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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927238/factor-v-leiden-is-associated-with-increased-sperm-count
#1
T E van Mens, U N Joensen, Z Bochdanovits, A Takizawa, J Peter, N Jørgensen, P B Szecsi, J C M Meijers, H Weiler, E Rajpert-De Meyts, S Repping, S Middeldorp
STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927001/a-review-and-database-of-snake-venom-proteomes
#2
REVIEW
Theo Tasoulis, Geoffrey K Isbister
Advances in the last decade combining transcriptomics with established proteomics methods have made possible rapid identification and quantification of protein families in snake venoms. Although over 100 studies have been published, the value of this information is increased when it is collated, allowing rapid assimilation and evaluation of evolutionary trends, geographical variation, and possible medical implications. This review brings together all compositional studies of snake venom proteomes published in the last decade...
September 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926993/satellite-dna-an-evolving-topic
#3
REVIEW
Manuel A Garrido-Ramos
Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes...
September 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926160/adult-plasticity-in-african-cichlids-rapid-changes-in-opsin-expression-in-response-to-environmental-light-differences
#4
Sri Pratima Nandamuri, Miranda R Yourick, Karen L Carleton
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to adapt quickly to local environmental conditions and could facilitate adaptive radiations. Cichlids have recently undergone an adaptive radiation in Lake Malawi where they inhabit diverse light environments and tune their visual sensitivity through differences in cone opsin expression. While cichlid opsin expression is known to be plastic over development, whether adults remain plastic is unknown. Adult plasticity in visual tuning could play a role in cichlid radiations by enabling survival in changing environments and facilitating invasion into novel environments...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926156/the-roles-of-plasticity-and-evolutionary-change-in-shaping-gene-expression-variation-in-natural-populations-of-extremophile-fish
#5
Courtney N Passow, Chathurika Henpita, Jennifer H Shaw, Corey R Quackenbush, Wesley C Warren, Manfred Schartl, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Joanna L Kelley, Michael Tobler
The notorious plasticity of gene expression responses and the complexity of environmental gradients complicate the identification of adaptive differences in gene regulation among populations. We combined transcriptome analyses in nature with common garden and exposure experiments to establish cause and effect relationships between the presence of a physiochemical stressor and expression differences, as well as to test how evolutionary change and plasticity interact to shape gene expression variation in natural systems...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926153/comparative-and-population-genomics-landscape-of-phellinus-noxius-a-hypervariable-fungus-causing-root-rot-in-trees
#6
Chia-Lin Chung, Tracy J Lee, Mitsuteru Akiba, Hsin-Han Lee, Tzu-Hao Kuo, Dang Liu, Huei-Mien Ke, Toshiro Yokoi, Marylette B Roa, Meiyeh J Lu, Ya-Yun Chang, Pao-Jen Ann, Jyh-Nong Tsai, Chien-Yu Chen, Shean-Shong Tzean, Yuko Ota, Tsutomu Hattori, Norio Sahashi, Ruey-Fen Liou, Taisei Kikuchi, Isheng J Tsai
The order Hymenochaetales of white rot fungi contain some of the most aggressive wood decayers causing tree deaths around the world. Despite their ecological importance and the impact of diseases they cause, little is known about the evolution and transmission patterns of these pathogens. Here, we sequenced and undertook comparative genomics analyses of Hymenochaetales genomes using brown root rot fungus Phellinus noxius, wood-decomposing fungus Phellinus lamaensis, laminated root rot fungus Phellinus sulphurascens, and trunk pathogen Porodaedalea pini...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926149/speciation-below-ground-tempo-and-mode-of-diversification-in-a-radiation-of-endogean-ground-beetles
#7
Carmelo Andújar, Sergio Pérez-González, Paula Arribas, Juan P Zaballos, Alfried P Vogler, Ignacio Ribera
Dispersal is a critical factor determining the spatial scale of speciation, which is constrained by the ecological characteristics and distribution of a species' habitat and the intrinsic traits of species. Endogean taxa are strongly affected by the unique qualities of the below-ground environment and its effect on dispersal, and contrasting reports indicate either high dispersal capabilities favoured by small body size and mediated by passive mechanisms, or low dispersal due to restricted movement and confinement inside the soil...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925932/chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-clusterbean-cyamopsis-tetragonoloba-l-genome-structure-and-comparative-analysis
#8
Tanvi Kaila, Pavan K Chaduvla, Hukam C Rawal, Swati Saxena, Anshika Tyagi, S V Amitha Mithra, Amolkumar U Solanke, Pritam Kalia, T R Sharma, N K Singh, Kishor Gaikwad
Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.), also known as guar, belongs to the family Leguminosae, and is an annual herbaceous legume. Guar is the main source of galactomannan for gas mining industries. In the present study, the draft chloroplast genome of clusterbean was generated and compared to some of the previously reported legume chloroplast genomes. The chloroplast genome of clusterbean is 152,530 bp in length, with a quadripartite structure consisting of large single copy (LSC) and small single copy (SSC) of 83,025 bp and 17,879 bp in size, respectively, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,790 bp in size...
