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TB IRIS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681821/risk-factors-and-frequency-of-tuberculosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-among-hiv-tuberculosis-co-infected-patients-in-southern-india
#1
Ramachandran Vignesh, Chinnambedu R Swathirajan, Sunil S Solomon, Esaki Muthu Shankar, Kailapuri G Murugavel
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) continues to be a complication in HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing IRIS to identify a possible biomarker to predict or diagnose IRIS in patients initiating HAART. A total of 175 HIV/TB co-infected patients initiating HAART were followed up longitudinally during September 2010 to May 2013 attending a HIV care clinic in Chennai...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652188/streptozocin-induced-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-results-in-decreased-density-of-cgrp-sensory-and-th-sympathetic-nerve-fibers-that-are-positively-correlated-with-bone-loss-at-the-mouse-femoral-neck
#2
Iris A Enríquez-Pérez, Karla E Galindo-Ordoñez, Christian E Pantoja-Ortíz, Arisaí Martínez-Martínez, Rosa I Acosta-González, Enriqueta Muñoz-Islas, Juan M Jiménez-Andrade
Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results in loss of innervation in some tissues including epidermis and retina; however, the effect on bone innervation is unknown. Likewise, T1DM results in pathological bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Thus, we quantified the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP(+)) sensory and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH(+)) sympathetic nerve fibers and determined the association between the innervation density and microarchitecture of trabecular bone at the mouse femoral neck...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646367/ifn%C3%AE-producing-cd4-t-lymphocytes-the-double-edged-swords-in-tuberculosis
#3
Pawan Kumar
IFNγ-producing CD4(+) T cells (IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells) are the key orchestrators of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Primarily, these cells act by enabling Mtb-infected macrophages to enforce phagosome-lysosome fusion, produce reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs), and activate autophagy pathways. However, TB is a heterogeneous disease and a host of clinical and experimental findings has also implicated IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells in TB pathogenesis. High frequency of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells is the most invariable feature of the active disease...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475709/matrix-degradation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-tuberculosis-and-tuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Naomi F Walker, Katalin A Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Liku B Tezera, Rene Goliath, Janique M Peyper, Rebecca Tadokera, Charles Opondo, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Jon S Friedland, Paul T Elkington
Background.: Extensive immunopathology occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. Excessive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is emerging as a key process but has not been systematically studied in HIV-associated TB. Methods.: We performed a cross-sectional study of matrix turnover in HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and -uninfected TB patients and controls, and a prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected TB patients at risk of TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), in Cape Town, South Africa...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367350/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-occurring-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-with-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#5
Jose Iglesias, Kandria Jumil Ledesma, Paul J Couto, Jessie Liu
Tuberculosis (TB) occurring in solid organ transplantation (SOT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality usually due to delays in diagnosis, drug toxicity encountered with antimycobacterial therapy, and drug-drug interactions. TB in SOT patients may mimic other infectious and noninfectious posttransplant complications such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and systemic cytomegalovirus infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a host response resulting in paradoxical worsening of an infectious disease which occurs after the employment of effective therapy and reversal of an immunosuppressed state...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349491/low-incidence-of-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-among-hiv-infected-patients-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-in-gabon-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
S Janssen, K Osbak, R Holman, S Hermans, A Moekotte, M Knap, E Rossatanga, M Massinga-Loembe, A Alabi, A Adegnika, C Meenken, M van Vugt, P G Kremsner, G Meintjes, T van der Poll, M P Grobusch
There is a paucity of data on the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in the Central African region. We followed ART-naive HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in an HIV clinic in Gabon, for 6 months. Among 101 patients, IRIS was diagnosed in five. All IRIS cases were mucocutaneous manifestations. There were no cases of tuberculosis (TB) IRIS, but active TB (n = 20) was associated with developing other forms of IRIS (p = 0.02). Six patients died. The incidence of IRIS is low in Gabon, with mild, mucocutaneous manifestations...
