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Rubel Chakravarty, Sudipta Chakraborty, Ashutosh Dash
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has transformed diagnostic nuclear medicine and become an essential strategy in cancer management. With the expected growth of this molecular imaging modality, there is a recognized need for new PET probes to address the clinical challenges in the early diagnosis and staging of various types of cancers. In this endeavor, the prospect of using 64Cu in the form of simple Cu2+ ions as PET probe is not only a cost-effective proposition, but also seems poised to broaden the palette of molecular imaging probes in the foreseeable future...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
W V Vogel, M G E H Lam, F A Pameijer, U A van der Heide, J B van de Kamer, M E Philippens, M van Vulpen, M Verheij
AIMS: Functional imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and multiparametric magnetic resonance (mpMR) is increasingly applied for radiotherapy purposes. However, evidence and experience are still limited, and this may lead to clinically relevant differences in accessibility, interpretation and decision making. We investigated the current patterns of care in functional imaging for radiotherapy in the Netherlands in a care evaluation study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The availability of functional imaging in radiotherapy centres in the Netherlands was evaluated; features available in >80% of academic and >80% of non-academic centres were considered standard of care...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
W F Hartsell, D Godes, T D Ketch, J Caron, J M Metz, M P Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Ram Prasad, Santosh K Katiyar
Honokiol (C18H18O2) is a biphenolic natural product isolated from the bark and leaves of Magnolia plant spp. During the last decade or more, honokiol has been extensively studied for its beneficial effect against several diseases. Investigations have demonstrated that honokiol possesses anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic as well as inhibitory effect on malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas in vitro and in vivo animal models without any appreciable toxicity. Honokiol affects multiple signaling pathways, molecular and cellular targets including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), STAT3, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cell survival signaling, cell cycle, cyclooxygenase and other inflammatory mediators, etc...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jan Hrabeta, Tomas Eckschlager, Marie Stiborova, Zbynek Heger, Sona Krizkova, Vojtech Adam
Zinc ions are essential cofactors of a wide range of enzymes, transcription factors, and other regulatory proteins. Moreover, zinc is also involved in cellular signaling and enzymes inhibition. Zinc dysregulation, deficiency, over-supply, and imbalance in zinc ion transporters regulation are connected with various diseases including cancer. A zinc ion pool is maintained by two types of proteins: (i) zinc-binding proteins, which act as a buffer and intracellular donors of zinc and (ii) zinc transporters responsible for zinc fluxes into/from cells and organelles...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Vincent Sibaud, Nicole R Lebœuf, Henri Roche, Viswanath R Belum, Laurence Gladieff, Marion Deslandres, Marion Montastruc, Audrey Eche, Emmanuelle Vigarios, Florence Dalenc, Mario E Lacouture
Taxanes (docetaxel and paclitaxel) are among the most commonly prescribed anticancer drugs approved for the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced breast, non-small cell lung, prostate, gastric, head and neck, and ovarian cancers, as well as in the adjuvant setting for operable node-positive breast cancers. Although the true incidence of dermatological adverse events (AEs) in patients receiving taxanes is not known, and has never been prospectively analysed, they clearly represent one of the major AEs associated with these agents...
August 22, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Chiranjib Chakraborty, Kok-Yong Chin, Srijit Das
Over the last few years, microRNAs (miRNA)-controlled cancer stem cells have drawn enormous attention. Cancer stem cells are a small population of tumor cells that possess the stem cell property of self-renewal. Recent data shows that miRNA regulates this small population of stem cells. In the present review, we explained different characteristics of cancer stem cells as well as miRNA regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in cancer stem cells. We also described the migration and tumor formation. Finally, we described the different miRNAs that regulate various types of cancer stem cells, such as prostate cancer stem cells, head and neck cancer stem cells, breast cancer stem cells, colorectal cancer stem cells, lung cancer stem cells, gastric cancer stem cells, pancreatic cancer stem cells, etc...
