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Khemissa Ghozzi, Marianna Marangi, Roberto Papini, Ibtissem Lahmar, Rafika Challouf, Najoua Houas, Rym Ben Dhiab, Giovanni Normanno, Hamouda Babba, Annunziata Giangaspero
In order to establish seawater contamination by emerging protozoan parasites, we used qPCR to molecularly characterize and evaluate the parasitic burden of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Cyclospora cayetanensis in 1255 wild bivalve mollusks collected along the Tunisian coasts. T. gondii, G. duodenalis and C. cayetanensis were detected in 6.9% (99% CI=1.6-12.2%) pools of Ruditapes decussatus. None of the samples were found positive to Cryptosporidium spp.; 6.6% pools of R. decussatus were positive for T...
February 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Pooja Yadav, Shehla Khalil, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Zeynep Taş Cengiz, Yunus Emre Beyhan, Hasan Yılmaz
The aim of this study is to report seven Cyclospora cayetanensis (C.cayetanensis) cases determined in Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory, Van province, Turkey. In the study native-Lugol, formalin-ethyl acetate and modified acid-fast staining methods were performed to stool samples of the patients sent from outpatient clinics of the hospital. All of the patients infected with C. cayetanensis were older than 15 years. In our cases there were not a history of international travel. Only one of our seven cases was immunosuppressed...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ji-Hun Shin, Sang-Eun Lee, Tong Soo Kim, Da-Won Ma, Jong-Yil Chai, Eun-Hee Shin
This study aimed to develop a multiplex-touchdown PCR method to simultaneously detect 3 species of protozoan parasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis, the major causes of traveler's diarrhea and are resistant to standard antimicrobial treatments. The target genes included the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein for C. parvum, Glutamate dehydrogenase for G. lamblia, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) for C. cayetanensis. The sizes of the amplified fragments were 555, 188, and 400 bps, respectively...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Siddharth Shah, Vaishali Kongre, Varun Kumar, Renu Bharadwaj
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), occurring in almost 90% of AIDS patients in developing countries like India. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of pathogens associated with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and their relation to CD4 counts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five successive HIV-positive patients, 27 with diarrhea (study group) and 18 without diarrhea (control group), were included in the three-month study...
September 27, 2016: Curēus
Fernanda S Nascimento, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Michael J Arrowood, Delynn Moss, Alexandre J da Silva, Eldin Talundzic, Yvonne Qvarnstrom
Illumina library preparation methods for ultra-low input amounts were compared using genomic DNA from two foodborne parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Cyclospora cayetanensis) as examples. The Ovation Ultralow method resulted in libraries with the highest concentration and produced quality sequencing data, even when the input DNA was in the picogram range.
November 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Yaqiong Guo, Dawn M Roellig, Na Li, Kevin Tang, Michael Frace, Ynes Ortega, Michael J Arrowood, Yaoyu Feng, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Lin Wang, Delynn M Moss, Longxian Zhang, Lihua Xiao
Because the lack of typing tools for Cyclospora cayetanensis has hampered outbreak investigations, we sequenced its genome and developed a genotyping tool. We observed 2 to 10 geographically segregated sequence types at each of 5 selected loci. This new tool could be useful for case linkage and infection/contamination source tracking.
August 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mahmoud Agholi, Shahrbanou Naderi Shahabadi, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Gholam Reza Hatam
The genus Sarcocystis is not usually considered as an important enteric pathogen in immune compromised patients. It might be expected that species for which humans are the final host (Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis as well as possibly others) would be encountered increasingly often in immunodeficient persons. This study aimed to address how to detect and differentiate Sarcocystis oocysts and/or sporocysts from enteric protozoans in the diarrheal samples of immunodeficient patients in Shiraz, Iran...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Morgan E Milton, Scott W Nelson
Members of the phylum Apicomplexa are responsible for many devastating diseases including malaria (Plasmodium spp.), toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), babesiosis (Babesia bovis), and cyclosporiasis (Cyclospora cayetanensis). Most Apicomplexans contain a unique and essential organelle called the apicoplast. Derived from an ancient chloroplast, the apicoplast replicates and maintains a 35 kilobase (kb) circular genome. Due to its essential nature within the parasite, drugs targeted to proteins involved in DNA replication and repair of the apicoplast should be potent and specific...
