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Tuberculosis meningitis

Dat T Vo, George F Cravens, Robert E Germann
BACKGROUND: Intramedullary abscess is a rare neurosurgical condition that usually arises in the setting of penetrating trauma to the spinal cord, infected congenital dural sinuses, or tuberculosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 35-year-old African American male who presented with sepsis and a clinical picture of meningitis. The patient continued to have declining neurological status with decreasing sensation and worsening motor strength in all four extremities...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam Pasipanodya, Eric Nuermberger, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  When treated with the same antibiotic dose, children achieve different 0- to 24-hour area under the concentration-time curves (AUC0-24) because of maturation and between-child physiological variability on drug clearance. Children are also infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, each child will achieve different AUC0-24/MIC ratios when treated with the same dose. METHODS:  We used 10 000-subject Monte Carlo experiments to identify the oral doses of linezolid, moxifloxacin, and faropenem that would achieve optimal target exposures associated with optimal efficacy in children with disseminated tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rutger Bennet, Margareta Eriksson
AIM: This study described the epidemiology and clinical features of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Stockholm over a 45-year period, when there was a resurge of tuberculosis concomitant with increased immigration. METHODS: We describe 220 children up to the age of 16 years with active TB, seen at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1971-2015. The study period was divided into three 15-year periods. RESULTS: Cases increased from 10 children in 1971-1985 to 76 in 1986-2000 and 134 in 2001-2015, with overall incidence increasing from <1 to four per 100,000...
October 14, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
James Benjamin Gleason, Basheer Tashtoush, Jinesh Mehta, Edward Savage, Felipe Martinez, Atul C Mehta
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis refers to Mycobacterium tuberculosis involving organs other than the lungs (eg, pleura, lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, abdomen, skin, joints and bones, or meninges). In non-HIV-endemic areas, where reactivation is the predominant mechanism of tuberculosis, pleural involvement occurs in 4% of cases. We present an extremely rare case of a 62-year-old immunocompetent patient with pleural tuberculosis confirmed by surgical pleural biopsies, who presented with a large mediastinal mass and evidence of pulmonary artery invasion on CT scanning and endobronchial ultrasonography imaging, highlighting a unique and malignant-like character of the disease...
October 2016: Chest
Kavitha Kumar, Prashant Giribhattanavar, Nagarathna Chandrashekar, Shripad Patil
Drug resistance has increased the difficulties in control of tuberculosis infection. The present study evaluated the clinical and laboratory features among tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients and the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolated from CSF. Out of 698 CSF samples, 176 (25.21%) were M.tb culture positive. Among the clinical signs and symptoms, fever, headache and altered sensorium were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). ELISA was a better predictor of disease and found to be statistically significant (P<0...
September 24, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Seow Hoon Saw, Joon Liang Tan, Xin Yue Chan, Kok Gan Chan, Yun Fong Ngeow
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in tuberculosis (TB). It is not clear what factors promote central nervous system invasion and pathology but it has been reported that certain strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) might have genetic traits associated with neurotropism. METHODS: In this study, we generated whole genome sequences of eight clinical strains of Mtb that were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in Malaysia, and compared them to the genomes of H37Rv and other respiratory Mtb genomes either downloaded from public databases or extracted from local sputum isolates...
2016: PeerJ
Josephine Mbuagbaw, Ahmadou M Jingi, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Arnaud D Kaze, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna, Edvine Wawo Yonta, Kathleen Ngu Blackett
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in mortality and the spectrum of disease in HIV-infected and -uninfected inpatients in a population in Yaoundé. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Internal Medicine Unit, University Hospital Centre, Yaoundé, Cameroon. PARTICIPANTS: All deaths registered between January 2000 and May 2007 in the unit. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and results of all investigations done, cause of death...
September 2016: JRSM Open
Erika Britz, Olga Perovic, Claire von Mollendorf, Anne von Gottberg, Samantha Iyaloo, Vanessa Quan, Verushka Chetty, Charlotte Sriruttan, Nazir A Ismail, Ananta Nanoo, Alfred Musekiwa, Carl Reddy, Karien Viljoen, Cheryl Cohen, Nelesh P Govender
INTRODUCTION: Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012...