March 27, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303782/paradoxical-reactions-and-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
L W Preston Church, Amit Chopra, Marc A Judson
In HIV-infected individuals, paradoxical reactions after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with a variety of underlying infections and have been called the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In cases of IRIS associated with tuberculosis (TB), two distinct patterns of disease are recognized: (i) the progression of subclinical TB to clinical disease after the initiation of ART, referred to as unmasking, and (ii) the progression or appearance of new clinical and/or radiographic disease in patients with previously recognized TB after the initiation of ART, the classic or "paradoxical" TB-IRIS...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283189/metal-ions-and-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-as-interacting-effectors-of-%C3%AE-type-plant-phospholipase-d
#8
Lars Dreßler, Florian Michel, Iris Thondorf, Johanna Mansfeld, Ralph Golbik, Renate Ulbrich-Hofmann
Plant phospholipases D (PLD) are typically characterized by a C2 domain with at least two Ca(2+) binding sites. In vitro, the predominantly expressed α-type PLDs need 20-100 mM CaCl2 for optimum activity, whereas the essential activator of β- or γ-type PLDs, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), plays a secondary role. In the present paper, we have studied the interplay between PIP2 and metal ion activation of the well-known α-type PLD from cabbage (PLDα). With mixed micelles containing phosphatidyl-p-nitrophenol as substrate, PIP2-concentrations in the nanomolar range are able to activate the enzyme in addition to the essential Ca(2+) activation...
June 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256380/the-cursed-duet-today-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfection
#9
REVIEW
Simon Tiberi, Anna Cristina C Carvalho, Giorgia Sulis, Devan Vaghela, Adrian Rendon, Fernanda C de Q Mello, Ananna Rahman, Nashaba Matin, Ali Zumla, Emanuele Pontali
The tuberculosis (TB) and HIV syndemic continues to rage and are a major public health concern worldwide. This deadly association raises complexity and represent a significant barrier towards TB elimination. TB continues to be the leading cause of death amongst HIV-infected people. This paper reports the challenges that lay ahead and outlines some of the current and future strategies that may be able to address this co-epidemic efficiently. Improved diagnostics, cheaper and more effective drugs, shorter treatment regimens for both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB are discussed...
March 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209523/tb-iris-proteomic-analysis-of-in-vitro-pbmc-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-response-modulation-by-dexamethasone
#10
Liam Bell, Janique M Peyper, Shaun Garnett, Rabecca Tadokera, Robert Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Jonathan M Blackburn
Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) occurs in 8-54% of South African patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Improved TB-IRIS molecular pathogenesis understanding would enhance risk stratification, diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. We assessed how TB-IRIS status and dexamethasone influence leukocyte proteomic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Patient blood was obtained three weeks post-anti-retroviral therapy initiation...
April 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104935/neurotuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Deepasree Jaganmohan, Sunitha V Chakkalakkoombil, Anjana A Beena, Nagarajan Krishnan
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response which can occur with various coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, of which the most commonly implicated in central nervous system (CNS)-IRIS are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis (TB). TB-IRIS is a known complication of pulmonary TB or TB lymphadenitis coinfection in HIV infected patients who are on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098445/circular-and-chainlike-copper-ii-lanthanide-iii-complexes-generated-by-assembly-reactions-of-racemic-and-chiral-copper-ii-cross-linking-ligand-complexes-with-ln-iii-no3-3%C3%A2-6h2o-ln-iii-gd-iii-tb-iii-dy-iii
#12
Takahiro Ueno, Takeshi Fujinami, Naohide Matsumoto, Masaki Furusawa, Ryo Irie, Nazzareno Re, Takuya Kanetomo, Takayuki Ishida, Yukinari Sunatsuki
The 1:1 assembly reaction of the racemic form of the cross-linking ligand complex Na[Cu(II)L(dpen(1R2R/1S2S))] with Ln(III)(NO3)3·6H2O gave the centrosymmetric circular (Cu(II)Ln(III))2 complex [Cu(II)L(dpen(1R2R/1S2S))Ln(III)(NO3)2]2 (1Ln: Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy), while the reaction of the enantiopure form Na[Cu(II)L(dpen(1R2R))] with Ln(III)(NO3)3·6H2O gave the chiral chainlike (Cu(II)Ln(III))1∞ complex [Cu(II)L(dpen(1R2R))Ln(III)(NO3)2(CH3CN)]1∞·CH3CN (2Ln: Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy), where {Cu(II)L(dpen(1R2R))}(-) is (N-((1R,2R)-2-(((E)-3-ethoxy-2-oxybenzylidene)amino)-1,2-diphenylethyl)-2-oxybenzamide)copper(II) and {Cu(II)L(dpen(1R2R/1S2S))}(-) is the racemic mixture of {Cu(II)L(dpen(1R2R))}(-) and {Cu(II)L(dpen(1S2S))}(-)...
