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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880359/impact-of-volatile-anesthetic-agents-on-early-clinical-outcomes-in-liver-transplantation
#1
R S Mangus, S B Kinsella, D T Farar, J A Fridell, L T Woolf, C A Kubal
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the ability of inhaled anesthetic agents to ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in liver transplantation (LT). This study compares inhaled anesthetics in early liver allograft IRI. LT recipient and organ donor data were extracted retrospectively for all LTs at a single center between 2001 and 2015. METHODS: LT recipient and organ donor data were extracted retrospectively for all LTs at a single center between 2001 and 2015...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764370/-tuberculosis-in-advanced-hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-expression-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-its-downstream-targets
#2
Sheetal Verma, Peicheng Du, Damalie Nakanjako, Sabine Hermans, Jessica Briggs, Lydia Nakiyingi, Jerrold J Ellner, Yukari C Manabe, Padmini Salgame
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB in HIV remains challenging particularly when HIV infection is advanced. Several gene signatures and serum protein biomarkers have been identified that distinguish active TB from latent infection. Our study was designed to assess if gene expression signatures and cytokine levels would distinguish active TB in advanced HIV. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of whole blood RNA-Seq and plasma cytokine/chemokine analysis in HIV-infected with CD4+ T cell count of ≤ 100 cells/μl, with and without active TB...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695323/evaluation-of-mycobacteria-specific-gamma-interferon-and-antibody-responses-before-and-after-a-single-intradermal-skin-test-in-cattle-naturally-exposed-to-m-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-and-experimentally-infected-with-m-bovis
#3
Virginie Roupie, Elena Alonso-Velasco, Sarah Van Der Heyden, Sébastien Holbert, Lucille Duytschaever, Patricia Berthon, Iris Van Dosselaer, Willem Van Campe, Laurent Mostin, Franck Biet, Stefan Roels, Kris Huygen, David Fretin
This study reports on the diagnostic potential of IFN-γ release assays and serology for Mycobacterium bovis in six naturally M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) exposed bulls of which four were intratracheally infected with a Belgian field strain of M. bovis. Heparinized blood, serum and fecal samples were collected at regular time intervals for mycobacteria-specific IFN-γ release assays, antibody analysis and for Map culture respectively. Single intradermal skin test (SIT) with bovine tuberculin (PPD-B) was performed on day 115 and animals were sacrificed on day 133 after M...
February 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520273/extracellular-vesicles-released-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-neutrophils-promote-macrophage-autophagy-and-decrease-intracellular-mycobacterial-survival
#4
Violeta D Alvarez-Jiménez, Kahiry Leyva-Paredes, Mariano García-Martínez, Luis Vázquez-Flores, Víctor Gabriel García-Paredes, Marcia Campillo-Navarro, Israel Romo-Cruz, Víctor Hugo Rosales-García, Jessica Castañeda-Casimiro, Sirenia González-Pozos, José Manuel Hernández, Carlos Wong-Baeza, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, Vianney Ortiz-Navarrete, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Jeanet Serafín-López, Isabel Wong-Baeza, Rommel Chacón-Salinas, Iris Estrada-García
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In the lungs, macrophages and neutrophils are the first immune cells that have contact with the infecting mycobacteria. Neutrophils are phagocytic cells that kill microorganisms through several mechanisms, which include the lytic enzymes and antimicrobial peptides that are found in their lysosomes, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Neutrophils also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) (100-1,000 nm in diameter) to the extracellular milieu; these EVs consist of a lipid bilayer surrounding a hydrophilic core and participate in intercellular communication...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507866/adalimumab-for-corticosteroid-and-infliximab-resistant-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-tb-hiv-coinfection
#5
Nilar Lwin, Michael Boyle, Joshua S Davis
Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). However, little is known about how to treat IRIS unresponsive to steroids. We report a patient with HIV-TB coinfection who was unresponsive to first prednisolone and then infliximab but whose IRIS resolved with adalimumab.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186408/a-significant-therapeutic-effect-of-immunoglobulins-administered-alone-or-in-combination-with-conventional-chemotherapy-in-experimental-pulmonary-tuberculosis-caused-by-drug-sensitive-or-drug-resistant-strains
#6
Nesty Olivares, Yadira Rodriguez, Zyanya Lucia Zatarain-Barron, Brenda Marquina, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Cristina Parada, Bárbara Moguel, Clara Espitia-Pinzón, Iris Estrada, Rogelio Hernandez-Pando
The recommended chemotherapy for drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB) consists of four different antibiotics administrated for 6 months. This long treatment leads to significant compliance problems and consequently to recrudescence of the disease and to the development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Thus, new alternatives are needed to shorten or simplify the treatment of TB. Antibodies have therapeutic effects in animal models of TB, so their use as adjuvants in drug-sensitive and MDR TB is an interesting alternative...
