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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333144/aberrant-ipsc-derived-human-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
V C Jones, R Atkinson-Dell, A Verkhratsky, L Mohamet
The pathological potential of human astroglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was analysed in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we report development of a human iPSC-derived astrocyte model created from healthy individuals and patients with either early-onset familial AD (FAD) or the late-onset sporadic form of AD (SAD). Our chemically defined and highly efficient model provides >95% homogeneous populations of human astrocytes within 30 days of differentiation from cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300322/astroglia-as-a-cellular-target-for-neuroprotection-and-treatment-of-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Beihui Liu, Anja G Teschemacher, Sergey Kasparov
Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They cooperate with neurons at several levels, including ion and water homeostasis, chemical signal transmission, blood flow regulation, immune and oxidative stress defense, supply of metabolites and neurogenesis. Astroglia is also important for viability and maturation of stem-cell derived neurons. Neurons critically depend on intrinsic protective and supportive properties of astrocytes. Conversely, all forms of pathogenic stimuli which disturb astrocytic functions compromise neuronal functionality and viability...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293547/proinflammatory-response-induced-by-newcastle-disease-virus-in-tumor-and-normal-cells
#3
Teridah Ernala Ginting, Jeremiah Suryatenggara, Salomo Christian, George Mathew
PURPOSE: To investigate the specific role of immune responses induced by lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) for its antitumor effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NDV LaSota strain was used to infect the following human cells: non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), glioblastoma (U87MG and T98G), mammary gland adenocarcinoma (MCF7 and MDA-MB-453), hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh7), transformed embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), primary monocytes, lung fibroblast (HF19), skin fibroblast (NB1RGB) and rat astroglia (RCR-1) at 0...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275350/blockade-of-p2x4-receptors-inhibits-neuropathic-pain-related-behavior-by-preventing-mmp-9-activation-and-consequently-pronociceptive-interleukin-release-in-a-rat-model
#4
Agnieszka M Jurga, Anna Piotrowska, Wioletta Makuch, Barbara Przewlocka, Joanna Mika
Neuropathic pain is still an extremely important problem in today's medicine because opioids, which are commonly used to reduce pain, have limited efficacy in this type of pathology. Therefore, complementary therapy is needed. Our experiments were performed in rats to evaluate the contribution of the purinergic system, especially P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), in the modulation of glia activation and, consequently, the levels of nociceptive interleukins after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve, a rat model of neuropathic pain...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270593/reduced-responses-to-glutamate-receptor-agonists-follow-loss-of-astrocytes-and-astroglial-glutamate-markers-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii
#5
William T Talman, Deidre Nitschke Dragon, Li-Hsien Lin
Saporin (SAP) or SAP conjugates injected into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats kill astrocytes. When injected in its unconjugated form, SAP produces no demonstrable loss of or damage to local neurons. However bilateral injections of SAP significantly attenuate responses to activation of baroreceptor reflexes that are mediated by transmission of signals through glutamate receptors in the NTS We tested the hypothesis that SAP would reduce cardiovascular responses to activation of NTS glutamate receptors despite its recognized ability to spare local neurons while killing local astrocytes...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266561/nkx2-1-regulates-the-generation-of-telencephalic-astrocytes-during-embryonic-development
#6
Shilpi Minocha, Delphine Valloton, Yvan Arsenijevic, Jean-René Cardinaux, Raffaella Guidi, Jean-Pierre Hornung, Cécile Lebrand
The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.1 (NK2 homeobox 1) controls cell differentiation of telencephalic GABAergic interneurons and oligodendrocytes. Here we show that Nkx2.1 also regulates astrogliogenesis of the telencephalon from embryonic day (E) 14.5 to E16.5. Moreover we identify the different mechanisms by which Nkx2.1 controls the telencephalic astrogliogenesis. In Nkx2.1 knockout (Nkx2.1(-/-)) mice a drastic loss of astrocytes is observed that is not related to cell death. Further, in vivo analysis using BrdU incorporation reveals that Nkx2...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261115/il1r2-ccr2-and-cxcr4-may-form-heteroreceptor-complexes-with-nmdar-and-d2r-relevance-for-schizophrenia
#7
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Alexander O Tarakanov, Karl Bechter, Kjell Fuxe
The mild neuroinflammation hypothesis of schizophrenia was introduced by Bechter in 2001. It has been hypothesized that a hypofunction of glutamatergic signaling via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and hyperactivation of dopamine D2 receptors play a role in schizophrenia. The triplet puzzle theory states that sets of triplet amino acid homologies guide two different receptors toward each other and contributes to the formation of a receptor heteromer. It is, therefore, proposed that putative NMDAR-C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), NMDAR-C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), and NMDAR- interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL1R2) heteromers can be formed in the neuronal networks in mild neuroinflammation due to demonstration of Gly-Leu-Leu (GLL), Val-Ser-Thr (VST), and/or Ser-Val-Ser (SVS) amino acid homologies between these receptor protomers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257918/ceftriaxone-mediated-upregulation-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-contrasts-neurotoxicity-evoked-by-kainate-in-rat-organotypic-spinal-cord-cultures
#8
Dzejla Bajrektarevic, Andrea Nistri
Excitotoxicity is a major pathological trigger of neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This process is caused by excessive release of the transmitter glutamate that overwhelms the capacity of astroglia transporters to maintain a low extracellular level of this aminoacid and strongly stimulates neurons. Using an in vitro model of rat organotypic spinal slice culture, we explored if the excitotoxicity caused by the potent glutamate analogue kainate, widely employed as a paradigm to evoke neurotoxicity in the central nervous system, was prevented by the antibiotic ceftriaxone known to enhance glutamate transporter expression...
