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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772377/impact-of-steroid-hormones-e2-and-p-on-the-nlrp3-asc-casp1-axis-in-primary-mouse-astroglia-and-bv-2-cells-after-in-vitro-hypoxia
#1
Alexander Slowik, Leoni Lammerding, Adib Zendedel, Pardes Habib, Cordian Beyer
Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in different disease models of the central nervous system (CNS) including ischemic stroke. Inflammasomes are involved in the interleukin-1 beta (IL1beta) maturation, in particular, NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and the active caspase-1 (Casp1) form. Recently, we showed that administration of E2 or P selectively regulated these components after experimental ischemic stroke in rats...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770111/chronic-caffeine-treatment-protects-against-%C3%AE-synucleinopathy-by-reestablishing-autophagy-activity-in-the-mouse-striatum
#2
Yanan Luan, Xiangpeng Ren, Wu Zheng, Zhenhai Zeng, Yingzi Guo, Zhidong Hou, Wei Guo, Xingjun Chen, Fei Li, Jiang-Fan Chen
Despite converging epidemiological evidence for the inverse relationship of regular caffeine consumption and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) with animal studies demonstrating protective effect of caffeine in various neurotoxin models of PD, whether caffeine can protect against mutant α-synuclein (α-Syn) A53T-induced neurotoxicity in intact animals has not been examined. Here, we determined the effect of chronic caffeine treatment using the α-Syn fibril model of PD by intra-striatal injection of preformed A53T α-Syn fibrils...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768946/neuroprotective-role-of-astroglia-in-parkinson-disease-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-through-dopamine-induced-activation-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#3
Kyoko Mashima, Shinichi Takahashi, Kazushi Minami, Yoshikane Izawa, Takato Abe, Naoki Tsukada, Takako Hishiki, Makoto Suematsu, Mayumi Kajimura, Norihiro Suzuki
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of Parkinson disease. Although released dopamine at the synaptic terminal is mostly reabsorbed by dopaminergic neurons, some dopamine is presumably taken up by astroglia. This study examined the dopamine-induced astroglial protective function through the activation of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro experiments were performed using striatal neurons and cortical or striatal astroglia prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats or C57BL/6 mice...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766217/involvement-of-extrasynaptic-glutamate-in-physiological-and-pathophysiological-changes-of-neuronal-excitability
#4
REVIEW
Balázs Pál
Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, as the majority of neurons use glutamate as neurotransmitter. It is also well known that this neurotransmitter is not restricted to synaptic clefts, but found in the extrasynaptic regions as ambient glutamate. Extrasynaptic glutamate originates from spillover of synaptic release, as well as from astrocytes and microglia. Its concentration is magnitudes lower than in the synaptic cleft, but receptors responding to it have higher affinity for it...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764289/divergent-induction-of-branched-chain-aminotransferases-and-phosphorylation-of-branched-chain-keto-acid-dehydrogenase-is-a-potential-mechanism-coupling-bcka-mediated-astrocyte-activation-to-bcaa-depletion-mediated-cognitive-deficit-after-tbi
#5
Guoqiang Xing, Ming Ren, Ajay Verma
Deficient branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are implicated in cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The mechanism remains unknown. BCAAs are catabolized by neuron-specific cytosolic and astrocyte-specific mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferases (BCATc, BCATm) to generate glutamate and branched-chain keto-acids (BCKAs) that are metabolized via the mitochondrial branched-chain-keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) whose activity is regulated by its phosphorylation state. BCKD phosphorylation by BCKD kinase (BCKDK) inactivates BCKD and cause neuro-cognitive dysfunction, whereas de-phosphorylation by specific phosphatase restores BCKD activity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754213/pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-examined-using-a-modified-puri-li-model-that-incorporates-calcium-ion-homeostasis
#6
R A Thuraisingham
The Puri-Li kinetic model is modified to include neuronal calcium ion homeostasis to study the effect of calcium ions on the production of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), microglia, and astroglia during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is carried out by solving the modified Puri-Li model under steady-state conditions. The derived expressions show that the inclusion of calcium ions has altered the steady-state populations of Aβ, microglia, and astroglia. The calcium ions activate the synthesis of Aβ which in turn increases the calcium ions entering the cytoplasm of the neuronal cells, thus creating a positive loop...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722054/pathoarchitectonics-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-chorea-acanthocytosis-and-hd
#7
Jia Liu, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg, Eduardo Alho, Edson Amaro, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Udo Rüb, Kay Seidel, Wilfred den Dunnen, Thomas Arzberger, Christoph Schmitz, Maren C Kiessling, Benedikt Bader, Adrian Danek
AIMS: Quantitative estimation of cortical neurone loss in cases with chorea-acanthocytosis and its impact on laminar composition METHODS: We used unbiased stereological tools to estimate the degree of cortical pathology in serial gallocyanin-stained brain sections through the complete hemispheres of three subjects with genetically verified chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and a range of disease durations. We compared these results with our previous data of five Huntington's disease (HD) and five control cases...
