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Racial disparities

Krystin A Engelhardt, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Gregory H Gorman, Nicole R Dobson
Background: The Military Health System (MHS) provides universal access to medical care to active duty service members, retirees, and their dependents. Observational data from small studies suggest lower preterm birth rates in the MHS compared with U.S. national averages. The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of preterm birth in the MHS from 2006 to 2012 compared with national rates and to analyze the impact of demographic factors on preterm birth in a universal access health care system...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Bríd M Ryan
Compared with all other racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., African Americans are disproportionally affected by lung cancer, both in terms of incidence and survival. It is likely that smoking, as the main etiological factor associated with lung cancer, contributes to these disparities, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. This paper seeks to explore the history of lung cancer disparities and review to the literature regarding the various factors that contribute to them.
March 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Camillia K Lui, Nina Mulia
Aims: Alcohol problems are most prevalent in young adulthood and decrease thereafter, but some studies find that racial/ethnic minorities have elevated alcohol risk beyond the 20s. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in the transitions into and out of alcohol problems, and whether these are explained by heavy drinking (HD), socioeconomic disadvantages and adult role transitions from the 20s to 30s. Short summary: Racial/ethnic groups had similar risks for earlier onset and recurrence/persistence of alcohol problems, but Blacks were at significantly greater risk than Whites for later onset in the 30s...
March 13, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Elizabeth A McConnell, Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Roky Truong, Michelle Birkett
Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i...
March 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Margaret Mary Downey, Anu Manchikanti Gómez
Reproductive health disparities-particularly those experienced by racial and ethnic minority groups-are considered a persistent public health issue in the United States. Frameworks that focus on social determinants of health seek to identify the forces producing these disparities, particularly social conditions that create vulnerability to premature death and disease. Such frameworks pose challenges to health care provision, as structural factors can seem immutable to health care professionals trained to treat individual patients...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Adolfo G Cuevas, Kasim Ortiz, Nancy Lopez, David R Williams
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between race and smoking behaviors among Latinos/Hispanics. DESIGN: Using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS), we implemented Log-Poisson regression models for each dependent variable (smoking pattern and menthol cigarette use). Each analysis adjusted for age, gender, marital status, employment status, and socioeconomic status (SES). Final pooled cross-sectional sample included 505 Black-Latinos and 9078 White-Latinos...
March 14, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Tomas L Griebling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Urology
Eirwen M Miller, Joan Tymon-Rosario, Howard D Strickler, Xianhong Xie, Xiaonan Xue, Dennis Y S Kuo, Sharmila K Makhija, Nicole S Nevadunsky
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the racial/ethnic disparities in ovarian cancer survival in a diverse population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating all patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who received primary treatment at Montefiore Medical Center from 2005 to 2015. Clinicopathologic and survival data were abstracted from medical records. Two-sided statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.3. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-four evaluable patients were identified: 85 (25%) black, 107 (31%) white, 74 (21%) Hispanic, and 78 (23%) other...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Luis R Castellanos, Omar Viramontes, Nainjot K Bains, Ignacio A Zepeda
PURPOSE: Despite the well-described benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on long-term health outcomes, CR is a resource that is underutilized by a significant proportion of patients that suffer from cardiovascular diseases. The main purpose of this study was to examine disparities in CR referral and participation rates among individuals from rural communities and racial and ethnic minority groups with coronary heart disease (CHD) when compared to the general population. METHODS: A systematic search of standard databases including MedlLine, PubMed, and Cochrane databases was conducted using keywords that included cardiac rehabilitation, women, race and ethnicity, disparities, and rural populations...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Shamly Austin, Kenneth G Saag, Maria Pisu
Introduction: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare providers' recommendations for physical activity among individuals with arthritis and evaluated this association among groups of individuals who adhered to physical activity guidelines and those who did not. Methods: With a cross-sectional design based on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we analyzed individuals with self-reported physician-diagnosed arthritis, ≥18 years of age ( n = 83,376)...
