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Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
Ilan Gobius, Laura Morcom, Rodrigo Suárez, Jens Bunt, Polina Bukshpun, William Reardon, William B Dobyns, John L R Rubenstein, A James Barkovich, Elliott H Sherr, Linda J Richards
The corpus callosum is the major axon tract that connects and integrates neural activity between the two cerebral hemispheres. Although ∼1:4,000 children are born with developmental absence of the corpus callosum, the primary etiology of this condition remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that midline crossing of callosal axons is dependent upon the prior remodeling and degradation of the intervening interhemispheric fissure. This remodeling event is initiated by astroglia on either side of the interhemispheric fissure, which intercalate with one another and degrade the intervening leptomeninges...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Rommy von Bernhardi, Jaime Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Betsi Flores, Jaime Eugenín León
Today, there is enormous progress in understanding the function of glial cells, including astroglia, oligodendroglia, Schwann cells, and microglia. Around 150 years ago, glia were viewed as a glue among neurons. During the course of the twentieth century, microglia were discovered and neuroscientists' views evolved toward considering glia only as auxiliary cells of neurons. However, over the last two to three decades, glial cells' importance has been reconsidered because of the evidence on their involvement in defining central nervous system architecture, brain metabolism, the survival of neurons, development and modulation of synaptic transmission, propagation of nerve impulses, and many other physiological functions...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Clarissa Cavarsan, Flavia G Maia, Anete C Ferraz, Lia S Nakao, Marcelo Ms Lima, Silvio M Zanata
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), leading to the major clinical abnormalities that characterize this disease. Although PD's etiology is unknown, α-synuclein aggregation plays a pivotal role in PD pathogenesis, which could be associated to some pathological processes such as oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, impaired protein degradation, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Peng Jiang, Wenbin Deng
Astrocytes traditionally were thought to have merely a support function, but are now understood to be important regulators of neural development and function. The immature and mature astrocytes have stage-specific roles in neuronal development. However, it is largely unclear whether human astrocytes also serve stage-specific roles in oligodendroglial development. Owing to the broad and diverse roles of astroglia in the central nervous system, transplantation of astroglia also could be of therapeutic value in promoting regeneration after CNS injury or disease...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro
A combined approach in spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy is the modulation of the cellular and molecular processes involved in glial scarring. Aldaynoglial cells are neural cell precursors with a high capacity to differentiate into neurons, promote axonal growth, wrapping and myelination of resident neurons. These important characteristics of aldaynoglia can be combined with specific inhibition of the RhoGTPase activity in astroglia and microglia that cause reduction of glial proliferation, retraction of glial cell processes and myelin production by oligodendrocytes...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Naserddine Hamadi, Azimullah Sheikh, Nather Madjid, Loai Lubbad, Naheed Amir, Safa Al-Deen Saudi Shehab, Fatima Khelifi-Touhami, Abdu Adem
BACKGROUND: Bilateral adrenalectomy has been shown to damage the hippocampal neurons. Although the effects of long-term adrenalectomy have been studied extensively there are few publications on the effects of short-term adrenalectomy. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of short-term bilateral adrenalectomy on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; the response of microglia and astrocytes to neuronal cell death as well as oxidative stress markers GSH, SOD and MDA over the course of time (4 h, 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks) in the hippocampus of Wistar rats...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Pooja-Shree Mishra, Dinesh K Dhull, A Nalini, K Vijayalakshmi, T N Sathyaprabha, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Trichur R Raju
BACKGROUND: Non-cell autonomous toxicity is one of the potential mechanisms implicated in the etiopathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the exact role of glial cells in ALS pathology is yet to be fully understood. In a cellular model recapitulating the pathology of sporadic ALS, we have studied the inflammatory response of astroglia following exposure to the cerebrospinal fluid from ALS patients (ALS-CSF). METHODS: Various inflammatory markers including pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, COX-2, PGE-2, trophic factors, glutamate, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed in the rat astroglial cultures exposed to ALS-CSF and compared with the disease control or normal controls...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mahboobeh Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, Bahareh Amin, Soghra Mehri, Seyed Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: According to traditional medicine, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) has been used in many ailments such as dysmenorrhea, rheumatic pain and stomachache. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work was carried out to evaluate putative anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis alcoholic extract and some spinal cord molecular changes on a neuropathic pain model in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral neuropathy was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Thangavel Samikkannu, Venkata S R Atluri, Madhavan P N Nair
HIV infection and cocaine use have been identified as risk factors for triggering neuronal dysfunction. In the central nervous system (CNS), energy resource and metabolic function are regulated by astroglia. Glia is the major reservoir of HIV infection and disease progression in CNS. However, the role of cocaine in accelerating HIV associated energy deficit and its impact on neuronal dysfunction has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HIV associated neuropathogenesis in cocaine abuse and how it accelerates the energy sensor AMPKs and its subsequent effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), BRSKs, CDC25B/C, MAP/Tau, Wee1 and epigenetics remodeling complex SWI/SNF...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sean J Miller, Jeffrey D Rothstein
We utilized the recently published method of passive CLARITY to explore brain astrocytes for the first time with our optimized method. Astrocytes are the fundamental cells in the brain that act to maintain the synaptic activity of neurons, support metabolism of all neurons, and communicate through extensive networks throughout the CNS. They are the defining cell that differentiates lower organisms from humans. From a disease vantage point they are the principal cause of brain tumors and the propagator of neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
