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Racial disparities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538169/racial-differences-in-colorectal-cancer-survival-at-a-safety-net-hospital
#1
Umit Tapan, Shin Yin Lee, Janice Weinberg, Vijaya B Kolachalama, Jean Francis, Marjory Charlot, Kevan Hartshorn, Vipul Chitalia
BACKGROUND: While racial disparity in colorectal cancer survival have previously been studied, whether this disparity exists in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving care at safety net hospitals (and therefore of similar socioeconomic status) is poorly understood. METHODS: We examined racial differences in survival in a cohort of patients with stage IV colorectal cancer treated at the largest safety net hospital in the New England region, which serves a population with a majority (65%) of non-Caucasian patients...
May 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538119/racial-disparities-in-risks-of-stroke
#2
Wilson Nadruz, Brian Claggett, Mir Henglin, Amil M Shah, Hicham Skali, Wayne D Rosamond, Aaron R Folsom, Scott D Solomon, Susan Cheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532892/a-decade-of-studying-implicit-racial-ethnic-bias-in-healthcare-providers-using-the-implicit-association-test
#3
Ivy W Maina, Tanisha D Belton, Sara Ginzberg, Ajit Singh, Tiffani J Johnson
Disparities in the care and outcomes of US racial/ethnic minorities are well documented. Research suggests that provider bias plays a role in these disparities. The implicit association test enables measurement of implicit bias via tests of automatic associations between concepts. Hundreds of studies have examined implicit bias in various settings, but relatively few have been conducted in healthcare. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the role of implicit bias in healthcare disparities...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531909/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-interval-colorectal-cancer-incidence-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Stacey A Fedewa, W Dana Flanders, Kevin C Ward, Chun Chieh Lin, Ahmedin Jemal, Ann Goding Sauer, Chyke A Doubeni, Michael Goodman
Background: Interval colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for 3% to 8% of all cases of CRC in the United States. Data on interval CRC by race/ethnicity are scant. Objective: To examine whether risk for interval CRC among Medicare patients differs by race/ethnicity and whether this potential variation is accounted for by differences in the quality of colonoscopy, as measured by physicians' polyp detection rate (PDR). Design: Population-based cohort study...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531268/implementation-of-an-integrated-approach-to-the-national-hiv-aids-strategy-for-improving-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-for-youths
#5
J Dennis Fortenberry, Linda J Koenig, Bill G Kapogiannis, Carrie L Jeffries, Jonathan M Ellen, Craig M Wilson
Importance: Youths aged 13 to 24 years old living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are less likely than adults to receive the health and prevention benefits of HIV treatments, with only a small proportion having achieved sustained viral suppression. These age-related disparities in HIV continuum of care are owing in part to the unique developmental issues of adolescents and young adults as well as the complexity and fragmentation of HIV care and related services. This article summarizes a national, multiagency, and multilevel approach to HIV care for newly diagnosed youths designed to bridge some of these fragmentations by addressing National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals for people living with HIV...
May 22, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530444/real-world-strategies-to-engage-and-retain-racial-ethnic-minority-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-hiv-prevention-services
#6
Thomas E Freese, Howard Padwa, Brandy T Oeser, Beth A Rutkowski, Marya T Schulte
Racial/ethnic minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM)-particularly African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos-are at particularly high risk for HIV infection. Devising strategies to improve engagement and retention in HIV prevention services among minority YMSM is critical if the United States is going to achieve the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goal of reducing HIV health-related disparities. This article presents findings from a national summit on racial/ethnic YMSM services convened by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration-funded Center of Excellence on Racial and Ethnic Minority Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Other Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations (YMSM + LGBT CoE) in September 2015...
