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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847105/reduction-of-cryptosporidium-giardia-and-fecal-indicators-by-bardenpho-wastewater-treatment
#1
Bradley William Schmitz, Hitoha Moriyama, Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima, Samendra Sherchan, Charles P Gerba, Ian L Pepper
Increased demand for water reuse and reclamation accentuates the importance for optimal wastewater treatment to limit protozoa in effluents. Two wastewater treatment plants utilizing advanced Bardenpho were investigated over a 12-month period to determine the incidence and reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and fecal indicators. Results were compared to conventional facilities that previously operated in the same geographical area. Protozoa (oo)cysts were concentrated using an electronegative filter and subsequently detected by fluorescent microscopy and/or PCR methods...
May 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643938/a-hybrid-reference-guided-de-novo-assembly-approach-for-generating-cyclospora-mitochondrion-genomes
#2
G R Gopinath, H N Cinar, H R Murphy, M Durigan, M Almeria, B D Tall, A J DaSilva
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with large and complex foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Linking samples from cyclosporiasis patients during foodborne outbreaks with suspected contaminated food sources, using conventional epidemiological methods, has been a persistent challenge. To address this issue, development of new methods based on potential genomically-derived markers for strain-level identification has been a priority for the food safety research community. The absence of reference genomes to identify nucleotide and structural variants with a high degree of confidence has limited the application of using sequencing data for source tracking during outbreak investigations...
2018: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604491/uv-c-inactivation-of-foodborne-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-and-surrogates-on-fresh-and-frozen-berries
#3
Sophie Butot, Frédérique Cantergiani, Mireille Moser, Julie Jean, Anthony Lima, Lise Michot, Thierry Putallaz, Thomas Stroheker, Sophie Zuber
Outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with berries often involve contamination with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus but also bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and parasites such as Cyclospora caytanensis. We evaluated the applicability of UV-C to the inactivation of pathogens on strawberries, raspberries and blueberries. Our three-step approach consisted of assessing the chemical safety of UV-C-irradiated berries, evaluating the sensory quality after UV-C treatment and finally studying the inactivation of the target microorganisms...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587846/evaluation-of-two-dna-extraction-methods-for-the-pcr-based-detection-of-eukaryotic-enteric-pathogens-in-fecal-samples
#4
Estelle Menu, Charles Mary, Isabelle Toga, Didier Raoult, Stéphane Ranque, Fadi Bittar
OBJECTIVE: Efficient and easy-to-use DNA extraction and purification methods are critical in implementing PCR-based diagnosis of pathogens. In order to optimize the routine clinical laboratory diagnosis of eukaryotic enteric pathogens, we compare, via quantitative PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values, the efficiency of two DNA extraction kits: the semi-automated EZ1® (Qiagen) and the manual QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), on six protozoa: Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis and Cystoisospora belli and one microsporidia: Enterocytozoon bieneusi...
March 27, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565841/preliminary-incidence-and-trends-of-infections-with-pathogens-transmitted-commonly-through-food-foodborne-diseases-active-surveillance-network-10-u-s-sites-2006-2017
#5
Ellyn P Marder Mph, Patricia M Griffin, Paul R Cieslak, John Dunn, Sharon Hurd, Rachel Jervis, Sarah Lathrop, Alison Muse, Patricia Ryan, Kirk Smith, Melissa Tobin-D'Angelo, Duc J Vugia, Kristin G Holt, Beverly J Wolpert, Robert Tauxe, Aimee L Geissler
Despite ongoing food safety measures in the United States, foodborne illness continues to be a substantial health burden. The 10 U.S. sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)* monitor cases of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food. This report summarizes preliminary 2017 data and describes changes in incidence since 2006. In 2017, FoodNet reported 24,484 infections, 5,677 hospitalizations, and 122 deaths. Compared with 2014-2016, the 2017 incidence of infections with Campylobacter, Listeria, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Yersinia, Vibrio, and Cyclospora increased...
March 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457202/three-new-coccidians-cyclospora-eimeria-from-eastern-moles-scalopus-aquaticus-linnaeus-mammalia-soricomorpha-talpidae-from-arkansas-usa
#6
Chris T McAllister, Dagmara Motriuk-Smith, Catherine M Kerr
Three new species of coccidians (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from eastern moles, Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus) from Arkansas. Oöcysts of Cyclospora duszynskii n. sp. are subspheroidal with a smooth bi-layered wall, measure 11.4 × 10.0 µm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a single polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal and measure 7.2 × 5.4 µm, L/W 1.3; an indistinct Stieda body is present, but the sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are absent and the sporocyst residuum is composed of medium to large granules of different sizes along the edge of the sporocyst...