January 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043540/nationwide-hiv-mdr-tb-survey-in-japan-and-collaborative-study-in-the-philippines
#13
Toshio Hattori, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Hideaki Nagai, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Elizabeth Telan, Marietta B Solante
BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection in Japan is low, careful monitoring of these two diseases is necessary. We conducted a nationwide survey on multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB (2011-2013) and HIV-TB (2007-2014) to understand the mode of prevention and the effect of therapy. A study on MDR-TB and HIV in San Lazaro Hospital (SLH) in the Philippines was also conducted. These studies introduced an international collaborative study against the global epidemics of HIV-TB/MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
March 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932622/inflammasome-activation-underlying-central-nervous-system-deterioration-in-hiv-associated-tuberculosis
#15
Suzaan Marais, Rachel P J Lai, Katalin A Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Anne O'Garra, Robert J Wilkinson
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a frequent cause of meningitis in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, resulting in death in approximately 40% of affected patients. A severe complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in these patients is neurological tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), but its underlying cause remains poorly understood. To investigate the pathogenesis of TBM-IRIS, we performed longitudinal whole-blood microarray analysis of HIV-infected patients with TBM and reflected the findings at the protein level...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828731/the-pharmacological-challenges-of-treating-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfections
#16
Eric F Egelund, Lori Dupree, Emily Huesgen, Charles A Peloquin
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent opportunistic infection among HIV patients, and the leading cause of death among HIV patients worldwide. Simultaneous treatment of both diseases is recommended by current guidelines, but can be challenging due to the potential for drug-drug interactions, overlapping toxicities, difficulty adhering to medications, and an increased risk for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Clinical manifestations of TB can also vary between HIV-infected patients and uninfected patients, which can increase the risk for delayed diagnosis...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677424/prolonged-tuberculosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-characteristics-and-risk-factors
#17
Tasnim M Bana, Maia Lesosky, Dominique J Pepper, Helen van der Plas, Charlotte Schutz, Rene Goliath, Chelsea Morroni, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens, Robert J Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: In a proportion of patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis who develop paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), the clinical course of IRIS is prolonged necessitating substantial health care utilization for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Prolonged TB-IRIS has not been prospectively studied to date. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients with prolonged TB-IRIS, as well as the clinical characteristics and risk factors for prolonged TB-IRIS...
September 27, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643598/role-of-lta4h-polymorphism-in-tuberculosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-occurrence-and-clinical-severity-in-patients-infected-with-hiv
#18
Gopalan Narendran, Dhanasekaran Kavitha, Ramesh Karunaianantham, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Jilson L Almeida-Junior, Sirasanambatti Devarajulu Reddy, Marimuthu Makesh Kumar, Haribabu Hemalatha, Nagesh Nalini Jayanthi, Narayanan Ravichandran, Raja Krishnaraja, Angamuthu Prabhakar, Tamizhselvan Manoharan, Lokeswaran Nithyananthan, Gunasundari Arjunan, Mohan Natrajan, Soumya Swaminathan, Bruno B Andrade
BACKGROUND: Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory phenomenon complicating HIV management in coincidental tuberculosis (TB) infection, upon immune reconstitution driven by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H), an enzyme which converts LTA4 to LTB4, regulates the balance between the anti-inflammatory lipoxins and pro-inflammatory LTB4, with direct implications in TB-driven inflammation. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LTA4H promoter which regulates its transcriptional activity (rs17525495) has been identified and described to impact clinical severity of TB presentation and response to corticosteroid therapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571786/preventing-paradoxical-tuberculosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-high-risk-patients-protocol-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-prednisone-predart-trial
#19
Cari Stek, Charlotte Schutz, Lisette Blumenthal, Friedrich Thienemann, Jozefien Buyze, Christiana Nöstlinger, Raffaella Ravinetto, Edwin Wouters, Robert Colebunders, Gary Maartens, Robert J Wilkinson, Lutgarde Lynen, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in patients diagnosed with HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) reduces mortality among those with the lowest CD4 counts. At the same time, both early ART and a low CD4 count heighten the risk of paradoxical TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS). TB is common in patients starting ART in sub-Saharan Africa. Safe interventions that reduce the incidence or severity of TB-IRIS are needed. Prednisone has been shown to reduce symptoms and markers of inflammation when used to treat TB-IRIS...
August 29, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469157/hiv-associated-renal-disease-an-overview
#20
Nicola Wearne, Ikechi G Okpechi
The cause of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in South Africa (SA) was worsened by the denial by key political players that HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). South Africa continues to have the highest rate of HIV world-wide, which has had a huge impact on the development of both chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury. Fortunately, there is now an effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out program. SA is also dealing with a collision of epidemics of HIV, tuberculosis, and non-communicable disease, particularly hypertension and diabetes...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
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