July 28, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Li-Sheng Wu, Jia-Yi Qian, Minghai Wang, Haiwei Yang
The Wilms tumor suppressor, WT1 was first identified due to its essential role in the normal development of the human genitourinary system. Wilms tumor 1 associated protein (WTAP) was subsequently revealed to interact with WT1 using yeast two-hybrid screening. The present study identified 44 complete WTAP genes in the genomes of vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. The vertebrate WTAP proteins clustered into the primate, rodent and teleost lineages using phylogenetic tree analysis. From 1,347 available SNPs in the human WTAP gene, 19 were identified to cause missense mutations...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
C Riola-Parada, L García-Cañamaque, V Pérez-Dueñas, M Garcerant-Tafur, J L Carreras-Delgado
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of simultaneous PET/MRI in oncology compared with that of PET/CT, based upon the available evidence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search was performed in the Medline and Embase databases to identify original clinical articles published up to 21 January 2016, in order to compare simultaneous PET/MRI and PET/CT in oncology patients. RESULTS: A total of 57 articles were obtained that included various diseases: head and neck cancer (5), lung cancer and lung nodules (13), colorectal cancer (1), liver lesions (2), abdominal incidentalomas (1), neuroendocrine tumours (2), thyroid carcinoma (2), breast cancer (3), gynaecological cancer (2), prostate cancer (4), lymphoma (2), multiple myeloma (1), bone metastases (3), intracranial tumours (2), paediatric oncology (1) and various tumours (13)...
September 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Vivek Verma
Curcumin is widely reported to have remarkable medicinal - and antineoplastic - properties. This review details curcumin's relationship with radiotherapy (RT), principally as a radiosensitizer for various malignancies and a radioprotector for normal tissues. First, examples of radiosensitization are provided for various cancers: Pediatric, lymphoma, sarcoma, prostate, gynecologic, pancreas, liver, colorectal, breast, lung, head/neck, and glioma. It is not the purpose of this article to comprehensively review all radiosensitization data; however, high-quality studies are discussed in relationship to currently-controversial RT questions for many cancers, and thus the importance of developing a natural radiosensitizer...
June 10, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
Lysandra Voltaggio, Ashley Cimino-Mathews, Justin A Bishop, Pedram Argani, Jonathan D Cuda, Jonathan I Epstein, Ralph H Hruban, George J Netto, Mark H Stoler, Janis M Taube, Russell Vang, William H Westra, Elizabeth A Montgomery
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE In this report, a team of surgical pathologists has provided a review of intraepithelial neoplasia in a host of (but not all) anatomic sites of interest to colleagues in various medical specialties, namely, uterine cervix, ovary, breast, lung, head and neck, skin, prostate, bladder, pancreas, and esophagus. There is more experience with more readily accessible sites (such as the uterine cervix and skin) than with other anatomic sites, and the lack of uniform terminology, together with divergent biology in various sites, makes it difficult to paint a unifying, relevant portrait...
September 2016: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Kelly M Kenzik, Erin E Kent, Michelle Y Martin, Smita Bhatia, Maria Pisu
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify chronic condition clusters at pre- and post-cancer diagnosis, evaluate predictors of developing clusters post-cancer, and examine the impact on functional impairment among older cancer survivors. METHODS: We identified 5991 survivors age 65 and older of prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, bladder, kidney, head and neck, and gynecologic cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare Health Outcomes Survey resource...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Gita Suneja, Chun Chieh Lin, Edgar P Simard, Xuesong Han, Eric A Engels, Ahmedin Jemal
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are less likely to receive cancer treatment compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. However, to the authors' knowledge, the impact of insurance status and comorbidities is unknown. METHODS: Data from the National Cancer Data Base were used to study nonelderly adults diagnosed with several common cancers from 2003 to 2011. Cancer treatment was defined as chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, or any combination during the first course of treatment...
