Read by QxMD icon Read


Yun Zhou, Bjørnar Hassel, Tore Eid, Niels Christian Danbolt
The excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2) represents the major mechanism for removal of extracellular glutamate. In the hippocampus, there is some EAAT2 in axon-terminals, whereas most of the protein is found in astroglia. The functional importance of the neuronal EAAT2 is unknown, and it is debated whether EAAT2 expressing nerve terminals are present in other parts of the brain. Here we selectively deleted the EAAT2 gene in neurons (by crossing EAAT2-flox mice with synapsin 1-Cre mice in the C57B6 background)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Malek Chouchane, Marcos R Costa
The adult mammalian brain contains an enormous variety of neuronal types, which are generally categorized in large groups, based on their neurochemical identity, hodological properties and molecular markers. This broad classification has allowed the correlation between individual neural progenitor populations and their neuronal progeny, thus contributing to probe the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuronal identity determination during central nervous system (CNS) development. In this review, we discuss the contribution of the proneural genes Neurogenin2 (Neurog2) and Achaete-scute homolog 1(Ascl1) for the specification of neuronal phenotypes in the developing neocortex, cerebellum and retina...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
Zareen Amtul, Jun Yang, Simona Nikolova, Ting-Yim Lee, Robert Bartha, David F Cechetto
Defect in brain microperfusion is increasingly recognized as an antecedent event to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemia. Nevertheless, studies on the role of impaired microperfusion as a pathological trigger to neuroinflammation, Aβ deposition as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and the etiological link between AD and ischemia are lacking. In this study, we employ in vivo sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging in a co-morbid rat model of β-amyloid toxicity (Aβ) and ischemia (ET1) with subsequent histopathology of striatal lesion core and penumbra at 1, 7, and 28 days post injury...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Gina Puska, Mirjam I Lutz, Kinga Molnar, Günther Regelsberger, Gerda Ricken, Walter Pirker, Lajos Laszlo, Gabor G Kovacs
Intracellular deposition of pathologically altered α-synuclein mostly in neurons characterises Parkinson's disease (PD), while its accumulation predominantly in oligodendrocytes is a feature of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recently a prion-like spreading of pathologic α-synuclein has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of PD and MSA. This implicates a role of protein processing systems, including lysosomes, supported also by genetic studies in PD. However, particularly for MSA, the mechanism of cell-to-cell propagation of α-synuclein is yet not fully understood...
March 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Mahboobeh Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, Bahareh Amin, Soghra Mehri, Seyed Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potential prophylactic and curative effects of rosmarinic acid, one of the main constituents of rosemary, on the neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCI was used to induce peripheral neuropathic pain. In prophylactic groups, rosmarinic acid (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered from the day of surgery (day 0) for 14 days. In treatment group, rosmarinic acid (40 mg/kg) was given from day 5 (after the pain was established), for 7 days...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Dénes Zádori, Gábor Veres, Levente Szalárdy, Péter Klivényi, László Vécsei
The pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD) certainly involves mitochondrial disturbances, glutamate excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The three main aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, i.e., the defects in dynamics, altered bioenergetics, and the deficient transport, act synergistically. In addition, glutamatergic neurotransmission is affected in several ways. The balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission is shifted toward the extrasynaptic site contributing to glutamate excitotoxicity, a phenomenon augmented by increased glutamate release and decreased glutamate uptake...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Richárd Fiáth, Katharina T Hofer, Vivien Csikós, Domonkos Horváth, Tibor Nánási, Kinga Tóth, Frederick Pothof, Christian Böhler, Maria Asplund, Patrick Ruther, István Ulbert
Stereo-electroencephalography depth electrodes, regularly implanted into drug-resistant patients with focal epilepsy to localize the epileptic focus, have a low channel count (6-12 macro- or microelectrodes), limited spatial resolution (0.5-1 cm) and large contact area of the recording sites (~mm2). Thus, they are not suited for high-density local field potential and multiunit recordings. In this paper, we evaluated the long-term electrophysiological recording performance and histocompatibility of a neural interface consisting of 32 microelectrodes providing a physical shape similar to clinical devices...
