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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317336/astroglial-and-microglial-contributions-to-iron-metabolism-disturbance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ning Song, Jun Wang, Hong Jiang, Junxia Xie
Understandings of the disturbed iron metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) are largely from the perspectives of neurons. Neurodegenerative processes in PD trigger universal and conserved astroglial dysfunction and microglial activation. In this review, we start with astroglia and microglia in PD with an emphasis on their roles in spreading α-synuclein pathology, and then focus on their contributions in iron metabolism under normal conditions and the diseased state of PD. Elevated iron in the brain regions affects glial features, meanwhile, glial effects on neuronal iron metabolism are largely dependent on their releasing factors...
January 6, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274353/oxidative-stress-in-the-amygdala-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain
#2
B Sagalajev, H Wei, Z Chen, I Albayrak, A Koivisto, A Pertovaara
Earlier studies indicate that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) contributes to neuropathic pain. Here we studied whether amygdaloid administration of antioxidants or antagonists of TRPA1 that is among ion channels activated by oxidative stress attenuates nociceptive or affective pain in experimental neuropathy, and whether this effect involves amygdaloid astrocytes or descending serotonergic pathways acting on the spinal 5-HT1A receptor. The experiments were performed in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI)...
December 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238518/mir-124-promotes-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neuronal-stem-cells-through-inactivating-notch-pathway
#3
Shujie Jiao, Yaling Liu, Yaobing Yao, Junfang Teng
Background: Neural stem cells (NSCs) are able to differentiate into neurons and astroglia. miRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. However, the exact role of miR-124 in the development of NSCs and its underlying mechanism remain to be explored. Methods: Primary NSCs were isolated from embryos of Wistar rats. Immunocytochemistry was used to stain purified NSCs. miR-124, Delta-like 4 (DLL4), ki-67, Nestin, β-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), HES1, HEY2, and cyclin D1 (CCND1) expressions were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225567/the-nanoworld-of-the-tripartite-synapse-insights-from-super-resolution-microscopy
#4
Janosch P Heller, Dmitri A Rusakov
Synaptic connections between individual nerve cells are fundamental to the process of information transfer and storage in the brain. Over the past decades a third key partner of the synaptic machinery has been unveiled: ultrathin processes of electrically passive astroglia which often surround pre- and postsynaptic structures. The recent advent of super-resolution (SR) microscopy has begun to uncover the dynamic nanoworld of synapses and their astroglial environment. Here we overview and discuss the current progress in our understanding of the synaptic nanoenvironment, as gleaned from the imaging methods that go beyond the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164052/development-of-novel-patient-derived-xenografts-from-breast-cancer-brain-metastases
#5
María J Contreras-Zárate, D Ryan Ormond, Austin E Gillen, Colton Hanna, Nicole L Day, Natalie J Serkova, Britta M Jacobsen, Susan M Edgerton, Ann D Thor, Virginia F Borges, Kevin O Lillehei, Michael W Graner, Peter Kabos, Diana M Cittelly
Brain metastases are an increasing burden among breast cancer patients, particularly for those with HER2(+) and triple negative (TN) subtypes. Mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of brain metastases and preclinical validation of therapies has relied almost exclusively on intracardiac injection of brain-homing cells derived from highly aggressive TN MDA-MB-231 and HER2(+) BT474 breast cancer cell lines. Yet, these well characterized models are far from representing the tumor heterogeneity observed clinically and, due to their fast progression in vivo, their suitability to validate therapies for established brain metastasis remains limited...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162644/a-role-for-astroglia-in-prion-diseases
#6
Adriano Aguzzi, Yingjun Liu
In this issue of JEM, Krejciova et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20161547) report that astrocytes derived from human iPSCs can replicate human CJD prions. These observations provide a new, potentially very valuable model for studying human prions in cellula and for identifying antiprion compounds that might serve as clinical candidates. Furthermore, they add to the evidence that astrocytes may not be just innocent bystanders in prion diseases.
