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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521121/untangling-a-cholinergic-pathway-from-wakefulness-to-memory
#1
Steffen Gais, Monika Schönauer
Acetylcholine is a major modulator of learning and memory, and its availability varies across the sleep-wake cycle. In this issue of Neuron, Papouin et al. (2017) describe a D-serine-dependent pathway involving astroglia by which the transmitter tunes the hippocampus toward memory encoding during wakefulness.
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491822/comparison-of-the-expression-changes-after-botulinum-toxin-type-a-and-minocycline-administration-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-rat-microglial-and-astroglial-cultures
#2
Anna Piotrowska, Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk, Flaminia Pavone, Joanna Mika
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) and minocycline are potent drugs used in clinical therapies. The primary molecular mechanism of BoNT/A is the cleavage of SNARE proteins, which prevents cells from releasing neurotransmitters from vesicles, while the effects of minocycline are related to the inhibition of p38 activation. Both BoNT/A and minocycline exhibit analgesic effects, however, their direct impact on glial cells is not fully known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of those drugs on microglial and astroglial activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and their potential synergistic action...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469638/novel-insights-into-the-role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p50-in-astrocyte-mediated-fate-specification-of-adult-neural-progenitor-cells
#3
REVIEW
Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli
Within the CNS nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors are involved in a wide range of functions both in homeostasis and in pathology. Over the years, our and other groups produced a vast array of information on the complex involvement of NF-κB proteins in different aspects of postnatal neurogenesis. In particular, several extracellular signals and membrane receptors have been identified as being able to affect neural progenitor cells (NPC) and their progeny via NF-κB activation. A crucial role in the regulation of neuronal fate specification in adult hippocampal NPC is played by the NF-κB p50 subunit...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453542/phospholipid-profiling-of-plasma-from-gw-veterans-and-rodent-models-to-identify-potential-biomarkers-of-gulf-war-illness
#4
Tanja Emmerich, Zuchra Zakirova, Nancy Klimas, Kimberly Sullivan, Ashok K Shetty, James E Evans, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Gary S Laco, Bharathi Hattiangady, Geetha A Shetty, Michael Mullan, Gogce Crynen, Laila Abdullah, Fiona Crawford
Gulf War Illness (GWI), which affects at least one fourth of the 700,000 veterans deployed to the Gulf War (GW), is characterized by persistent and heterogeneous symptoms, including pain, fatigue and cognitive problems. As a consequence, this illness remains difficult to diagnose. Rodent models have been shown to exhibit different symptomatic features of GWI following exposure to particular GW agents (e.g. pyridostigmine bromide, permethrin and DEET) and/or stress. Preclinical analyses have shown the activation of microglia and astroglia as a pathological hallmark in these mouse and rat models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445478/delayed-histochemical-alterations-within-the-neurovascular-unit-due-to-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-experimental-treatment-with-neurotrophic-factors
#5
Dominik Michalski, Roman Pitsch, Deepu R Pillai, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Felix Schlachetzki, Wolfgang Härtig
Current stroke therapy is focused on recanalizing strategies, but neuroprotective co-treatments are still lacking. Modern concepts of the ischemia-affected neurovascular unit (NVU) and surrounding penumbra emphasize the complexity during the transition from initial damaging to regenerative processes. While early treatment with neurotrophic factors was shown to result in lesion size reduction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) stabilization, cellular consequences from these treatments are poorly understood. This study explored delayed cellular responses not only to ischemic stroke, but also to an early treatment with neurotrophic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402004/the-vegf-gene-polymorphism-impacts-brain-volume-and-arterial-blood-volume
#6
Hikaru Takeuchi, Hiroaki Tomita, Yasuyuki Taki, Yoshie Kikuchi, Chiaki Ono, Zhiqian Yu, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Rui Nouchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Kunio Iizuka, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Takamitsu Shinada, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Keiko Kunitoki, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in the angiogenesis and proliferation of various types of cells such as neurons, astroglia, and endothelial cells in the brain. A common polymorphism in the VEGF gene (-2578 C/A) is associated with circulating VEGF levels, cancers and Alzheimer's disease. Nonetheless, the effects of this polymorphism on normal human brain volume, arterial blood volume, and blood supply remain unclear. In this study, the effects of this polymorphism on the total gray matter volume (TGMV) and total white matter volume (TWMV) using T1-weighted structural images and the total arterial blood volume (TABV) and mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) during rest using arterial spin labeling (ASL) in 765 young adult humans were investigated...