May 22, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530381/diabetes-update-risk-factors-screening-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Beth Choby
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of insulin resistance. Significant differences are noted in the prevalence of T2D among races. Screening recommendations vary by subspecialty society. Asian Americans should be screened for T2D at a lower body mass index (BMI) (ie, 23 kg/m(2)) than other racial groups. Risk factors for T2D include high-risk ethnicity, obesity, taking of certain drugs (including statins), and gestational diabetes. Health disparities and genetics also influence risk of T2D, although these complexities continue to be poorly understood...
May 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520705/disparities-in-diabetes-deaths-among-children-and-adolescents-united-states-2000-2014
#8
Sharon Saydah, Giuseppina Imperatore, Yiling Cheng, Linda S Geiss, Ann Albright
Diabetes is a common chronic disease of childhood affecting approximately 200,000 children and adolescents in the United States (1). Children and adolescents with diabetes are at increased risk for death from acute complications of diabetes, including hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (2,3); in 2012, CDC reported that during 1968-2009, diabetes mortality among U.S. persons aged ≤19 years declined by 61% (4). CDC observed disparities by race during 1979-2004, with black children and adolescents dying from diabetes at twice the rate of white children and adolescents (5)...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520494/racial-ethnic-disparities-at-the-end-of-an-hiv-epidemic-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-new-york-city-2011-2015
#9
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Courtney McKnight, Jonathan Feelemyer, Susan Tross, David Perlman, Samuel Friedman, Aimee Campbell
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether racial/ethnic disparities persist at the "end of the HIV epidemic" (prevalence of untreated HIV infection < 5%; HIV incidence < 0.5 per 100 person-years) among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City. METHODS: We recruited 2404 PWID entering New York City substance use treatment in 2001 to 2005 and 2011 to 2015. We conducted a structured interview, and testing for HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2; a biomarker for high sexual risk)...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515963/eliminating-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-aids-clinical-trials-in-the-united-states-a-qualitative-exploration-of-an-efficacious-social-behavioral-intervention
#10
Amanda Ritchie, Marya Viorst Gwadz, David Perlman, Rebecca De Guzman, Noelle R Leonard, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) are under-represented in AIDS clinical trials (ACTs) in the United States. Barriers AABH-PLWH experience to ACTs are multi-faceted, including distrust of medical research, low levels of knowledge, unsupportive social norms, lack of referral, and challenges navigating ACT systems. In past research we found a multi-component peer-driven intervention was efficacious in boosting rates of screening for/enrollment into ACTs...
January 2017: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515272/racial-disparities-in-neurologic-health-care-access-and-utilization-in-the-united-states
#11
Altaf Saadi, David U Himmelstein, Steffie Woolhandler, Nicte I Mejia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial and ethnic differences in the utilization of neurologic care across a wide range of neurologic conditions in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2006-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), including information on demographics, patient-reported health conditions, neurology visit rates, and costs. Using diagnostic codes, we identified persons with any self-identified neurologic disorder except back pain, as well as 5 subgroups (Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, cerebrovascular disease, and epilepsy)...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515111/racial%C3%A2-differences-in-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-use-and-discontinuation-in-association-with-mortality-among-medicare-breast-cancer-patients-by-receptor-status
#12
Albert J Farias, Xianglin L Du
BACKGROUND: There are racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. Our purpose was to determine whether racial/ethnic differences in use and discontinuation of AET differed by hormone receptor status and whether discontinuation was associated with mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with SEER/Medicare dataset of women age 65 years or older diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in Medicare Part-D from 2007-2009, stratified by hormone receptor status...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515047/centrosome-amplification-a-suspect-in-breast-cancer-and-racial-disparities
#13
Angela Ogden, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
The multifaceted involvement of centrosome amplification (CA) in tumorigenesis is coming into focus following years of meticulous experimentation, which have elucidated the powerful abilities of CA to promote cellular invasion, disrupt stem cell division, drive chromosomal instability (CIN), and perturb tissue architecture, activities that can accelerate tumor progression. Integration of the extant in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data suggests that in some tissues CA may be a tumor-initiating event, in others a consequential "hit" in multistep tumorigenesis, and in still others non-tumorigenic...