December 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141824/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-a-case-of-marburg-variant-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Celia Oreja-Guevara, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Julia García-López, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto Valverde-Moyano, Alberto Rabano-Gutierrez, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Ines González-Suárez, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSC) are located essentially in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and along the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astroglia, thus contributing to repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a pathological study to analyse neurogenic response in a patient with Marburg variant MS. METHODS: We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent patient with Marburg variant MS, a fulminant form of the disease...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123469/suppression-of-inflammatory-demyelinaton-and-axon-degeneration-through-inhibiting-kv3-channels
#8
Peter Jukkola, Yuanzheng Gu, Amy E Lovett-Racke, Chen Gu
The development of neuroprotective and repair strategies for treating progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) requires new insights into axonal injury. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a blocker of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels, is used in symptomatic treatment of progressive MS, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that deleting Kv3.1-the channel with the highest 4-AP sensitivity-reduces clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for MS. In Kv3.1 knockout (KO) mice, EAE lesions in sensory and motor tracts of spinal cord were markedly reduced, and radial astroglia were activated with increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105386/the-effect-of-ethanolic-extract-of-lippia-citriodora-on-rats-with-chronic-constriction-injury-of-neuropathic-pain
#9
Bahareh Amin, Reyhaneh Noorani, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
OBJECTIVES: We examined the protective effects of ethanolic extract of Lippia citriodora (L. citriodora) on rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve and possible mechanisms of actions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, the extract was administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, Intraperitoneally (I.P) from the surgery time for 14 consecutive days. The changes in the spinal cord levels of apoptotic factors, microglia and astroglia markers during the time course of study were assessed by western blotting on days 3, 7 and 14 post-CCI...
January 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079733/analgesic-effects-and-pharmacologic-mechanisms-of-the-gelsemium-alkaloid-koumine-on-a-rat-model-of-postoperative-pain
#10
Bo-Jun Xiong, Ying Xu, Gui-Lin Jin, Ming Liu, Jian Yang, Chang-Xi Yu
Postoperative pain (POP) of various durations is a common complication of surgical procedures. POP is caused by nerve damage and inflammatory responses that are difficult to treat. The neuroinflammation-glia-steroid network is known to be important in POP. It has been reported that the Gelsemium alkaloid koumine possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neurosteroid modulating activities. This study was undertaken to test the analgesic effects of koumine against POP and explore the underlying pharmacologic mechanisms...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054293/corticostriatal-plasticity-neuronal-ensembles-and-regulation-of-drug-seeking-behavior
#11
Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, William C Griffin, Christie D Fowler, Paul J Kenny, Peter W Kalivas
The idea that interconnected neuronal ensembles code for specific behaviors has been around for decades; however, recent technical improvements allow studying these networks and their causal role in initiating and maintaining behavior. In particular, the role of ensembles in drug-seeking behaviors in the context of addiction is being actively investigated. Concurrent with breakthroughs in quantifying ensembles, research has identified a role for synaptic glutamate spillover during relapse. In particular, the transient relapse-associated changes in glutamatergic synapses on accumbens neurons, as well as in adjacent astroglia and extracellular matrix, are key elements of the synaptic plasticity encoded by drug use and the metaplasticity induced by drug-associated cues that precipitate drug-seeking behaviors...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054283/desmin-expression-profile-in-reactive-astrocytes-in-the-3-nitropropionic-acid-lesioned-striatum-of-rat-characterization-and-comparison-with-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-nestin
#12
Jeong-Heon Choi, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Xuyan Jin, Mun-Yong Lee
Desmin, a muscle-specific, type-III intermediate-filament protein, is reportedly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. These cells become reactive astrocytes in response to brain injuries. To elucidate whether desmin is involved in this process, we examined the spatiotemporal expression profiles of desmin and their relationship with two astroglial intermediate filaments, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nestin, in the striatum of rats treated with the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)...
October 18, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044418/friedreich-ataxia-developmental-failure-of-the-dorsal-root-entry-zone
#13
Arnulf H Koeppen, Alyssa B Becker, Jiang Qian, Benjamin B Gelman, Joseph E Mazurkiewicz
Dorsal root ganglia, dorsal roots (DR), and dorsal root entry zones (DREZ) are vulnerable to frataxin deficiency in Friedreich ataxia (FA). A previously unrecognized abnormality is the intrusion of astroglial tissue into DR. Segments of formalin-fixed upper lumbar spinal cord of 13 homozygous and 2 compound heterozygous FA patients were sectioned longitudinally to represent DREZ and stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100, vimentin, the central nervous system (CNS)-specific myelin protein proteolipid protein, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin proteins PMP-22 and P0, and the Schwann cell proteins laminin, alpha-dystroglycan, and periaxin...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025924/dmrt5-a-novel-neurogenic-factor-reciprocally-regulates-lhx2-to-control-the-neuron-glia-cell-fate-switch-in-the-developing-hippocampus