April 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372633/effects-of-danggui-sini-decoction-on-neuropathic-pain-experimental-studies-and-clinical-pharmacological-significance-of-inhibiting-glial-activation-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-spinal-cord%C3%A2
#7
Ming Liu, Qiu Hong Qiang, Qian Ling, Chang Xi Yu, Xuejun Li, Suhuan Liu, Shuyu Yang
AIM: Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments. Partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Danggui Sini decoction (DSD), an aqueous extract of <i>Angelica sinensis, Ramulus Cinnamomi,</i> and <i>Radix Puerariae</i>, has been used extensively in China to treat inflammatory and ischemic diseases. The current study examined the putative effects of DSD on neuropathic pain. METHOD: We used two commonly-used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI) and diabetic neuropathy for the study...
May 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370142/morphological-study-of-a-connexin-43-gfp-reporter-mouse-highlights-glial-heterogeneity-amacrine-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells
#8
Panos Theofilas, Christian Steinhäuser, Martin Theis, Amin Derouiche
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the main astrocytic connexin and forms the basis of the glial syncytium. The morphology of connexin-expressing cells can be best studied in transgenic mouse lines expressing cytoplasmic fluorescent reporters, since immunolabeling the plaques can obscure the shapes of the individual cells. The Cx43kiECFP mouse generated by Degen et al. (FASEBJ 26:4576, 2012) expresses cytosolic ECFP and has previously been used to establish that Cx43 may not be expressed by all astrocytes within a population, and this can vary in a region-dependent way...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350198/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-induced-block-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-role-of-brain-coagulation-factor-iii-tissue-factor
#9
Eugene V Golanov, Evgeniy I Bovshik, Kelvin K Wong, Robia G Pautler, Chase H Foster, Richard G Federley, Jonathan Y Zhang, James Mancuso, Stephen Tc Wong, Gavin W Britz
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 95% of cases results in long-term disabilities due to brain damage, pathogenesis of which remains uncertain. Hindrance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation along glymphatic pathways is a possible mechanism interrupting drainage of damaging substances from subarachnoid space and parenchyma. We explored changes in CSF circulation at different time following SAH and possible role of brain tissue factor (TF). Fluorescent solute and fluorescent microspheres injected into cisterna magna were used to track CSF flow in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342942/the-nature-of-early-astroglial-protection-fast-activation-and-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Julianna Kardos, László Héja, Katalin Jemnitz, Richárd Kovács, Miklós Palkovits
Our present review is focusing on the uniqueness of balanced astroglial signaling. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling within the CNS is mainly determined by sharp synaptic transients of excitatory glutamate (Glu) and inhibitory γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) acting on the sub-second timescale. Astroglia is involved in excitatory chemical transmission by taking up i) Glu through neurotransmitter-sodium transporters, ii) K(+) released due to presynaptic action potential generation, and iii) water keeping osmotic pressure...
March 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333144/aberrant-ipsc-derived-human-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
V C Jones, R Atkinson-Dell, A Verkhratsky, L Mohamet
The pathological potential of human astroglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was analysed in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we report development of a human iPSC-derived astrocyte model created from healthy individuals and patients with either early-onset familial AD (FAD) or the late-onset sporadic form of AD (SAD). Our chemically defined and highly efficient model provides >95% homogeneous populations of human astrocytes within 30 days of differentiation from cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300322/astroglia-as-a-cellular-target-for-neuroprotection-and-treatment-of-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Beihui Liu, Anja G Teschemacher, Sergey Kasparov
Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They cooperate with neurons at several levels, including ion and water homeostasis, chemical signal transmission, blood flow regulation, immune and oxidative stress defense, supply of metabolites and neurogenesis. Astroglia is also important for viability and maturation of stem-cell derived neurons. Neurons critically depend on intrinsic protective and supportive properties of astrocytes. Conversely, all forms of pathogenic stimuli which disturb astrocytic functions compromise neuronal functionality and viability...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293547/proinflammatory-response-induced-by-newcastle-disease-virus-in-tumor-and-normal-cells
#13
Teridah Ernala Ginting, Jeremiah Suryatenggara, Salomo Christian, George Mathew
PURPOSE: To investigate the specific role of immune responses induced by lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) for its antitumor effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NDV LaSota strain was used to infect the following human cells: non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), glioblastoma (U87MG and T98G), mammary gland adenocarcinoma (MCF7 and MDA-MB-453), hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh7), transformed embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), primary monocytes, lung fibroblast (HF19), skin fibroblast (NB1RGB) and rat astroglia (RCR-1) at 0...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275350/blockade-of-p2x4-receptors-inhibits-neuropathic-pain-related-behavior-by-preventing-mmp-9-activation-and-consequently-pronociceptive-interleukin-release-in-a-rat-model
#14
Agnieszka M Jurga, Anna Piotrowska, Wioletta Makuch, Barbara Przewlocka, Joanna Mika