September 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#9
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925547/biogeographic-conservation-of-the-cytosine-epigenome-in-the-globally-important-marine-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-trichodesmium
#10
Nathan G Walworth, David A Hutchins, Egor Dolzhenko, Michael D Lee, Feixue Fu, Andrew D Smith, Eric A Webb
Cytosine methylation has been shown to regulate essential cellular processes and impact biological adaptation. Despite its evolutionary importance, only a handful of bacterial, genome-wide cytosine studies have been conducted, with none for marine bacteria. Here, we examine the genome-wide, C(5) -Methyl-cytosine (m5C) methylome and its correlation to global transcription in the marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. We characterize genome-wide methylation and highlight conserved motifs across 3 Trichodesmium isolates and 2 Trichodesmium metagenomes, thereby identifying highly conserved, novel genomic signatures of potential gene regulation in Trichodesmium...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925387/a-vital-sugar-code-for-ricin-toxicity
#11
Jasmin Taubenschmid, Johannes Stadlmann, Markus Jost, Tove Irene Klokk, Cory D Rillahan, Andreas Leibbrandt, Karl Mechtler, James C Paulson, Julian Jude, Johannes Zuber, Kirsten Sandvig, Ulrich Elling, Thorsten Marquardt, Christian Thiel, Christian Koerner, Josef M Penninger
Ricin is one of the most feared bioweapons in the world due to its extreme toxicity and easy access. Since no antidote exists, it is of paramount importance to identify the pathways underlying ricin toxicity. Here, we demonstrate that the Golgi GDP-fucose transporter Slc35c1 and fucosyltransferase Fut9 are key regulators of ricin toxicity. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of fucosylation renders diverse cell types resistant to ricin via deregulated intracellular trafficking. Importantly, cells from a patient with SLC35C1 deficiency are also resistant to ricin...
September 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925070/the-fructan-syndrome-evolutionary-aspects-and-common-themes-among-plants-and-microbes
#12
REVIEW
Maxime Versluys, Onur Kirtel, Ebru Toksoy Öner, Wim Van den Ende
Fructans are multifunctional fructose-based water soluble carbohydrates found in all biological kingdoms but not in animals. Most research has focused on plant- and microbial fructans and has received a growing interest because of their practical applications. Nevertheless, the origin of fructan production, the so-called 'fructan syndrome', is still unknown. Why fructans only occur in a limited number of plant and microbial species remains unclear. In this review, we provide an overview of plant and microbial fructan research with a focus on fructans as an adaptation to the environment and their role in (a)biotic stress tolerance...
September 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924923/plant-insects-and-mites-uptake-double-stranded-rna-upon-its-exogenous-application-on-tomato-leaves
#13
Anupam Gogoi, Nomi Sarmah, Athanasios Kaldis, Dionysios Perdikis, Andreas Voloudakis
Exogenously applied double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules onto tomato leaves, moved rapidly from local to systemic leaves and were uptaken by agricultural pests namely aphids, whiteflies and mites. Four small interfering RNAs, deriving from the applied dsRNA, were molecularly detected in plants, aphids and mites but not in whiteflies. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) acts as the elicitor molecule of the RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi), the endogenous and evolutionary conserved surveillance system present in all eukaryotes...