March 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243355/age-and-environment-influences-on-mouse-prion-disease-progression-behavioral-changes-and-morphometry-and-stereology-of-hippocampal-astrocytes
#9
J Bento-Torres, L L Sobral, R R Reis, R B de Oliveira, D C Anthony, P F C Vasconcelos, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
Because enriched environment (EE) and exercise increase and aging decreases immune response, we hypothesized that environmental enrichment and aging will, respectively, delay and increase prion disease progression. Mice dorsal striatum received bilateral stereotaxic intracerebral injections of normal or ME7 prion infected mouse brain homogenates. After behavior analysis, animals were euthanized and their brains processed for astrocyte GFAP immunolabeling. Our analysis related to the environmental influence are limited to young adult mice, whereas age influence refers to aged mice raised on standard cages...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237879/nadph-oxidase-derived-h2o2-mediates-the-regulatory-effects-of-microglia-on-astrogliosis-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Liyan Hou, Xueying Zhou, Cong Zhang, Ke Wang, Xiaofang Liu, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Huihua Li, Qingshan Wang, Dan Zhang, Jau-Shyong Hong
Astrogliosis has long been recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. However, the mechanisms of how astroglia become activated remain unclear. Reciprocal interactions between microglia and astroglia play a pivotal role in regulating the activities of astroglia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism by which microglia regulate astrogliosis by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse PD models...
February 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230278/deletion-of-psychiatric-risk-gene-cacna1c-impairs-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-cell-autonomous-fashion
#11
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
Ca(2+) is a universal signal transducer which fulfills essential functions in cell development and differentiation. CACNA1C, the gene encoding the alpha-1C subunit (i.e., Cav 1.2) of the voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel (LTCC), has been implicated as a risk gene in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. To parse the role of Cav 1.2 channels located on astrocyte-like stem cells and their descendants in the development of new granule neurons, we created Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1c(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice, a transgenic tool that allows cell-type-specific inducible deletion of Cacna1c...
February 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188803/activation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-by-haloperidol-metabolites-facilitates-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-secretion-from-human-astroglia
#12
Dhwanil A Dalwadi, Seongcheol Kim, John A Schetz
Glial cells play a critical role in neuronal support which includes the production and release of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Activation of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been shown to attenuate inflammatory stress-mediated brain injuries, and there is emerging evidence that this may involve a BDNF-dependent mechanism. In this report we studied S1R-mediated BDNF release from human astrocytic glial cells. Astrocytes express the S1R, which mediates BDNF release when stimulated with the prototypical S1R agonists 4-PPBP and (+)-SKF10047...
February 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151556/probing-nano-organization-of-astroglia-with-multi-color-super-resolution-microscopy
#13
Janosch P Heller, Piotr Michaluk, Kohtaroh Sugao, Dmitri A Rusakov
Astroglia are essential for brain development, homeostasis, and metabolic support. They also contribute actively to the formation and regulation of synaptic circuits, by successfully handling, integrating, and propagating physiological signals of neural networks. The latter occurs mainly by engaging a versatile mechanism of internal Ca(2+) fluctuations and regenerative waves prompting targeted release of signaling molecules into the extracellular space. Astroglia also show substantial structural plasticity associated with age- and use-dependent changes in neural circuitry...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119076/spinal-astrocytic-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-activation-as-counteracting-mechanism-to-the-amitriptyline-analgesic-efficacy-in-painful-peripheral-neuropathies
#14
Maria Domenica Sanna, Carla Ghelardini, Nicoletta Galeotti
Several drugs and agents are currently used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Among them amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant drug, represent a first line treatment. Despite its well-documented clinical efficacy, amitriptyline is ineffective in some animal models of neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate into amitriptyline poor efficacy in neuropathic pain and to determine the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation as counteracting mechanism to the analgesic effects of this drug...