2016: PloS One
Eva Lasič, Fabiana Galland, Nina Vardjan, Jernej Šribar, Igor Križaj, Marina Concli Leite, Robert Zorec, Matjaž Stenovec
Astrocytes, the most heterogeneous glial cells in the central nervous system, contribute to brain homeostasis, by regulating a myriad of functions, including the clearance of extracellular debris. When cells are damaged, cytoplasmic proteins may exit into the extracellular space. One such protein is S100B, which may exert toxic effects on neighboring cells unless it is removed from the extracellular space, but the mechanisms of this clearance are poorly understood. By using time-lapse confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled S100B (S100B-Alexa(488) ) and fluorescent dextran (Dextran(546) ), a fluid phase uptake marker, we examined the uptake of fluorescently labeled S100B-Alexa(488) from extracellular space and monitored trafficking of vesicles that internalized S100B-Alexa(488) ...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Kefeng Wu, Xiang Gao, Baoyan Shi, Shiyu Chen, Xin Zhou, Zhidong Li, Yuhong Gan, Liao Cui, Jing Xuan Kang, Wende Li, Ren Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accompanied by memory deficits and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have seemly therapeutic potential in AD, but the benefit of n-3 PUFAs is still in debates. Here, we employed a transgenic mice carry fat-1 gene to encode n-3 desaturase from Caenorhabditis elegans, which increase endogenous n-3 PUFAs by converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs crossed with amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg mice to evaluate the protective effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on cognitive and behavioral deficits of APP Tg mice...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Lucia Frau, Nicola Simola, Pier Francesca Porceddu, Micaela Morelli
3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"), a recreational drug of abuse, can induce glia activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Since MDMA is often consumed in crowded environments featuring high temperatures, we studied how these factors influenced glia activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. C57BL/6J adolescent (4 weeks old) and adult (12 weeks old) mice received MDMA (4×20mg/kg) in different conditions: 1) while kept 1, 5, or 10×cage at room temperature (21°C); 2) while kept 5×cage at either room (21°C) or high (27°C) temperature...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
J Zhao, R W H Verwer, D J van Wamelen, X-R Qi, S-F Gao, P J Lucassen, D F Swaab
There are indications for changes in glutamate metabolism in relation to depression or suicide. The glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters mediate the uptake of the glutamate and glutamine. The expression of various components of the glutamate-glutamine cycle and the neuronal/glial glutamate transporters was determined by qPCR in postmortem prefrontal cortex. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were selected from young MDD patients who had committed suicide (MDD-S; n = 17), from MDD patients who died of non-suicide related causes (MDD-NS; n = 7) and from matched control subjects (n = 12)...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Nicolas Toro-Urrego, Luis M Garcia-Segura, Valentina Echeverria, George E Barreto
Testosterone is a hormone that has been shown to confer neuroprotection from different insults affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Testosterone induces this protection by different mechanisms that include the activation of anti-apoptotic pathways that are directly implicated in neuronal survival. However, little attention has been devoted to its actions on glial cells. In the present study, we have assessed whether testosterone exerts protection in a human astrocyte cell model, the T98G cells. Our results indicate that testosterone improves cell survival and mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces nuclear fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hanna Mierzewska, Magdalena Mierzewska-Schmidt, Gajja S Salomons, Magdalena Dudzińska, Elżbieta Szczepanik
Alexander Disease (ALXDRD) is an autosomal dominant leukodystrophy caused by mutation in one allele of GFAP gene, encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Most cases occur due to de novo. There are three clinical subtypes of ALXDRD: infantile, juvenile and adult form, but congenital form is also outlined. The disease's spectrum comprises of macrocephaly, progressive pyramidal signs, and seizures in congenital and infantile subtypes. Neuropathologically are enormous number of Rosenthal fibers (RF) mainly around vessels, in subependymal and subpial regions are found...
April 2016: Developmental Period Medicine
Wassim Altarche-Xifro, Umberto di Vicino, Maria Isabel Muñoz-Martin, Analía Bortolozzi, Jordi Bové, Miquel Vila, Maria Pia Cosma
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder, which is due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and for which no definitive cure is currently available. Cellular functions in mouse and human tissues can be restored after fusion of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells with a variety of somatic cells. Here, after transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the SNpc of two different mouse models of Parkinson's disease, we significantly ameliorated the dopaminergic neuron loss and function...
June 2016: EBioMedicine
Paola Caruso, Marcello Naccarato, Valentina Faoro, Danae Pracella, Marta Borando, Isabella Dotti, Nadia Koscica, Giorgio Stanta, Gilberto Pizzolato, Paolo Manganotti
OBJECTIVE: Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death in the world. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is upregulated in several neurological diseases including stroke. A previous animal study demonstrated an increased expression of the endocannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) in the penumbra area surrounding the ischemic core, suggesting a crucial role in inflammation/reperfusion after stroke. Regarding the localization of CB1/CB2 receptors, animal studies showed that cortical neurons, activated microglia, and astroglia are involved...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Wei Wang, Li Gu, Alexei Verkhratsky, Liang Peng
Hyperammonemia occurring following acute liver failure is the primary cause of hepatic encephalopathy. In the brain, ammonium is catabolised by glutamine synthetase expressed exclusively in astroglia; ammonium overload impairs astroglial homeostatic systems. Previously, we had reported that chronic treatment with 3 mM ammonia increased expression of transient receptor potential canonic 1 (TRPC1) channels and Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores (Liang et al. in Neurochem Res 39:2127-2135, 2014)...
July 14, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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