December 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135655/neutrophil-activation-and-enhanced-release-of-granule-products-in-hiv-tb-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#7
Justine K Nakiwala, Naomi F Walker, Collin R Diedrich, William Worodria, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Robert Colebunders, Luc Kestens, Katalin A Wilkinson, David M Lowe
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains incompletely understood. Neutrophils are implicated in tuberculosis pathology but detailed investigations in TB-IRIS are lacking. We sought to further explore the biology of TB-IRIS and, in particular, the role of neutrophils. SETTING: Two observational, prospective cohort studies in HIV/TB coinfected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART), 1 to analyze gene expression and subsequently 1 to explore neutrophil biology...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928738/age-stratified-t-cell-responses-in-children-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Alexandra Dreesman, Véronique Corbière, Violette Dirix, Kaat Smits, Sara Debulpaep, Iris De Schutter, Myriam Libin, Mahavir Singh, Anne Malfroot, Camille Locht, Françoise Mascart
Tuberculosis (TB) in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB) is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI). Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911364/tb-iris-presenting-with-haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-a-non-hiv-infected-male
#9
Yu-Chao Tseng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Jui-Hung Tsai, Po-Pin Hung, Jann-Tay Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874142/risk-factors-for-increased-immune-reconstitution-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-in-tuberculosis-hiv-infected-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-patients
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tatiana Pereira da Silva, Carmem Beatriz Wagner Giacoia-Gripp, Carolina A Schmaltz, Flavia Marinho Sant'Anna, Maria Helena Saad, Juliana Arruda de Matos, Julio Castro Alves de Lima E Silva, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the restoration of the specific immune response after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy introduction among TB-HIV patients. In this study, we examined the immune response of TB-HIV patients to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens to evaluate the response dynamics to different antigens over time. Moreover, we also evaluated the influence of two different doses of efavirenz and the factors associated with immune reconstitution...
September 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771131/comparative-proteomic-profiles-reveal-characteristic-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteins-induced-by-cholesterol-during-dormancy-conditions
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lazaro Garcia-Morales, Lizbel Leon-Solis, Irma E Monroy-Muñoz, Moises Talavera-Paulin, Jeanet Serafin-López, Iris Estrada-Garcia, Sandra Rivera-Gutierrez, Jorge F Cerna-Cortes, Addy C Helguera-Repetto, Jorge A Gonzalez-Y-Merchand
Cholesterol has been reported to play an important role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and during its dormant state inside the host. We present the determination of proteomic profiles of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the presence of cholesterol as the sole carbon source under exponential growth and in two in vitro dormancy phases (NRP1 and NRP2). Using 2D-PAGE, we detected that M. tuberculosis expressed a high diversity of proteins in both exponential and non-replicative phases. We also found that cholesterol was involved in the overexpression of some proteins related to sulfur metabolism (CysA2), electron transport (FixB), cell wall synthesis (Ald), iron storage (BfrB), protein synthesis (Tig and EF-Tu) and dormancy maintenance (HspX and TB 31...
August 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681821/risk-factors-and-frequency-of-tuberculosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-among-hiv-tuberculosis-co-infected-patients-in-southern-india
#12
Ramachandran Vignesh, Chinnambedu R Swathirajan, Sunil S Solomon, Esaki Muthu Shankar, Kailapuri G Murugavel
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) continues to be a complication in HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing IRIS to identify a possible biomarker to predict or diagnose IRIS in patients initiating HAART. A total of 175 HIV/TB co-infected patients initiating HAART were followed up longitudinally during September 2010 to May 2013 attending a HIV care clinic in Chennai...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652188/streptozocin-induced-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-results-in-decreased-density-of-cgrp-sensory-and-th-sympathetic-nerve-fibers-that-are-positively-correlated-with-bone-loss-at-the-mouse-femoral-neck
#13
Iris A Enríquez-Pérez, Karla E Galindo-Ordoñez, Christian E Pantoja-Ortíz, Arisaí Martínez-Martínez, Rosa I Acosta-González, Enriqueta Muñoz-Islas, Juan M Jiménez-Andrade
Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results in loss of innervation in some tissues including epidermis and retina; however, the effect on bone innervation is unknown. Likewise, T1DM results in pathological bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Thus, we quantified the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+ ) sensory and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+ ) sympathetic nerve fibers and determined the association between the innervation density and microarchitecture of trabecular bone at the mouse femoral neck...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646367/ifn%C3%AE-producing-cd4-t-lymphocytes-the-double-edged-swords-in-tuberculosis
#14
Pawan Kumar