September 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924718/comprehensive-annotation-and-evolutionary-insights-into-the-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-antigen-receptor-loci
#14
Jolyon Martin, Hannes Ponstingl, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Joy Archer, David Sargan, Allan Bradley
Dogs are an excellent model for human disease. For example, the treatment of canine lymphoma has been predictive of the human response to that treatment. However, an incomplete picture of canine (Canis lupus familiaris) immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR)-or antigen receptor (AR)-gene loci has restricted their utility. This work advances the annotation of the canine AR loci and looks into breed-specific features of the loci. Bioinformatic analysis of unbiased RNA sequence data was used to complete the annotation of the canine AR genes...
September 19, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924510/development-of-est-ssr-markers-for-taxillus-nigrans-loranthaceae-in-southwestern-china-using-next-generation-sequencing
#15
Ning Miao, Lei Zhang, Maoping Li, Liqiang Fan, Kangshan Mao
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We developed transcriptome microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats) for Taxillus nigrans (Loranthaceae) to survey the genetic diversity and population structure of this species. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used Illumina HiSeq data to reconstruct the transcriptome of T. nigrans by de novo assembly and used the transcriptome to develop a set of simple sequence repeat markers. Overall, 40 primer pairs were designed and tested; 19 of them amplified successfully and demonstrated polymorphisms...
August 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924504/the-evolutionary-history-of-plant-t2-s-type-ribonucleases
#16
Karolis Ramanauskas, Boris Igić
A growing number of T2/S-RNases are being discovered in plant genomes. Members of this protein family have a variety of known functions, but the vast majority are still uncharacterized. We present data and analyses of phylogenetic relationships among T2/S-RNases, and pay special attention to the group that contains the female component of the most widespread system of self-incompatibility in flowering plants. The returned emphasis on the initially identified component of this mechanism yields important conjectures about its evolutionary context...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924497/phylogeographic-investigation-and-ecological-niche-modelling-of-the-endemic-frog-species-nanorana-pleskei-revealed-multiple-refugia-in-the-eastern-tibetan-plateau
#17
Bin Wang, Feng Xie, Jiannan Li, Gang Wang, Cheng Li, Jianping Jiang
The largest plateau Tibetan Plateau supplied an excellent opportunity to investigate the influence of the Pleistocene events on the high-elevation species. To test for the alternative hypotheses of Pleistocene glacial refugia, we used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to examine the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei across its known range in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and conducted species distribution modelling (SDM) to explore changes of its distribution range through current and paleo periods...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924495/adaptations-to-different-habitats-in-sexual-and-asexual-populations-of-parasitoid-wasps-a-meta-analysis
#18
Isabelle Amat, Jacques J M van Alphen, Alex Kacelnik, Emmanuel Desouhant, Carlos Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals instead are common in anthropic environments (e...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924037/intrinsically-disordered-sequences-enable-modulation-of-protein-phase-separation-through-distributed-tyrosine-motifs
#19
Yuan Lin, Simon L Currie, Michael Keith Rosen
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) is thought to contribute to establishment of many biomolecular condensates, eukaryotic cell structures that concentrate diverse macromolecules but lack a bounding membrane. RNA granules control RNA metabolism and comprise a large class of condensates that are enriched in RNA-binding proteins and RNA molecules. Many RNA granule proteins are composed of both modular domains and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) having low amino acid sequence complexity. Phase separation of these molecules likely plays an important role in the generation and stability of RNA granules...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923994/the-direct-identification-of-core-collapse-supernova-progenitors
#20
REVIEW
Schuyler D Van Dyk
To place core-collapse supernovae (SNe) in context with the evolution of massive stars, it is necessary to determine their stellar origins. I describe the direct identification of SN progenitors in existing pre-explosion images, particularly those obtained through serendipitous imaging of nearby galaxies by the Hubble Space Telescope I comment on specific cases representing the various core-collapse SN types. Establishing the astrometric coincidence of a SN with its putative progenitor is relatively straightforward...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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