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110393/nitric-oxide-production-in-the-striatum-and-cerebellum-of-a-rat-model-of-preterm-global-perinatal-asphyxia
#15
M Barkhuizen, W D J Van de Berg, J De Vente, C E Blanco, A W D Gavilanes, H W M Steinbusch
Encephalopathy due to perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the period around birth. Preterm infants are especially at risk for cognitive, attention and motor impairments. Therapy for this subgroup is limited to supportive care, and new targets are thus urgently needed. Post-asphyxic excitotoxicity is partially mediated by excessive nitric oxide (NO) release. The aims of this study were to determine the timing and distribution of nitric oxide (NO) production after global PA in brain areas involved in motor regulation and coordination...
April 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099189/productive-infection-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-by-r5-tropic-hiv-1-opiate-co-exposure-heightens-infectivity-and-functional-vulnerability
#16
Joyce M Balinang, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Kurt F Hauser, Pamela E Knapp
OBJECTIVE: HIV type-1 (HIV-1) causes a spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) complications; many are worsened by opiate co-exposure. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) give rise to all CNS neurons and macroglia. We tested the hypothesis that hNPC maturation and fate are altered by HIV and opiates, contributing to HIV-1-related neuropathology. Reports of hNPC infection remain controversial. We rigorously examined this question, testing whether hNPCs propogated infection, and whether HIV affected hNPCs absent their infection...
March 27, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092615/immunoreactivity-of-arcuate-nucleus-astrocytes-in-rats-after-intragastric-administration-of-habanero-peppers-capsicum-chinese-jacq
#17
K Rycerz, A Krawczyk, J Jaworska-Adamu, M Gołyński, K Lutnicki, I Balicki
Habanero pepper fruits contain capsaicin (CAP) characterised by a spicy taste. Astrocytes express vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), which interacts with cannabinoids including CAP. Only a few studies revealed that CAP leads to alterations of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) structures. The aim of this study was to analyse the GFAP (GFAP-IR) and S100β (S100β-IR) immunoreactive astrocytes of ARC in adult rats after intragastric administration of habanero pepper fruits. Adult, Wistar rats received a peanut oil - control group (C) - and oil suspension of habanero pepper fruits at a dose of 0...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090784/effect-of-resveratrol-and-tetracycline-on-the-subacute-paraquat-toxicity-in-mice
#18
R M Satpute, P P Pawar, S Puttewar, S D Sawale, P D Ambhore
Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective bipyridyl herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds, but its accidental, occupational, or intentional exposure in humans is known to cause pneumo- and neurotoxicity which may proves fatal. Oxidative stress is reported as an underlined mechanism of PQ-induced toxicity in alveolar cells, neurons, and astroglia. PQ generates superoxides both through electron transport reaction (ETC) with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidoreductase and by the redox cycling via reaction with molecular oxygen...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087979/rapid-antidepressant-effect-of-ketamine-correlates-with-astroglial-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Maryam Ardalan, Ali H Rafati, Jens R Nyengaard, Gregers Wegener
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Astroglia contribute to the pathophysiology of major depression and antidepressant drugs act by modulating synaptic plasticity; therefore, the present study investigated whether the fast antidepressant action of ketamine is reflected in a rapid alteration of the astrocytes' morphology in a genetic animal model of depression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: S-Ketamine (15 mg·kg(-1) ) or saline was administered as a single injection to Flinders Line (FSL/ FRL) rats...
March 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086956/differential-expression-of-e-type-prostanoid-receptors-2-and-4-in-microglia-stimulated-with-lipopolysaccharide
#20
Ester Bonfill-Teixidor, Amaia Otxoa-de-Amezaga, Miriam Font-Nieves, M Glòria Sans-Fons, Anna M Planas
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced under inflammatory conditions, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the products of COX activity. PGE2 has pleiotropic actions depending on the activation of specific E-type prostanoid EP1-4 receptors. We investigated the involvement of PGE2 and EP receptors in glial activation in response to an inflammatory challenge induced by LPS. METHODS: Cultures of mouse microglia or astroglia cells were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of COX-2 inhibitors, and the production of PGE2 was measured by ELISA...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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