February 26, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Anders Lundin, Louise Delsing, Maryam Clausen, Piero Ricchiuto, José Sanchez, Alan Sabirsh, Mei Ding, Jane Synnergren, Henrik Zetterberg, Gabriella Brolén, Ryan Hicks, Anna Herland, Anna Falk
In vivo studies of human brain cellular function face challenging ethical and practical difficulties. Animal models are typically used but display distinct cellular differences. One specific example is astrocytes, recently recognized for contribution to neurological diseases and a link to the genetic risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE). Current astrocytic in vitro models are questioned for lack of biological characterization. Here, we report human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived astroglia (NES-Astro) developed under defined conditions through long-term neuroepithelial-like stem (ltNES) cells...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Xiaoni Zhan, Fengrui Li, Qiaohong Chu, Hao Pang
It has been extensively characterized that paraquat (PQ) selectively targets to the substantia nigra and exerts neurotoxic actions on dopaminergic neurons. However, a little knowledge is available about astroglia in PQ exposure, especially its complex secretory machinery. To explore this point, we built up a PQ-induced model in cultural U118 astrocyte. Since the granin family is considered as a master regulator of cargo sorting and large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) biogenesis in the regulated secretory pathway of nervous and neuroendocrine cells, the current study focused on one member, secretogranin II (SCG2) and investigated its alternation and potential relationship with other astrocyte-derived factors under PQ insult...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Charu Garg, Joon Ho Seo, Jayalakshmi Ramachandran, Ji Meng Loh, Frances Calderon, Jorge E Contreras
BACKGROUND: Trovafloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, recently identified as an inhibitor of pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels. Panx1 channels are important conduits for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from live and dying cells that enhances the inflammatory response of immune cells. Elevated extracellular levels ATP released upon injury activate purinergic pathways in inflammatory cells that promote migration, proliferation, phagocytosis, and apoptotic signals. Here, we tested whether trovafloxacin administration attenuates the neuroinflammatory response and improves outcomes after brain trauma...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
María S García-Gutiérrez, Francisco Navarrete, Gemma Navarro, Irene Reyes-Resina, Rafael Franco, Jose Luis Lanciego, Salvador Giner, Jorge Manzanares
Recent studies point to the cannabinoid CB 2 receptors (CB 2 r) and the non-cannabinoid receptor GPR55 as potential key targets involved in the response to stress, anxiety, and depression. Considering the close relationship between neuropsychiatric disorders and suicide, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential alterations of CB 2 r and GPR55 in suicide victims. We analyzed gene and protein expression of both receptors by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of 18 suicide victims with no clinical psychiatric history or treatment with anxiolytics or antidepressants, and 15 corresponding controls...
February 12, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Feng Wang, Jing Han, Haruki Higashimori, Jingyi Wang, Jingjing Liu, Li Tong, Yongjie Yang, Hailong Dong, Xia Zhang, Lize Xiong
Ischemia not only activates cell death pathways but also triggers endogenous protective mechanisms. However, it is largely unknown what is the essence of the endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms induced by preconditioning. In this study we demonstrated that systemic injection of JZL195, a selective inhibitor of eCB clearance enzymes, induces in vivo long-term depression at CA3-CA1 synapses and at PrL-NAc synapses produces neuroprotection. JZL195-elicited long-term depression is blocked by AM281, the antagonist of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) and is abolished in mice lacking cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) in astroglial cells, but is conserved in mice lacking CB1R in glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Herman Wolosker
d-Serine is a physiological coagonist of NMDA receptors involved in synaptic plasticity, neurodevelopment, and neurodegeneration. d-Serine is synthesized by the enzyme serine racemase, which converts l- to d-serine. Recent studies indicate that the supply of l-serine by astroglia fuels the neuronal synthesis of d-serine. This pathway, named the serine shuttle, highlights the importance of the glia-neuron metabolic crosstalk for regulating NMDA receptor activity. Dysfunction of different components of the serine shuttle pathway leads to neurodevelopmental defects, neurodegeneration, and may be involved in psychiatric diseases...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Jia Liu, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg, Eduardo Alho, Edson Amaro, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Udo Rüb, Wilfred den Dunnen, Thomas Arzberger, Christoph Schmitz, Maren Kiessling, Benedikt Bader, Adrian Danek
INTRODUCTION: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and Huntington's disease (HD) are neurodegenerative conditions that share clinical and neuropathological features, despite their distinct genetic etiologies. METHODS: In order to compare these neuropathologies, serial gallocyanin-stained brain sections from three subjects with ChAc were analyzed and compared with our previous studies of eight HD cases, in addition to three hemispheres from two male controls. RESULTS: Astrogliosis was much greater in the ChAc striatum, as compared to that found in HD, with dramatic increase in total striatal glia numbers and the number of glia per striatal neuron...