March 2018: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374385/cyclospora-cayetanensis-infections-among-diarrheal-outpatients-in-shanghai-a-retrospective-case-study
#7
Yanyan Jiang, Zhongying Yuan, Guoqing Zang, Dan Li, Ying Wang, Yi Zhang, Hua Liu, Jianping Cao, Yujuan Shen
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a foodborne and waterborne pathogen that causes endemic and epidemic human diarrhea worldwide. A few epidemiological studies regarding C. cayetanensis infections in China have been conducted. During 2013, a total of 291 stool specimens were collected from patients with diarrhea at a hospital in urban Shanghai. C. cayetanensis was not detected in any of the stool specimens by traditional microscopy, whereas five stool specimens (1.72%, 5/291) were positive by PCR. These positive cases confirmed by molecular technology were all in the adult group (mean age 27...
February 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274312/population-genetic-characterization-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-from-discrete-geographical-regions
#8
Yaqiong Guo, Na Li, Ynes R Ortega, Longxian Zhang, Dawn M Roellig, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging pathogen that is endemic in developing countries and responsible for many large foodborne cyclosporiasis outbreaks in North America since 1990s. Because of the lack of typing targets, the genetic diversity and population genetics of C. cayetanensis have not been investigated. In this study, we undertook a population genetic analysis of multilocus sequence typing data we recently collected from 64 C. cayetanensis specimens. Despite the extensive genetic heterogeneity in the overall C...
January 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234679/detection-of-cryptosporidium-and-cyclospora-oocysts-from-environmental-water-for-drinking-and-recreational-activities-in-sarawak-malaysia
#9
Lesley Maurice Bilung, Ahmad Syatir Tahar, Nur Emyliana Yunos, Kasing Apun, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Elexson Nillian, Hashimatul Fatma Hashim
Cryptosporidiosis and cyclosporiasis are caused by waterborne coccidian protozoan parasites of the genera Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora, respectively. This study was conducted to detect Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora oocysts from environmental water abstracted by drinking water treatment plants and recreational activities in Sarawak, Malaysia. Water samples (12 each) were collected from Sungai Sarawak Kanan in Bau and Sungai Sarawak Kiri in Batu Kitang, respectively. In addition, 6 water samples each were collected from Ranchan Recreational Park and UNIMAS Lake at Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113617/molecular-detection-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-in-human-stool-specimens-using-unex-based-dna-extraction-and-real-time-pcr
#10
Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Theresa Benedict, Paula L Marcet, Ryan E Wiegand, Barbara L Herwaldt, Alexandre J da Silva
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with diarrheal illness. In the USA, foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been documented almost every year since the mid-1990s. The typical approach used to identify this parasite in human stools is an examination of acid-fast-stained smears under bright-field microscopy. UV fluorescence microscopy of wet mounts is more sensitive and specific than acid-fast staining but requires a fluorescence microscope with a special filter not commonly available in diagnostic laboratories...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103267/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-environmental-water-contamination-in-a-rural-village-of-northern-lao-pdr
#11
Alexis Ribas, Chloé Jollivet, Serge Morand, Boupha Thongmalayvong, Silaphet Somphavong, Chern-Chiang Siew, Pei-Jun Ting, Saipin Suputtamongkol, Viengsaene Saensombath, Surapol Sanguankiat, Boon-Huan Tan, Phimpha Paboriboune, Kongsap Akkhavong, Kittipong Chaisiri
A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983698/pathogenic-characteristics-of-a-novel-intranuclear-coccidia-in-japanese-black-calves-and-its-genetic-identification-as-eimeria-subspherica
#12
Terunori Koreeda, Tomo Kawakami, Ayako Okada, Yoshimasa Hirashima, Naoto Imai, Kazumi Sasai, Shogo Tanaka, Makoto Matsubayashi, Tomoyuki Shibahara
Bovine intranuclear coccidiosis is caused by the protozoans Eimeria alabamensis and Cyclospora spp. Here, we characterized the disease and genetically identified the causative species in Japanese black calves with chronic and refractory watery diarrhea. Histologic examinations revealed atrophy of the jejunal villi and numerous parasites in the nucleus of epithelial cells in the jejunum. Based on molecular analyses using 18S ribosomal RNA gene-specific primers that we designed, the parasites were found to be formed in the same cluster as Eimeria subspherica in the phylogenetic tree, which was separated from those of other related Eimeria spp...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969118/spectrum-of-parasitic-infections-in-patients-with-diarrhoea-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-western-rajasthan-india
#13
Kumar Saurabh, Vijaya Lakshmi Nag, Saroj Dash, Anand Kumar Maurya, Vivek Hada, Richa Agrawal, Himanshu Narula, Anuradha Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Owing to the poor socioeconomic conditions and lack of sanitary hygiene, a large number of population in developing countries remain under constant threat of different parasitic infections causing severe morbidity and mortality. Enough measures to prevent and reduce the disease burden are still to be undertaken. AIM: Aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of parasitic infections in patients with complaints of diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal symptoms attending a tertiary care hospital in Western Rajasthan, India...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941898/interlaboratory-validation-of-an-improved-method-for-detection-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-in-produce-using-a-real-time-pcr-assay
#14
Helen R Murphy, Hediye Nese Cinar, Gopal Gopinath, Kathy E Noe, Lacresha D Chatman, Nancy E Miranda, June H Wetherington, Jason Neal-McKinney, Gabrielle S Pires, Elizabeth Sachs, Kristopher J Stanya, Cynthia L Johnson, Fernanda S Nascimento, Monica Santin, Aleksey Molokin, Mansour Samadpour, Harish Janagama, Amy Kahler, Candace Miller, Alexandre J da Silva
A collaborative validation study was performed to evaluate the performance of a new U.S. Food and Drug Administration method developed for detection of the protozoan parasite, Cyclospora cayetanensis, on cilantro and raspberries. The method includes a sample preparation step in which oocysts are recovered from produce using an enhanced produce washing solution containing 0.1% Alconox and a commercially available method to disrupt the C. cayetanensis oocysts and extract DNA. A real-time PCR assay targeting the C...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882168/detection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-and-cyclospora-cayetanensis-infections-among-people-living-in-a-slum-area-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#15
Balkrishna Bhattachan, Jeevan Bahadhur Sherchand, Sarmila Tandukar, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Leesa Gauchan, Ganesh Rai
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. RESULTS: Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley...
