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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449262/predictive-mechanisms-linking-brain-opioids-to-chronic-pain-vulnerability-and-resilience
#1
REVIEW
Anthony Kenneth Peter Jones, Christopher Andrew Brown
Chronic pain is a major global healthcare problem that is currently inadequately treated. In addition, the current use of opioids for treatment has reached far beyond the paucity of evidence for long-term benefits relative to risks. Benefit-risk models for opioid and non-opioid treatments would benefit from a rational, mechanism-based understanding of neuroplastic and neurochemical contributions to chronic pain. Here we evaluate the findings and limitations of representative research investigating brain neuroplasticity and neurochemistry in chronic pain...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449074/fireprot-web-server-for-automated-design-of-thermostable-proteins
#2
Milos Musil, Jan Stourac, Jaroslav Bendl, Jan Brezovsky, Zbynek Prokop, Jaroslav Zendulka, Tomas Martinek, David Bednar, Jiri Damborsky
There is a continuous interest in increasing proteins stability to enhance their usability in numerous biomedical and biotechnological applications. A number of in silico tools for the prediction of the effect of mutations on protein stability have been developed recently. However, only single-point mutations with a small effect on protein stability are typically predicted with the existing tools and have to be followed by laborious protein expression, purification, and characterization. Here, we present FireProt, a web server for the automated design of multiple-point thermostable mutant proteins that combines structural and evolutionary information in its calculation core...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449072/functions-of-galectins-as-self-non-self-recognition-and-effector-factors
#3
Gerardo R Vasta, Chiguang Feng, Nuria González-Montalbán, Justin Mancini, Lishi Yang, Kelsey Abernathy, Graeme Frost, Cheyenne Palm
Carbohydrate structures on the cell surface encode complex information that through specific recognition by carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins), modulates interactions between cells, cells and the extracellular matrix, or mediates recognition of potential microbial pathogens. Galectins are a family of ß-galactoside-binding lectins, which are evolutionary conserved and have been identified in most organisms, from fungi to invertebrates and vertebrates, including mammals. Since their discovery in the 1970s, their biological roles, initially understood as limited to recognition of endogenous carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis and development, have expanded in recent years by the discovery of their roles in tissue repair and regulation of immune homeostasis...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449025/reltime-rates-collapses-to-a-strict-clock-when-estimating-the-timeline-of-animal-diversification
#4
Jesus Lozano-Fernandez, Mario Dos Reis, Philip C J Donoghue, Davide Pisani
Establishing an accurate timescale for the history of life is crucial to understand evolutionary processes. To this scope, relaxed molecular clock models implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework are generally used. However, these methods are time consuming. RelTime, a non-Bayesian method implementing a fast, ad hoc, algorithm for relative dating, was developed to overcome the computational inefficiencies of Bayesian software. RelTime was recently used to investigate the origin of animals, and found results consistent with outdated studies from the 1980es and 1990es that recovered metazoans to have a Mesoproterozoic origin (originating approximately 1...
April 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448578/evolutionary-history-of-tibetans-inferred-from-whole-genome-sequencing
#5
Hao Hu, Nayia Petousi, Gustavo Glusman, Yao Yu, Ryan Bohlender, Tsewang Tashi, Jonathan M Downie, Jared C Roach, Amy M Cole, Felipe R Lorenzo, Alan R Rogers, Mary E Brunkow, Gianpiero Cavalleri, Leroy Hood, Sama M Alpatty, Josef T Prchal, Lynn B Jorde, Peter A Robbins, Tatum S Simonson, Chad D Huff
The indigenous people of the Tibetan Plateau have been the subject of much recent interest because of their unique genetic adaptations to high altitude. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Tibetan EPAS1 haplotype is involved in high altitude-adaptation and originated in an archaic Denisovan-related population. We sequenced the whole-genomes of 27 Tibetans and conducted analyses to infer a detailed history of demography and natural selection of this population. We detected evidence of population structure between the ancestral Han and Tibetan subpopulations as early as 44 to 58 thousand years ago, but with high rates of gene flow until approximately 9 thousand years ago...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448529/a-genome-wide-analysis-of-the-rna-guided-silencing-pathway-in-coffee-reveals-insights-into-its-regulatory-mechanisms