August 1, 2016: Cancer
Steven C Moore, I-Min Lee, Elisabete Weiderpass, Peter T Campbell, Joshua N Sampson, Cari M Kitahara, Sarah K Keadle, Hannah Arem, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, Patricia Hartge, Hans-Olov Adami, Cindy K Blair, Kristin B Borch, Eric Boyd, David P Check, Agnès Fournier, Neal D Freedman, Marc Gunter, Mattias Johannson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Martha S Linet, Nicola Orsini, Yikyung Park, Elio Riboli, Kim Robien, Catherine Schairer, Howard Sesso, Michael Spriggs, Roy Van Dusen, Alicja Wolk, Charles E Matthews, Alpa V Patel
IMPORTANCE: Leisure-time physical activity has been associated with lower risk of heart-disease and all-cause mortality, but its association with risk of cancer is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of common types of cancer and whether associations vary by body size and/or smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We pooled data from 12 prospective US and European cohorts with self-reported physical activity (baseline, 1987-2004)...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Chi-Lu Chiang, Yu-Wen Hu, Chieh-Hung Wu, Yung-Tai Chen, Chia-Jen Liu, Yung-Hung Luo, Yuh-Min Chen, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Kang-Cheng Su, Kun-Ta Chou
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are liable to develop significant comorbidities, including lung cancer. Whether they are at a higher risk for cancer of other types remains debatable, especially for Asians. We studied the risk of incident cancer in COPD patients using a nationwide representative database, the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. METHODS: From 1995 to 2008, 50,875 COPD patients who were free of antecedent malignancy were identified and followed up to development of malignancy, death or end of 2008, whichever came first...
May 6, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Ryan Gentzler, Richard Hall, Paul R Kunk, Elizabeth Gaughan, Patrick Dillon, Craig L Slingluff, Osama E Rahma
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been identified as breakthrough treatment in melanoma given its dramatic response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. This is likely to extend to many other cancers as hundreds of clinical trials are being conducted or proposed using this exciting modality of therapy in a variety of malignancies. While immune checkpoint inhibitors have been extensively studied in melanoma and more recently in lung cancer, little is known regarding immune checkpoint blockade in other cancers. This review will focus on the tumor immune microenvironment, the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 and the effect of immune modulation using PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors in patients with head and neck, prostate, urothelial, renal, breast, gastrointestinal and lung cancers...
May 2016: Immunotherapy
Christina Bæksted, Aase Nissen, Helle Pappot, Pernille Envold Bidstrup, Sandra A Mitchell, Ethan Basch, Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton, Christoffer Johansen
CONTEXT: The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) is the basis for standardized clinician-based grading and reporting of adverse events in cancer clinical trials. The U.S. National Cancer Institute has developed the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the CTCAE (PRO-CTCAE) to incorporate patient self-reporting of symptomatic adverse events. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to translate and linguistically validate a Danish language version of PRO-CTCAE...
August 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
José Manuel Ordóñez-Mena, Ben Schöttker, Ute Mons, Mazda Jenab, Heinz Freisling, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Mark G O'Doherty, Angela Scott, Frank Kee, Bruno H Stricker, Albert Hofman, Catherine E de Keyser, Rikje Ruiter, Stefan Söderberg, Pekka Jousilahti, Kari Kuulasmaa, Neal D Freedman, Tom Wilsgaard, Lisette Cpgm de Groot, Ellen Kampman, Niclas Håkansson, Nicola Orsini, Alicja Wolk, Lena Maria Nilsson, Anne Tjønneland, Andrzej Pająk, Sofia Malyutina, Růžena Kubínová, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Martin Bobak, Michail Katsoulis, Philippos Orfanos, Paolo Boffetta, Antonia Trichopoulou, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the most important individual risk factor for many cancer sites but its association with breast and prostate cancer is not entirely clear. Rate advancement periods (RAPs) may enhance communication of smoking related risk to the general population. Thus, we estimated RAPs for the association of smoking exposure (smoking status, time since smoking cessation, smoking intensity, and duration) with total and site-specific (lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, gastric, head and neck, and pancreatic) cancer incidence and mortality...
April 5, 2016: BMC Medicine
A Simon Pickard, Ruixuan Jiang, Hsiang-Wen Lin, Sarah Rosenbloom, David Cella
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQL) burden across different types of advanced cancer with the use of 2 widely used patient-reported outcome measures, the generic EQ-5D and the cancer-specific Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). METHODS: Patients with advanced cancer of the bladder, brain, breast, colon/rectum, head/neck, hepatobiliary tract/pancreas, kidney, lung, lymphoma, ovary, or prostate completed the EQ-5D and FACT-G...
April 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Jackson M Zifodya, Cameron H C Challens, Wen-Long Hsieh
When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw...
June 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
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