May 17, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513567/mental-health-service-utilization-among-black-youth-psychosocial-determinants-in-a-national-sample
#14
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
Racial disparity in mental health service utilization (MHSU) persists, and youths are not an exception to the underutilization of services. Very limited research has been conducted on the determinants of MHSU among Black youth. Using a national sample of American Black youth, the current study investigated the association between demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychiatric disorders, and self-rated health (SRH) on MHSU. We also tested the heterogeneity of the effects of SRH and psychiatric disorders based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection...
May 17, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511865/racial-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-viral-suppression-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-new-york-city
#15
Qiang Xia, Rebekkah S Robbins, Rachael Lazar, Lucia V Torian, Sarah L Braunstein
PURPOSE: To examine differences in racial disparities across levels of neighborhood poverty and differences in socioeconomic disparities by race/ethnicity in viral suppression among persons living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: Using HIV surveillance data, we categorized and geocoded PLWH who were in care in New York City (NYC). Multilevel binomial regression techniques were used to model viral suppression with a two-level hierarchical structure, by including age, transmission risk, year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, and an interaction term of race/ethnicity and census tract poverty in the model...
April 27, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510291/associations-between-rna-splicing-regulatory-variants-of-stemness-related-genes-and-racial-disparities-in-susceptibility-to-prostate-cancer
#16
Yanru Wang, Jennifer A Freedman, Hongliang Liu, Patricia G Moorman, Terry Hyslop, Daniel J George, Norman H Lee, Steven R Patierno, Qingyi Wei
Evidence suggests that cells with a stemness phenotype play a pivotal role in oncogenesis, and prostate cells exhibiting this phenotype have been identified. We used two genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets of African descendants, from the Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer (MEC) and the Ghana Prostate Study, as well as two GWAS datasets of non-Hispanic whites, from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), to analyze the associations between genetic variants of stemness-related genes and racial disparities in susceptibility to prostate cancer...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509758/post-hoc-analysis-of-automated-early-warning-system-alert-linked-to-end-of-life-discussions-is-there-a-racial-disparity-in-effectiveness
#17
Jason Chertoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507886/racial-disparities-in-elderly-patients-receiving-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-surgery
#18
Doniel Drazin, Faris Shweikeh, Carlito Lagman, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Maxwell Boakye
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate for racial disparities in elderly patients having undergone lumbar spinal stenosis surgery. METHODS: The US Medicare Provider Analysis and Review database (records from 2005 to 2011) was used to identify patients over the age of 65 years, diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis, and having undergone lumbar laminectomy or fusion surgery. Blacks were compared to Whites in both unmatched and propensity score-matched populations...
April 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506566/trends-in-racial-ethnic-disparities-of-new-aids-diagnoses-in-the-united-states-1984-2013
#19
Johanna Chapin-Bardales, Eli Samuel Rosenberg, Patrick Sean Sullivan
PURPOSE: In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. We describe and evaluate trends in the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities of new AIDS diagnoses from 1984 to 2013 in the United States. METHODS: AIDS diagnosis rates by race/ethnicity for people ≥13 years were calculated using national HIV surveillance and Census data. Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities were measured as rate ratios...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504322/racial-differences-in-the-pain-management-of-children-recovering-from-anesthesia
#20
Olubukola O Nafiu, Wilson T Chimbira, Margaret Stewart, Kathleen Gibbons, L Kareen Porter, Paul I Reynolds
BACKGROUND: When pain management has been studied in settings such as pediatric emergency departments, racial disparities have been clearly identified. To our knowledge, this has not been studied in the pediatric perioperative setting. We sought to determine whether there are differences based on race in the administration of analgesia to children suffering from pain in the postanesthesia care unit. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational, study of 771 children aged 4-17 years who underwent elective outpatient surgery...
May 15, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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