2018: Arthritis
Aditya Simha, Camille Maria Webb, Ramakrishna Prasad, N Randall Kolb, Peter J Veldkamp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine whether family medicine program directors (PDs) experienced moral distress due to obstacles to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, and to explore whether they found those obstacles to be unethical. DESIGN: An omnibus survey by the Council of Academic Family Medicine's Educational Research Alliance was administered to 452 and completed by 273 US-based PDs. The survey gauged attitudes and opinions regarding ethical dilemmas in patient access to HCV treatment...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Wei Chen, David A Bushinsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Jenny M Cundiff, Karen A Matthews
In adults, greater social integration is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Social integration earlier in life may be similarly associated with cardiovascular risk. Using a longitudinal sample of 267 Black and White men, we examined whether greater social integration with peers during childhood and adolescence, assessed by parent report, prospectively predicts lower blood pressure and body mass index two decades later in adulthood and whether these effects differ by race, given well-documented racial disparities in hypertension...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
John Michael Varlotto, Richard Voland, Kerrie McKie, John C Flickinger, Malcolm M DeCamp, Debra Maddox, Paul Rava, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Geoffrey Graeber, Negar Rassaei, Paulo Oliveira, Suhail Ali, Chandra Belani, Jonathan Glanzman, Heather A Wakelee, Manali Patel, Jennifer Baima, Jianying Zhang, William Walsh
To investigate the interrelation between economic, marital, and known histopathologic/therapeutic prognostic factors in presentation and survival of patients with lung cancer in nine different ethnic groups. A retrospective review of the SEER database was conducted through the years 2007-2012. Population differences were assessed via chi-square testing. Multivariable analyses (MVA) were used to detect overall survival (OS) differences in the total population (TP, N = 153,027) and for those patients presenting with Stage IV (N = 70,968)...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Andrew J Cole, Reginald W Johnson, Leonard E Egede, Prabhakar K Baliga, David J Taber
There is a lack of data analyzing the influence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor control on graft survival disparities in African-American kidney transplant recipients. Studies in the general population indicate that CVD risk factor control is poor in African-Americans, leading to higher rates of renal failure and major acute cardiovascular events. However, with the exception of hypertension, there is no data demonstrating similar results within transplant recipients. Recent analyses conducted by our investigator group indicate that CVD risk factors, especially diabetes, are poorly controlled in African-American recipients, which likely impacts graft loss...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Angelica Geter, Madeline Y Sutton, Carl Armon, Marcus D Durham, Frank J Palella, Ellen Tedaldi, Rachel Hart, Kate Buchacz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189973.].
2018: PloS One
Amirhossein Moaddab, Gary A Dildy, Haywood L Brown, Zhoobin H Bateni, Michael A Belfort, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Steven L Clark
OBJECTIVE: To quantitate the contribution of various demographic factors to the U.S. maternal mortality ratio. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics database and the Detailed Mortality Underlying Cause of Death database (CDC WONDER) from 2005 to 2014 that contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Bivariate correlations between the maternal mortality ratio and all maternal demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical service utilization characteristics were calculated...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Nicola A Hanania, Paola Rogliani
Our understanding of whether and/or how ethnicity influences pharmacological response to asthma therapies is still very scarce. A possible explanation for the increased asthma treatment failures observed in ethnic and racial minorities receiving asthma therapies is that some of these groups may have a pharmacogenomic predisposition to either nonresponse or to adverse response with a specific class of drugs. However, the effects of ethnicity on pharmacological response to asthma therapies are also, and mainly, determined by socioeconomic and environmental factors to a varying extent, depending on the ethnic groups...
March 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Margaret O Akinhanmi, Joanna M Biernacka, Stephen M Strakowski, Susan L McElroy, Joyce E Balls Berry, Kathleen R Merikangas, Shervin Assari, Melvin G McInnis, Thomas G Schulze, Marion LeBoyer, Carol Tamminga, Christi Patten, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVES: Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity...
March 12, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Canaan Aumua, Sanjeev Krishna, Udaya Samarakkody, Danny de Lore
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether racial disparities in healthcare exist within a New Zealand pediatric surgical outreach service in a high indigenous Māori population. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study assessed all pediatric surgical procedures performed within a secondary center in New Zealand between May 2014 and May 2016. The days between the date of surgery booking on the waiting list and actual date of surgery were calculated and compared to their corresponding elective surgery waiting target times set by the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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