#6
Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum, Pâmela Marinho Rezende, Thales Henrique Cherubino Ribeiro, Raphael Ricon de Oliveira, Thaís Cunha de Sousa Cardoso, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Antonio Chalfun-Junior
microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL) in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448491/relevant-units-of-analysis-for-applied-and-basic-research-dealing-with-neglected-transmissible-diseases-the-predominant-clonal-evolution-model-of-pathogenic-microorganisms
#7
REVIEW
Michel Tibayrenc, Francisco J Ayala
The predominant clonal evolution (PCE) model seeks to formulate a common population genetics framework for all micropathogens (namely, parasitic protozoa, fungi and yeasts, bacteria, and viruses). It relies on a definition of clonality that is only based on population structure features (namely, strongly restrained genetic recombination). Its clear-cut properties make it of strong interest for applied and basic research, since it permits the definition of stable, clearly delimited units of analysis below the species level: clonal genotypes and discrete genetic subdivisions ("near-clades")...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448201/cellular-polyamines-modulate-mrna-stability
#8
Haoxi Chai, Wannian Yang, Huazhong Shi
Polyamines (PAs) are polycationic compounds found in all living organisms and play crucial roles in growth and survival. PAs interact with and modulate the functions of anionic macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. LHR1/PUT3 is a polyamine influx transporter localized in the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis. In our recent paper in The Plant Journal, (1) we demonstrated that LHR1/PUT3 has a pivotal role in stabilizing the mRNAs of several important heat stress responsive genes under high temperature. In this short communication, we discuss about a putative pathway for modulating the PUT3 transport activity and the significance of evolutionary variations in PUT3 in Arabidopsis...
April 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447829/attributes-of-conscientiousness-throughout-the-animal-kingdom-an-empirical-and-evolutionary-overview
#9
Mikel M Delgado, Frank J Sulloway
Conscientiousness is a fundamental aspect of human personality, one that is closely linked with various favorable life outcomes. Despite its importance in humans, conscientiousness has received little attention as to how it may have evolved, or whether it provides similar fitness benefits in other animals. To date, research in animal personality has found consistent support for the presence of all major dimensions of human personality in other animals except conscientiousness. In this review, we investigate conscientiousness at the level of traits and facets (clusters of closely related traits)...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447700/evolution-inspired-engineering-of-antibiotic-biosynthesis-enzymes
#10
M Metsä-Ketelä
Streptomyces soil bacteria are competent chemists that are able to produce thousands of chemically complex natural products. Key to the development of this rich source of metabolites appears to be an evolutionary pressure that promotes chemical diversity; new biosynthetic pathways are continuously being formed in these bacteria, which may result in the appearance of a novel bioactive compound that provides significant competitive advantage to the producing organism. In recent years, our work has focused on understanding how minor changes in the biosynthetic enzymes has led to drastically altered catalytic properties...
April 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447371/cooperation-in-microbial-communities-and-their-biotechnological-applications
#11
REVIEW
Matteo Cavaliere, Song Feng, Orkun Soyer, Jose I Jimenez
Microbial communities are increasingly utilised in biotechnology. Efficiency and productivity in many of these applications depends on the presence of cooperative interactions between members of the community. Two key processes underlying these interactions are the production of public goods and metabolic crossfeeding, which can be understood in the general framework of ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) dynamics. In this review we illustrate the relevance of cooperative interactions in microbial biotechnological processes, discuss their mechanistic origins, and analyse their evolutionary resilience...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447337/reconstructing-the-ancestral-vertebrate-brain
#12
REVIEW
Fumiaki Sugahara, Yasunori Murakami, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani
Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain...
