in a 28,000 years old Cro-Magnoid individual from the Paglicci cave, in Italy (Paglicci 23) and in all the people who had contact with the sample since its discovery in 2003...
2008: PloS One
C Loring Brace, Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B Quintyn, Sherry C Fox, A Russell Nelson, Sotiris K Manolis, Pan Qifeng
Many human craniofacial dimensions are largely of neutral adaptive significance, and an analysis of their variation can serve as an indication of the extent to which any given population is genetically related to or differs from any other. When 24 craniofacial measurements of a series of human populations are used to generate neighbor-joining dendrograms, it is no surprise that all modern European groups, ranging all of the way from Scandinavia to eastern Europe and throughout the Mediterranean to the Middle East, show that they are closely related to each other...
January 3, 2006: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Badawi-Fayad, C Yazbeck, A Balzeau, T H Nguyen, A Istoc, D Grimaud-Hervé, E- A Cabanis
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal tube current setting and scanning mode for hominid fossil skull scanning, using multi-detector row computed tomography (CT). Four fossil skulls (La Ferrassie 1, Abri Pataud 1, CroMagnon 2 and Cro-Magnon 3) were examined by using the CT scanner LightSpeed 16 (General Electric Medical Systems) with varying dose per section (160, 250, and 300 mAs) and scanning mode (helical and conventional). Image quality of two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstructions, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and native images was assessed by four reviewers using a four-point grading scale...
December 2005: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Anne H Weaver
Human brain evolution involved both neurological reorganization and an increase in overall brain volume relative to body mass. It is generally difficult to draw functional inferences about the timing and nature of brain reorganization, given that superficial brain morphology recorded on fossil endocasts is functionally ambiguous. However, the cerebellum, housed in the clearly delineated posterior cranial fossa, is functionally and ontologically discrete. The cerebellum is reciprocally connected to each of 14 neocortical regions important to human cognitive evolution...
March 8, 2005: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
W H Arnold, A Zoellner, T Sebastian
As the hard palate plays an important role in speech production it was the aim of this study whether similarities or dissimilarities in palatal size may allow conclusions about the ability to produce speech in the extant investigated species. The palatal size of Pan troglodytes, Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis and Cro-Magnon has been investigated using euclidian distance matrix analysis (EDMA) and thin-plate-spline analysis...
December 2004: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Clive Gamble, William Davies, Paul Pettitt, Martin Richards
A link between climate change and human evolution during the Pleistocene has often been assumed but rarely tested. At the macro-evolutionary level Foley showed for hominids that extinction, rather than speciation, correlates with environmental change as recorded in the deep sea record. Our aim is to examine this finding at a smaller scale and with high-resolution environmental and archaeological archives. Our interest is in changing patterns of human dispersal under shifting Pleistocene climates during the last glacial period in Europe...
February 29, 2004: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
David Caramelli, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Cristiano Vernesi, Martina Lari, Antonella Casoli, Francesco Mallegni, Brunetto Chiarelli, Isabelle Dupanloup, Jaume Bertranpetit, Guido Barbujani, Giorgio Bertorelle
During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene pool of current humans. Conversely, the Out-of-Africa model considers the transition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans as the result of a demographic replacement, and hence it predicts a genetic discontinuity between them...
May 27, 2003: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Patrick Goudot
INTRODUCTION: The radiological study of the 'old man' of Cro-Magnon mandible complements the one published about the mandibular canal of the "Neanderthal Man" of La Chapelle-aux-Saints with which it is compared. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the internal structure of this famous fossil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mandible of the "old man" of Cro-Magnon (22,000 BC) was studied with panoramic radiography and CT scanning...
August 2002: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
G Romagnuolo
The author intends to particularly analyse the origin of Surgery as regards its deterministic factors and contexts, resounding the essence and the meaning of Surgery itself. The primary core of the surgical practice dates back to Prehistoric Times, when, driven by his self-preservation instinct, the cave man, when suffering from some trauma, performed on himself a series of more or less immediate "actions" in order to remain healthy. At the same time, a second meaningful nucleus of the surgical experience rises contiguously to the operations the Prehistoric Man performed on another member of his clan...
July 2001: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
M M de Pancorbo, M López-Martínez, C Martínez-Bouzas, A Castro, I Fernández-Fernández, G A de Mayolo, A A de Mayolo, P A de Mayolo, D J Rowold, R J Herrera
Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships...
August 2001: Human Genetics
C Lalueza, A Pérez-Pérez, D Turbón
Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastoralist, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andamanese, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Molds of an area of the buccal surface have been obtained and observed at 100x magnification in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a semiautomatic program of an image analyzer system (IBAS)...
July 1996: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
S Gerr
An attempt is made to draw an analogy between contour drawing and a particular mathematical theorem. The analogy is seen to depend on the fact that both methods use definite values along a contour to imply a totality of values within the contour; thus, the use of a part to suggest the whole, by way of a hypothetical 'gestalt-like integration' in the case of the art contour, and the usual process of mathematical integration in the case of Cauchy's formula. Examples illustrating the analogy are drawn from a wide range of artistic work: a modern American drawing, a Cro-Magnon cave painting, and two Chinese works...
1982: Perception
R Burleigh, S Zivanovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1980: Zeitschrift Für Morphologie und Anthropologie
E Vlcek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1967: Folia Morphologica (Praha)
J R Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1968: Endeavour
G Vanneuville, M Sakka, P Goudot, J F Viallet, T Scheye, J M Mondie
Fossil mandibles from the "La Chapelle-aux-Saints" Man and Cro-Magnon "old man" are considered to be representative of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon era. Radiographic studies of such mandibles - including C. T. Scan and panoramic views in common use in maxillofacial surgery - allowed the authors to make useful comments: the mandibular canals are nearly similar to those in Modern Man and quite different from those in Pongidae; the imaging was of adequate quality for a good evaluation of fossil internal structures...
December 1986: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
W Henke, R R Protsch
In the following work a morphognostic and morphometric analysis of a diluvial calvaria from Sande/Paderborn in Westfalia is presented. Besides the above, absolute dating by two methods (Radiocarbon- and Amino-acid-dating) was applied. The morphological comparison shows strong affinities to comparative material from the Upper Pleistocene like Cro-Magnon. The absolute dates support this morphological analysis. Both findings--morphological analysis and absolute dating--were done in separate analyses and will be documented separately in the following article...
February 1978: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
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