January 10, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Yang Li, Xingli Dong, Jinquan Cai, Shi Yin, Ying Sun, Dongbo Yang, Chuanlu Jiang
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive and malignant brain tumor. Currently, it remains unclear whether Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) contribute to the invasive phenotype of GBM. Invasion is a complex process involving interactions between tumor cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM), in addition to normal cells. The present study aimed to identify the regulators of GSCs invasion in the GBM tumor microenvironment. An integrative analysis was conducted to identify genes that are important for GSC invasion and are specifically upregulated in astroglia/microglia co-cultured GSCs...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Fang Du, Qing Yu, Allen Chen, Doris Chen, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Astrocytes, the most populous glial cell type in the brain, are critical for regulating the brain microenvironment. In various neurodegenerative diseases, astrocytes determine the progression and outcome of the neuropathological process. We have recently revealed the direct involvement of mitochondrial function in human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neuronal differentiation. Using the astroglial-neuronal co-culture system, we show here that astrocytes effectively rescue defects in neurogenesis of DA neurons with mitochondrial respiratory chain disruption...
January 26, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Matjaž Stenovec, Saša Trkov Bobnar, Tina Smolič, Marko Kreft, Vladimir Parpura, Robert Zorec
AIM: Alzheimer disease (AD) is largely considered a neuron-derived insult, but also involves failure of astroglia. A recent study indicated that mutated presenilin 1 (PS1M146V), a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ channel with decreased Ca2+ conductance, impairs the traffic of astroglial peptidergic vesicles. Whether other pathogenically relevant PS1 mutants, such as PS1ΔE9, which code for ER channel with putative increased Ca2+ conductance, similarly affect vesicle traffic, is unknown...
February 2, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Sher-Wei Lim, T T Eric Nyam, Cho-Ya Hu, Chung-Ching Chio, Che-Chuan Wang, Jinn-Rung Kuo
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to determine the neuroprotective mechanisms of tamoxifen (TMX) during traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the effects on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression, as well as neuroinflammatory associations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated controls, sham-operated controls given TMX (1 mg/kg/per day) for 3 days, those given a vehicle solution immediately after TBI, and those given TMX (1 mg/kg/per day) for 3 days...
January 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes are neural cells of ectodermal, neuroepithelial origin that provide for homeostasis and defense of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are highly heterogeneous in morphological appearance; they express a multitude of receptors, channels, and membrane transporters. This complement underlies their remarkable adaptive plasticity that defines the functional maintenance of the CNS in development and aging. Astrocytes are tightly integrated into neural networks and act within the context of neural tissue; astrocytes control homeostasis of the CNS at all levels of organization from molecular to the whole organ...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Cristhian Mendoza, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Vadim V Tarasov, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally threatening or unescapable horrifying events. Actual therapies fail to alleviate the emotional suffering and cognitive impairment associated with this disorder, mostly because they are ineffective in treating the failure to extinguish trauma memories in a great percentage of those affected. In this review, current behavioral, cellular, and molecular evidence supporting the use of cotinine for treating PTSD are reviewed...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"