#14
Bhavana Muralidharan, Marc Keruzore, Saurabh J Pradhan, Basabdatta Roy, Ashwin S Shetty, Veena Kinare, Leora D'Souza, Upasana Maheshwari, Krishanpal Karmodiya, Agasthya Suresh, Sanjeev Galande, Eric J Bellefroid, Shubha Tole
Regulation of the neuron-glia cell fate switch is a critical step in the development of the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that Lhx2 is a necessary and sufficient regulator of this process in the mouse hippocampal primordium, such that Lhx2 overexpression promotes neurogenesis and suppresses gliogenesis, whereas loss of Lhx2 has the opposite effect. We tested a series of transcription factors for their ability to mimic Lhx2 overexpression and suppress baseline gliogenesis, and also to compensate for loss of Lhx2 and suppress the resulting enhanced level of gliogenesis in the hippocampus...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984398/the-%C3%AE-lactam-clavulanic-acid-mediates-glutamate-transport-sensitive-pain-relief-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#15
P J Kristensen, G Gegelashvili, G Munro, A M Heegaard, O J Bjerrum
BACKGROUND: Following nerve injury, down-regulation of astroglial glutamate transporters (GluTs) with subsequent extracellular glutamate accumulation is a key factor contributing to hyperexcitability within the spinal dorsal horn. Some β-lactam antibiotics can up-regulate GluTs, one of which, ceftriaxone, displays analgesic effects in rodent chronic pain models. METHODS: Here, the antinociceptive actions of another β-lactam clavulanic acid, which possesses negligible antibiotic activity, were compared with ceftriaxone in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956517/synthesis-of-18f-2b-srf101-a-sulfonamide-derivative-of-the-fluorescent-dye-sulforhodamine-101
#16
Ingrid Kreimerman, Williams Porcal, Patricia Oliver, Eduardo Savio, Henry Engler
Background The red fluorescent dye Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) has been used in neuroscience research as a useful tool for staining of astrocytes, since it has been reported as a marker of astroglia in the neocortex of rodents in vivo. The aim of this work is to label SR101 with positron emission radionuclides, in order to provide a radiotracer to study its biological behaviour. This study is the first attempt to label SR101 with [18F], using a chemical derivatization via a sulfonamide-linker and a commercially available platform...
September 27, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955220/alterations-in-the-interplay-between-neurons-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-the-rat-dentate-gyrus-in-experimental-models-of-neurodegeneration
#17
Daniele Lana, Filippo Ugolini, Daniele Nosi, Gary L Wenk, Maria G Giovannini
The hippocampus is negatively affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases leading to impaired learning and memory abilities. A diverse series of progressive modifications in the intercellular communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia occur in the hippocampus during aging or inflammation. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological modifications that contribute to hippocampal dysfunction may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. The current study focussed on the interplay between neurons and astroglia in the Granule Layer (GL) and the Polymorphic Layer (PL) of the Dentate Gyrus (DG) of adult, aged and LPS-treated rats...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954391/neuron-glia-crosstalk-and-neuropathic-pain-involvement-in-the-modulation-of-motor-activity-in-the-orofacial-region
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Zakir Hossain, Shumpei Unno, Hiroshi Ando, Yuji Masuda, Junichi Kitagawa
Neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) is a debilitating condition. Although the pathophysiology remains unclear, accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the development of neuropathic pain. Recently, glial cells have been shown to play a key pathogenetic role. Nerve injury leads to an immune response near the site of injury. Satellite glial cells are activated in the peripheral ganglia. Various neural and immune mediators, released at the central terminals of primary afferents, lead to the sensitization of postsynaptic neurons and the activation of glia...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945795/cellular-heterogeneity-contributes-to-subtype-specific-expression-of-zeb1-in-human-glioblastoma
#19
Philipp Euskirchen, Josefine Radke, Marc Sören Schmidt, Eva Schulze Heuling, Eric Kadikowski, Meron Maricos, Felix Knab, Ulrike Grittner, Norman Zerbe, Marcus Czabanka, Christoph Dieterich, Hrvoje Miletic, Sverre Mørk, Arend Koch, Matthias Endres, Christoph Harms
The transcription factor ZEB1 has gained attention in tumor biology of epithelial cancers because of its function in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, DNA repair, stem cell biology and tumor-induced immunosuppression, but its role in gliomas with respect to invasion and prognostic value is controversial. We characterized ZEB1 expression at single cell level in 266 primary brain tumors and present a comprehensive dataset of high grade gliomas with Ki67, p53, IDH1, and EGFR immunohistochemistry, as well as EGFR FISH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929339/intranasal-insulin-ameliorates-cerebral-hypometabolism-neuronal-loss-and-astrogliosis-in-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#20
Yanxing Chen, Zhangyu Guo, Yan-Fang Mao, Tingting Zheng, Baorong Zhang
Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rodents leads to cognitive impairments and several pathological changes like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is hardly any research about the effect of ICV-STZ on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. Previous studies have demonstrated that intranasal insulin improves cognition in AD patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we treated the ICV-STZ rats with daily intranasal delivery of insulin (2 U/day) for 6 consecutive weeks, then monitored (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake using a high-resolution small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and studied the expression of neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using immunohistochemical staining...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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