April 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447196/the-axon-degeneration-gene-sarm1-is-evolutionarily-distinct-from-other-tir-domain-containing-proteins
#13
Harsha Malapati, Spencer M Millen, William J Buchser
Many forms of neurodegenerative disease are characterized by Wallerian degeneration, an active program of axonal destruction. Recently, the important player which enacts Wallerian degeneration was discovered, the multidomain protein SARM1. Since the SARM1 protein has classically been thought of as an innate immune molecule, its role in Wallerian degeneration has raised questions on the evolutionary forces acting on it. Here, we synthesize a picture of SARM1's evolution through various organisms by examining the molecular and genetic changes of SARM1 and the genes around it...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446899/clonal-spread-of-16s-rrna-methyltransferase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st37-with-high-prevalence-of-esbls-from-companion-animals-in-china
#14
Jing Xia, Liang-Xing Fang, Ke Cheng, Guo-Hao Xu, Xi-Ran Wang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun
We screened 30 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from dogs and cats at a single animal hospital in Guangdong Province, China. Among them, 12 K. pneumoniae strains possessed high-level resistance to amikacin and gentamicin and these were screened for 16S rRNA methyltransferase (16S-RMTase) genes. And then the genes positive isolates were detected for ESBLs (extended spectrum β-lactamases) and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, PCR-based replicon typing and plasmid analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446711/chemical-roots-of-biological-evolution-the-origins-of-life-as-a-process-of-development-of-autonomous-functional-systems
#15
REVIEW
Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo, Carlos Briones, Andrés de la Escosura
In recent years, an extension of the Darwinian framework is being considered for the study of prebiotic chemical evolution, shifting the attention from homogeneous populations of naked molecular species to populations of heterogeneous, compartmentalized and functionally integrated assemblies of molecules. Several implications of this shift of perspective are analysed in this critical review, both in terms of the individual units, which require an adequate characterization as self-maintaining systems with an internal organization, and also in relation to their collective and long-term evolutionary dynamics, based on competition, collaboration and selection processes among those complex individuals...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446696/spiders-in-caves
#16
REVIEW
Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia
World experts of different disciplines, from molecular biology to macro-ecology, recognize the value of cave ecosystems as ideal ecological and evolutionary laboratories. Among other subterranean taxa, spiders stand out as intriguing model organisms for their ecological role of top predators, their unique adaptations to the hypogean medium and their sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance. As the description of the first eyeless spider (Stalita taenaria), an array of papers on subterranean spider biology, ecology and evolution has been published, but a comprehensive review on these topics is still lacking...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446692/linking-species-habitat-and-past-palaeoclimatic-events-to-evolution-of-the-teleost-innate-immune-system
#17
Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Kjetil Lysne Voje, Kjetill Sigurd Jakobsen, Sissel Jentoft
Host-intrinsic factors as well as environmental changes are known to be strong evolutionary drivers defining the genetic foundation of immunity. Using a novel set of teleost genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny, we here investigate the family of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and address the underlying evolutionary processes shaping the diversity of the first-line defence. Our findings reveal remarkable flexibility within the evolutionary design of teleost innate immunity characterized by prominent TLR gene losses and expansions...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446675/comparative-genomics-of-chrysochromulina-ericina-virus-cev-and-other-microalgae-infecting-large-dna-viruses-highlight-their-intricate-evolutionary-relationship-with-the-established-mimiviridae-family
#18
Lucie Gallot-Lavallee, Guillaume Blanc, Jean-Michel Claverie
Chrysochromulina Ericina Virus CeV-01B (CeV) was isolated from Norwegian coastal waters in 1998. Its icosahedral particle is 160 nm in diameter and encloses a 474-kb dsDNA genome. This virus, although infecting a microalgae (the haptophyceae Haptolina ericina, formerly Chrysochromulina ericina), is phylogenetically related to members of the Mimiviridae family, initially established with the acanthamoeba-infecting Mimivirus and Megavirus as prototypes. This family was latter split into two genera (Mimivirus and Cafetariavirus) following the characterization of a virus infecting the heterotrophic stramenopile Cafeteria roenbergensis (CroV)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446636/insights-into-the-evolution-of-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins-from-1000-plant-transcriptomes
#19
Kim L Johnson, Andrew M Cassin, Andrew Lonsdale, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Doug Soltis, Nicholas W Miles, Michael Melkonian, Barbara Melkonian, Michael K Deyholos, James Leebens-Mack, Carl J Rothfels, Dennis W Stevenson, Sean W Graham, Xumin Wang, Shuangxiu Wu, J Chris Pires, Patrick P Edger, Eric J Carpenter, Antony Bacic, Monika Susanne Doblin, Carolyn J Schultz
The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs) and proline-rich proteins (PRPs)...
April 26, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446617/is-embryonic-hypothermia-tolerance-common-in-birds
#20
Jin-Ming Zhao, Zhi-Ming Han, Yue-Hua Sun
Avian incubation temperatures oscillate within narrow limits to ensure proper embryonic development. However, field observations and experimental studies have found that some species can tolerate very low incubation temperatures, either regularly or occasionally. We artificially incubated eggs from five domestic species, which represent a range of egg sizes, to examine whether a diversity of avian species could exhibit an unusual hypothermia tolerance, as observed in the field. We found that eggs of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), pigeon (Columba livia domestica), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) survived the incubation period and hatched after experiencing 10°C hypothermia for 6 h each day...
April 2017: Biology Letters
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