Neuropathic pain is still an extremely important problem in today's medicine because opioids, which are commonly used to reduce pain, have limited efficacy in this type of pathology. Therefore, complementary therapy is needed. Our experiments were performed in rats to evaluate the contribution of the purinergic system, especially P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), in the modulation of glia activation and, consequently, the levels of nociceptive interleukins after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve, a rat model of neuropathic pain...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270593/reduced-responses-to-glutamate-receptor-agonists-follow-loss-of-astrocytes-and-astroglial-glutamate-markers-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii
#15
William T Talman, Deidre Nitschke Dragon, Li-Hsien Lin
Saporin (SAP) or SAP conjugates injected into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats kill astrocytes. When injected in its unconjugated form, SAP produces no demonstrable loss of or damage to local neurons. However bilateral injections of SAP significantly attenuate responses to activation of baroreceptor reflexes that are mediated by transmission of signals through glutamate receptors in the NTS We tested the hypothesis that SAP would reduce cardiovascular responses to activation of NTS glutamate receptors despite its recognized ability to spare local neurons while killing local astrocytes...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266561/nkx2-1-regulates-the-generation-of-telencephalic-astrocytes-during-embryonic-development
#16
Shilpi Minocha, Delphine Valloton, Yvan Arsenijevic, Jean-René Cardinaux, Raffaella Guidi, Jean-Pierre Hornung, Cécile Lebrand
The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.1 (NK2 homeobox 1) controls cell differentiation of telencephalic GABAergic interneurons and oligodendrocytes. Here we show that Nkx2.1 also regulates astrogliogenesis of the telencephalon from embryonic day (E) 14.5 to E16.5. Moreover we identify the different mechanisms by which Nkx2.1 controls the telencephalic astrogliogenesis. In Nkx2.1 knockout (Nkx2.1(-/-)) mice a drastic loss of astrocytes is observed that is not related to cell death. Further, in vivo analysis using BrdU incorporation reveals that Nkx2...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261115/il1r2-ccr2-and-cxcr4-may-form-heteroreceptor-complexes-with-nmdar-and-d2r-relevance-for-schizophrenia
#17
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Alexander O Tarakanov, Karl Bechter, Kjell Fuxe
The mild neuroinflammation hypothesis of schizophrenia was introduced by Bechter in 2001. It has been hypothesized that a hypofunction of glutamatergic signaling via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and hyperactivation of dopamine D2 receptors play a role in schizophrenia. The triplet puzzle theory states that sets of triplet amino acid homologies guide two different receptors toward each other and contributes to the formation of a receptor heteromer. It is, therefore, proposed that putative NMDAR-C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), NMDAR-C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), and NMDAR- interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL1R2) heteromers can be formed in the neuronal networks in mild neuroinflammation due to demonstration of Gly-Leu-Leu (GLL), Val-Ser-Thr (VST), and/or Ser-Val-Ser (SVS) amino acid homologies between these receptor protomers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257918/ceftriaxone-mediated-upregulation-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-contrasts-neurotoxicity-evoked-by-kainate-in-rat-organotypic-spinal-cord-cultures
#18
Dzejla Bajrektarevic, Andrea Nistri
Excitotoxicity is a major pathological trigger of neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This process is caused by excessive release of the transmitter glutamate that overwhelms the capacity of astroglia transporters to maintain a low extracellular level of this aminoacid and strongly stimulates neurons. Using an in vitro model of rat organotypic spinal slice culture, we explored if the excitotoxicity caused by the potent glutamate analogue kainate, widely employed as a paradigm to evoke neurotoxicity in the central nervous system, was prevented by the antibiotic ceftriaxone known to enhance glutamate transporter expression...
March 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243355/age-and-environment-influences-on-mouse-prion-disease-progression-behavioral-changes-and-morphometry-and-stereology-of-hippocampal-astrocytes
#19
J Bento-Torres, L L Sobral, R R Reis, R B de Oliveira, D C Anthony, P F C Vasconcelos, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
Because enriched environment (EE) and exercise increase and aging decreases immune response, we hypothesized that environmental enrichment and aging will, respectively, delay and increase prion disease progression. Mice dorsal striatum received bilateral stereotaxic intracerebral injections of normal or ME7 prion infected mouse brain homogenates. After behavior analysis, animals were euthanized and their brains processed for astrocyte GFAP immunolabeling. Our analysis related to the environmental influence are limited to young adult mice, whereas age influence refers to aged mice raised on standard cages...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237879/nadph-oxidase-derived-h2o2-mediates-the-regulatory-effects-of-microglia-on-astrogliosis-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Liyan Hou, Xueying Zhou, Cong Zhang, Ke Wang, Xiaofang Liu, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Huihua Li, Qingshan Wang, Dan Zhang, Jau-Shyong Hong
Astrogliosis has long been recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. However, the mechanisms of how astroglia become activated remain unclear. Reciprocal interactions between microglia and astroglia play a pivotal role in regulating the activities of astroglia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism by which microglia regulate astrogliosis by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse PD models...
February 22, 2017: Redox Biology
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