May 2, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682085/prostaglandin-e-2-produced-by-alginate-encapsulated-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-modulates-the-astrocyte-inflammatory-response
#8
Elizabeth C Stucky, Joshua Erndt-Marino, Rene S Schloss, Martin L Yarmush, David I Shreiber
Astroglia are well known for their role in propagating secondary injury following brain trauma. Modulation of this injury cascade, including inflammation, is essential to repair and recovery. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated as trophic mediators in several models of secondary CNS injury, however, there has been varied success with the use of direct implantation due to a failure to persist at the injury site. To achieve sustained therapeutic benefit, we have encapsulated MSCs in alginate microspheres and evaluated the ability of these encapsulated MSCs to attenuate neuro-inflammation...
June 2017: Nano LIFE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651133/refined-protocols-of-tamoxifen-injection-for-inducible-dna-recombination-in-mouse-astroglia
#9
Hannah M Jahn, Carmen V Kasakow, Andreas Helfer, Julian Michely, Alexei Verkhratsky, Hans H Maurer, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff
Inducible DNA recombination of floxed alleles in vivo by liver metabolites of tamoxifen (TAM) is an important tool to study gene functions. Here, we describe protocols for optimal DNA recombination in astrocytes, based on the GLAST-CreERT2 /loxP system. In addition, we demonstrate that quantification of genomic recombination allows to determine the proportion of cell types in various brain regions. We analyzed the presence and clearance of TAM and its metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen) in brain and serum of mice by liquid chromatographic-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS) and assessed optimal injection protocols by quantitative RT-PCR of several floxed target genes (p2ry1, gria1, gabbr1 and Rosa26-tdTomato locus)...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642829/-infecting-glial-cells-with-antimony-resistant-leishmania-tropica-a-new-ex-vivo-model
#10
Orçun Zorbozan, Mehmet Harman, Vedat Evren, Mümin Alper Erdoğan, Aslı Kılavuz, Varol Tunalı, İbrahim Çavuş, Özlem Yılmaz, Ahmet Özbilgin, Nevin Turgay
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that shows different clinical features like cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral and viscerotropic forms. The protocols used in the treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic and have many limitations during administration. One of the limitations of treatment is the resistance against the protocols in practice. There is also a need to define new treatment options especially for resistant patients. Ex-vivo models using primary cell cultures may be a good source for evaluating new drug options in patients with antimony resistance, in addition to in-vitro and in-vivo studies...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614835/botulinum-toxin-type-a-a-modulator-of-spinal-neuron-glia-interactions-under-neuropathic-pain-conditions
#11
REVIEW
Ewelina Rojewska, Anna Piotrowska, Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk, Joanna Mika
Neuropathic pain represents a significant clinical problem because it is a chronic condition often refractory to available therapy. Therefore, there is still a strong need for new analgesics. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is used to treat a variety of clinical diseases associated with pain. Glia are in continuous bi-directional communication with neurons to direct the formation and refinement of synaptic connectivity. This review addresses the effects of BoNT/A on the relationship between glia and neurons under neuropathic pain...
April 2, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600729/astroglial-5-ht-2b-receptor-in-mood-disorders
#12
Liang Peng, Dan Song, Baoman Li, Alexei Verkhratsky
Astroglia represent the main cellular homeostatic system of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are intimately involved in regulation and maintenance of neurotransmission by regulating neurotransmitters removal and turnover and by supplying neurons with neurotransmitters precursors. Astroglial cells are fundamental elements of monoaminergic transmission in the brain and in the spinal cord. Astrocytes receive monoaminergic inputs and control catabolism of monoamines through dedicated transporters and intracellular enzymatic pathways...
March 30, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575325/neural-stem-cell-grafts-promote-astroglia-driven-neurorestoration-in-the-aged-parkinsonian-brain-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling
#13
Francesca L'Episcopo, Cataldo Tirolo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Maria F Serapide, Nunzio Testa, Salvatore Caniglia, Beatrice Balzarotti, Stefano Pluchino, Bianca Marchetti
During aging - one the most potent risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) - both astrocytes and microglia undergo functional changes that ultimately hamper homoeostasis, defence and repair of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. We tested the possibility of rejuvenating the host microenvironment and boosting SNpc DA neuronal plasticity via the unilateral transplantation of syngeneic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the SNpc of aged mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced experimental PD...