September 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720110/molecular-characterisation-of-protist-parasites-in-human-habituated-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-humans-and-livestock-from-bwindi-impenetrable-national-park-uganda
#16
Matthew J Nolan, Melisa Unger, Yuen-Ting Yeap, Emma Rogers, Ilary Millet, Kimberley Harman, Mark Fox, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Damer P Blake
BACKGROUND: Over 60 % of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, and there is growing evidence of the zooanthroponotic transmission of diseases from humans to livestock and wildlife species, with major implications for public health, economics, and conservation. Zooanthroponoses are of relevance to critically endangered species; amongst these is the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Uganda. Here, we assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, and Entamoeba infecting mountain gorillas in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda, using molecular methods...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697813/multilocus-sequence-typing-and-clonal-population-genetic-structure-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-in-humans
#17
Junqiang Li, Yankai Chang, K E Shi, Rongjun Wang, Kanda Fu, Shan Li, Jinling Xu, Liting Jia, Zhenxin Guo, Longxian Zhang
To investigate the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis in a longitudinal study and to conduct a population genetic analysis, fecal specimens from 6579 patients were collected during the cyclosporiasis - prevalent seasons in two urban areas of central China in 2011-2015. The overall incidence of C. cayetanensis infection was 1·2% (76/6579): 1·6% (50/3173) in Zhengzhou and 0·8% (26/3406) in Kaifeng (P 0·05). All the isolates clustered in the C. cayetanensis clade based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682780/intestinal-coccidian-parasites-as-an-underestimated-cause-of-travellers-diarrhoea-in-polish-immunocompetent-patients
#18
Matylda Kłudkowska, Łukasz Pielok, Krystyna Frąckowiak, Małgorzata Paul
Intestinal coccidian parasites are intracellular protozoa most frequently transmitted during food-borne and water-borne infections. This group of parasites is responsible for acute diarrhoeal illnesses especially among immunocompromised patients. However, they are more frequently detected in immunocompetent individuals including travellers, and they should also be considered as important etiologic factors of travellers' diarrhoea. We examined 221 immunocompetent patients hospitalized due to acute or chronic diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal symptoms after returning from international journeys to hot climates...
September 26, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682770/the-prevalence-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-turkish-patients-infected-with-hiv-1
#19
Hayriye Kirkoyun Uysal, Gokhan Tolga Adas, Kevser Atalik, Semih Altiparmak, Ozer Akgul, Suat Saribas, Mert Gurcan, Pelin Yuksel, Taner Yildirmak, Bekir Kocazeybek, Tevhide Ziver, Yasar Ali Oner
Opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis and cyclosporiasis are commonly encountered in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We investigated the existence of opportunistic protozoans that significantly affect the quality of life in HIV-1 infected patients using conventional and molecular methods. The study group comprised 115 HIV-1 positive patients. In the identification of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium, the formol-ether precipitation method was used and smears were evaluated in optical microscope by staining modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)...
September 26, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648295/detection-and-prevalence-of-protozoan-parasites-in-ready-to-eat-packaged-salads-on-sale-in-italy
#20
Tiziana Caradonna, Marianna Marangi, Federica Del Chierico, Nicola Ferrari, Sofia Reddel, Giorgia Bracaglia, Giovanni Normanno, Lorenza Putignani, Annunziata Giangaspero
To investigate the prevalence of protozoan contamination by Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Cyclospora cayetanensis, in 'ready to eat' (RTE) salads on sale in Italy, 648 packages were purchased from industrial and local brands. Nine individual packages from each brand were collected per month, pooled and subjected to microscopy and molecular analyses. Microscopic examination of 864 slides detected Cryptosporidium spp. but also Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis. Molecular tools identified G...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
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