IFNγ-producing CD4(+) T cells (IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells) are the key orchestrators of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Primarily, these cells act by enabling Mtb-infected macrophages to enforce phagosome-lysosome fusion, produce reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs), and activate autophagy pathways. However, TB is a heterogeneous disease and a host of clinical and experimental findings has also implicated IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells in TB pathogenesis. High frequency of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells is the most invariable feature of the active disease...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475709/matrix-degradation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-tuberculosis-and-tuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Naomi F Walker, Katalin A Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Liku B Tezera, Rene Goliath, Janique M Peyper, Rebecca Tadokera, Charles Opondo, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Jon S Friedland, Paul T Elkington
Background: Extensive immunopathology occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. Excessive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is emerging as a key process but has not been systematically studied in HIV-associated TB. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of matrix turnover in HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and -uninfected TB patients and controls, and a prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected TB patients at risk of TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), in Cape Town, South Africa...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367350/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-occurring-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-with-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#16
Jose Iglesias, Kandria Jumil Ledesma, Paul J Couto, Jessie Liu
Tuberculosis (TB) occurring in solid organ transplantation (SOT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality usually due to delays in diagnosis, drug toxicity encountered with antimycobacterial therapy, and drug-drug interactions. TB in SOT patients may mimic other infectious and noninfectious posttransplant complications such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and systemic cytomegalovirus infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a host response resulting in paradoxical worsening of an infectious disease which occurs after the employment of effective therapy and reversal of an immunosuppressed state...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349491/low-incidence-of-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-among-hiv-infected-patients-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-in-gabon-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
S Janssen, K Osbak, R Holman, S Hermans, A Moekotte, M Knap, E Rossatanga, M Massinga-Loembe, A Alabi, A Adegnika, C Meenken, M van Vugt, P G Kremsner, G Meintjes, T van der Poll, M P Grobusch
There is a paucity of data on the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in the Central African region. We followed ART-naive HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in an HIV clinic in Gabon, for 6 months. Among 101 patients, IRIS was diagnosed in five. All IRIS cases were mucocutaneous manifestations. There were no cases of tuberculosis (TB) IRIS, but active TB (n = 20) was associated with developing other forms of IRIS (p = 0.02). Six patients died. The incidence of IRIS is low in Gabon, with mild, mucocutaneous manifestations...
October 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303782/paradoxical-reactions-and-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
L W Preston Church, Amit Chopra, Marc A Judson
In HIV-infected individuals, paradoxical reactions after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with a variety of underlying infections and have been called the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In cases of IRIS associated with tuberculosis (TB), two distinct patterns of disease are recognized: (i) the progression of subclinical TB to clinical disease after the initiation of ART, referred to as unmasking, and (ii) the progression or appearance of new clinical and/or radiographic disease in patients with previously recognized TB after the initiation of ART, the classic or "paradoxical" TB-IRIS...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283189/metal-ions-and-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-as-interacting-effectors-of-%C3%AE-type-plant-phospholipase-d
#19
Lars Dreßler, Florian Michel, Iris Thondorf, Johanna Mansfeld, Ralph Golbik, Renate Ulbrich-Hofmann
Plant phospholipases D (PLD) are typically characterized by a C2 domain with at least two Ca(2+) binding sites. In vitro, the predominantly expressed α-type PLDs need 20-100 mM CaCl2 for optimum activity, whereas the essential activator of β- or γ-type PLDs, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), plays a secondary role. In the present paper, we have studied the interplay between PIP2 and metal ion activation of the well-known α-type PLD from cabbage (PLDα). With mixed micelles containing phosphatidyl-p-nitrophenol as substrate, PIP2-concentrations in the nanomolar range are able to activate the enzyme in addition to the essential Ca(2+) activation...
June 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256380/the-cursed-duet-today-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfection
#20
REVIEW
Simon Tiberi, Anna Cristina C Carvalho, Giorgia Sulis, Devan Vaghela, Adrian Rendon, Fernanda C de Q Mello, Ananna Rahman, Nashaba Matin, Ali Zumla, Emanuele Pontali
The tuberculosis (TB) and HIV syndemic continues to rage and are a major public health concern worldwide. This deadly association raises complexity and represent a significant barrier towards TB elimination. TB continues to be the leading cause of death amongst HIV-infected people. This paper reports the challenges that lay ahead and outlines some of the current and future strategies that may be able to address this co-epidemic efficiently. Improved diagnostics, cheaper and more effective drugs, shorter treatment regimens for both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB are discussed...
March 2017: La Presse Médicale
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