March 25, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557361/dyslipidemia-modulates-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-sensing-and-transduction-of-ambient-information
#14
REVIEW
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530756/axon-terminals-expressing-eaat2-glt-1-slc1a2-are-common-in-the-forebrain-and-not-limited-to-the-hippocampus
#15
Yun Zhou, Bjørnar Hassel, Tore Eid, Niels Christian Danbolt
The excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2) represents the major mechanism for removal of extracellular glutamate. In the hippocampus, there is some EAAT2 in axon-terminals, whereas most of the protein is found in astroglia. The functional importance of the neuronal EAAT2 is unknown, and it is debated whether EAAT2 expressing nerve terminals are present in other parts of the brain. Here we selectively deleted the EAAT2 gene in neurons (by crossing EAAT2-flox mice with synapsin 1-Cre mice in the C57B6 background)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510143/instructing-neuronal-identity-during-cns-development-and-astroglial-lineage-reprogramming-roles-of-neurog2-and-ascl1
#16
REVIEW
Malek Chouchane, Marcos R Costa
The adult mammalian brain contains an enormous variety of neuronal types, which are generally categorized in large groups, based on their neurochemical identity, hodological properties and molecular markers. This broad classification has allowed the correlation between individual neural progenitor populations and their neuronal progeny, thus contributing to probe the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuronal identity determination during central nervous system (CNS) development. In this review, we discuss the contribution of the proneural genes Neurogenin2 (Neurog2) and Achaete-scute homolog 1 (Ascl1) for the specification of neuronal phenotypes in the developing neocortex, cerebellum and retina...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508280/the-dynamics-of-impaired-blood-brain-barrier-restoration-in-a-rat-model-of-co-morbid-injury
#17
Zareen Amtul, Jun Yang, Simona Nikolova, Ting-Yim Lee, Robert Bartha, David F Cechetto
Defect in brain microperfusion is increasingly recognized as an antecedent event to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemia. Nevertheless, studies on the role of impaired microperfusion as a pathological trigger to neuroinflammation, Aβ deposition as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and the etiological link between AD and ischemia are lacking. In this study, we employ in vivo sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging in a co-morbid rat model of β-amyloid toxicity (Aβ) and ischemia (ET1) with subsequent histopathology of striatal lesion core and penumbra at 1, 7, and 28 days post injury...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505813/lysosomal-response-in-relation-to-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-differs-between-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#18
Gina Puska, Mirjam I Lutz, Kinga Molnar, Günther Regelsberger, Gerda Ricken, Walter Pirker, Lajos Laszlo, Gabor G Kovacs
Intracellular deposition of pathologically altered α-synuclein mostly in neurons characterises Parkinson's disease (PD), while its accumulation predominantly in oligodendrocytes is a feature of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recently a prion-like spreading of pathologic α-synuclein has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of PD and MSA. This implicates a role of protein processing systems, including lysosomes, supported also by genetic studies in PD. However, particularly for MSA, the mechanism of cell-to-cell propagation of α-synuclein is yet not fully understood...
June 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496176/rosmarinic-acid-attenuates-development-and-existing-pain-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain-an-evidence-of-anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-effects
#19
Mahboobeh Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, Bahareh Amin, Soghra Mehri, Seyed Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potential prophylactic and curative effects of rosmarinic acid, one of the main constituents of rosemary, on the neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCI was used to induce peripheral neuropathic pain. In prophylactic groups, rosmarinic acid (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered from the day of surgery (day 0) for 14 days. In treatment group, rosmarinic acid (40 mg/kg) was given from day 5 (after the pain was established), for 7 days...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480191/alzheimer-s-disease-recent-concepts-on-the-relation-of-mitochondrial-disturbances-excitotoxicity-neuroinflammation-and-kynurenines
#20
Dénes Zádori, Gábor Veres, Levente Szalárdy, Péter Klivényi, László Vécsei
The pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD) certainly involves mitochondrial disturbances, glutamate excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The three main aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, i.e., the defects in dynamics, altered bioenergetics, and the deficient transport, act synergistically. In addition, glutamatergic neurotransmission is affected in several ways. The balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission is shifted toward the extrasynaptic site contributing to glutamate excitotoxicity, a phenomenon augmented by increased glutamate release and decreased glutamate uptake...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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