August 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Judit Plutzer, Panagiotis Karanis
Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
Shiyou Liu, Lin Wang, Huajun Zheng, Zhixiao Xu, Dawn M Roellig, Na Li, Michael A Frace, Kevin Tang, Michael J Arrowood, Delynn M Moss, Longxian Zhang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an apicomplexan that causes diarrhea in humans. The investigation of foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis has been hampered by a lack of genetic data and poor understanding of pathogen biology. In this study we sequenced the genome of C. cayetanensis and inferred its metabolism and invasion components based on comparative genomic analysis. RESULTS: The genome organization, metabolic capabilities and potential invasion mechanism of C...
2016: BMC Genomics
M Mellado-Ferreiro, V Jarne-Betrán, M Arteaga-Mazuelas, M L Abínzano-Guillén
Chronic diarrhea caused by infection in immunocompetent patients is an infrequent condition in developed countries, although certain pathogens,generally parasites (Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli,Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Strongyloides, Ameba,Trichuris and Schistosoma) and some bacteria (Aeromonas,Plesiomonas, Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella or Mycobacterium tuberculosis)can cause persistent diarrhea.We present the case of a patient who showed Salmonella typhimurium in his stool culture and recovered following treatment with levofloxacin for 7 days...
2016: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Maysa A I Awadallah, Lobna M A Salem
AIM: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection...
August 2015: Veterinary World
Eman M Hussein, Amal A El-Moamly, Moushira A Mahmoud, Nayera S Ateek
A variable clinical picture of cyclosporiasis including gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptomatic or asymptomatic beside extraintestinal consequences suggests a possibility of heterogenicity of Cyclospora cayetanensis. The present work aimed to explore the possibility of genetic variation of C. cayetanensis using high-resolution melting (HRM) curve of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 18S rRNA genes. DNAs extracted from the stool samples of 70 cyclosporiasis patients were amplified and scanned by PCR/HRM curve...
July 2016: Parasitology Research
Dinesh Bhandari, Sarmila Tandukar, Hiramani Parajuli, Pratigya Thapa, Prakash Chaudhary, Dhiraj Shrestha, Pradeep K Shah, Jatan B Sherchan, Jeevan B Sherchand
BACKGROUND: The intestinal coccidian protozoa Cyclospora cayetanensis has emerged as an important cause of parasitic diarrhea among children living in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora among the school children of Kathmandu with reference to various associated risk factors. METHODOLOGY: A total of five hundred and seven stool samples from students between the age of 3-14 years, studying in 13 different schools in Kathmandu were collected during the study period (May-November, 2014) and processed at the Public Health Research Laboratory, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal...
December 2015: Tropical Medicine and Health
Rina Girard Kaminsky, Javier Lagos, Gabriela Raudales Santos, Samuel Urrutia
BACKGROUND: Document seasonality occurrence and epidemiologic characteristics of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections during a 10-year period from patients consulting at the University Hospital, Honduras. METHODS: Retrospective non interventional hospital-based study analyzed laboratory results from the period 2002 to 2011 of fresh and Ziehl-Nielsen carbolfuchsin stained routine stool samples received for parasitologic examination. Sporadically a sample with numerous oocysts was allowed to sporulate in 2...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
U Ghoshal, A Dey, P Ranjan, S Khanduja, V Agarwal, U C Ghoshal
PURPOSE: Enteric parasitic infestation is a major public health problem in developing countries. Parasites such as Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora spp., Cystoisospora spp. and Microsporidia may cause severe diarrhoea among immunocompromised patients. There is scanty data on their frequency among immunocompetent patients. Accordingly, we studied the frequency of enteric opportunistic parasites among immunocompetent patients with diarrhoea from northern India; we also performed genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidia and Microsporidia among them...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Hui-Lan Wu
Wenyonella philiplevinei is one of the pathogens causing coccidiasis in ducks. The prevalence of W. philiplevinei infection in Linwu ducks (a Chinese local domesticated duck) was investigated in Linwu county (an area of Hunan province) of Hunan province, subtropical China from March 2014 to February 2015. Two hundred fifty-eight of 1800 (14.3 %) Linwu ducks were found to be infected with W. philiplevinei. To identify the species identity of the collected samples, a portion of the 18S rDNA was amplified from W...
March 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Brisa Maria Fregonesi, Meire Nikaido Suzuki, Carolina Sampaio Machado, Karina Aparecida de Abreu Tonani, Ana Paula Morais Fernandes, Aline Aparecida Monroe, Maria Célia Cervi, Susana Segura-Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Emergent and re-emergent waterborne protozoans have become a worldwide public health problem, especially among vulnerable groups. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 17 HIV-infected children and their families. RESULTS: A high (76.5%) percentage of parasite-infected children was observed, even among children with CD4+ T-cell counts of >200 cells/mm3. Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora spp. were observed in 41...
November 2015: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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