2016: PloS One
Matobogolo M Boaz, Samuel Kalluvya, Jennifer A Downs, Bonaventura C T Mpondo, Stephen E Mshana
Background. Limited information exists on the etiologies, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected patients in Africa. We conducted a study to determine the etiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of meningitis among HIV-infected adults. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the medical wards with symptoms and signs of meningitis. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected using a standardized data collection tool...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Yasemin Cag, Derya Ozturk-Engin, Serap Gencer, Rodrigo Hasbun, Gonul Sengoz, Alexandru Crisan, Nurgul Ceran, Branislava Savic, Kadriye Yasar, Filiz Pehlivanoglu, Gamze Kilicoglu, Hulya Tireli, Ayse S Inal, Rok Civljak, Recep Tekin, Nazif Elaldi, Aysegul Ulu-Kilic, Muge Ozguler, Mustafa Namiduru, Mustafa Sunbul, Oguz R Sipahi, Olga Dulovic, Selma Alabay, Ayhan Akbulut, Alper Sener, Botond Lakatos, Katell Andre, Mucahit Yemisen, Serkan Oncu, Mihai Nechifor, Ozcan Deveci, Seniha Senbayrak, Asuman Inan, Gorana Dragovac, Hanefi C G L, Gurkan Mert, Oral Oncul, Bahar Kandemir, Serpil Erol, Canan Agalar, Hakan Erdem
AIMS: There is no report on the factors affecting the resolution of symptoms related to meningitis during treatment of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Thus, we examined the factors associated with early therapeutic responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter study included 507 patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM. However, 94 patients eligible for the analysis were included in this study from 24 centers. Six out of 94 patients died and the statistical analysis was performed with 88 survivors...
September 2016: Neurology India
H X Mao, H Y Zhu, Y L Wang, Y Yang, X F You, X W Sun
OBJECTIVE: To study the MRI features of ventricular system tuberculosis. METHODS: Nineteen patients with ventricular system tuberculosis in our hospital from Mar. 2009 to Sep. 2014 were retrospectively identified. Their clinical features and cranial MRI characteristics were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 13 males and 6 females, aged from 15-81 years(mean 37±16). Eight patients had intraventricular tuberculosis, with 5 long striped or irregular shaped intraventricular tuberculosis and 3 with ventricular tuberculoma...
September 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Teoman Aydın, Özgür Taşpınar, Yasar Keskin, Müge Kepekçi, Meryem Güneşer, Adil Çamlı, Hakan Seyithanoğlu, Huriye Kızıltan, Ali Hikmet Eriş
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous radiculomyelitis(TBRM) is one of the complications of neurological tuberculosis and includes cases of arachnoiditis, intradural spinal tuberculoma or granuloma, and spinal cord complications of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Here, we report a case of TBRM which presented with acute paraplegia. CASE DETAILS: Neurological examination on admission revealed flaccid paralysis, bilateral extensor plantar responses, and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes...
July 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Rita Magano, Rita Jorge, Margarida Prata, Maria Conceição Ventura, José Gabriel Saraiva da Cunha
Infections of central nervous system (CNS) include a broad group of conditions and pose a particular challenge to physicians, especially in immunocompromised individuals. This case refers to a 26-year-old male patient with a history of smoked hashish and drug abuse admitted to the infectious disease department with hemiballismus of left hemibody and a positive HIV serologic test. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed lesions at lower left and right cerebellar hemisphere, one of them thalamus - mesencephalic suggesting an opportunistic infection or an HIV associated encephalopathy...
2016: IDCases
Sophie Jullien, Hannah Ryan, Manish Modi, Rohit Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the main form of tuberculosis that affects the central nervous system and is associated with high rates of death and disability. Most international guidelines recommend longer antituberculous treatment (ATT) regimens for TBM than for pulmonary tuberculosis disease to prevent relapse. However, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could contribute to increased relapse, development of drug resistance, and increased costs to patients and healthcare systems...
September 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
John Abuga Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. METHODOLOGY: We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Noraini Philip, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues, Timothy William, Daisy Vanitha John
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes millions of death every year. We have sequenced the genome of M. tuberculosis isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The isolated strain was referred as M. tuberculosis SB24. Genomic DNA of the M. tuberculosis SB24 was extracted and subjected to whole genome sequencing using PacBio platform. The draft genome size of M. tuberculosis SB24 was determined to be 4,452,489 bp with a G + C content of 65...
September 2016: Genomics Data
Sunil Prasad Lekhak, Laxmi Sharma, Reema Rajbhandari, Pravesh Rajbhandari, Resha Shrestha, Basant Pant
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of those most serious manifestations of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and prompt diagnosis and treatment is required for better clinical outcome. It is difficult to diagnose due to lack of rapid, sensitive, and specific tests. Newer methods, which are easy and reliable, are required to diagnose TBM at an early stage. Thus our aim was to evaluate the Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, using primers directed against the insertion sequence IS6110 and MPB64 gene for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), for rapid diagnosis of TBM patients...
September 2016: Tuberculosis
Kunal Kishor Jha, Satyajeet Kumar Singh, Prem Kumar, Charu Dutt Arora
Tubercular meningitis (TBM) is a devastating extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis and demonstrates a high neurological morbidity. A rare complication of this condition is Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS), which is a neurobehavioral disorder characterised by hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, bulimia, placidity, hyperorality and memory deficits caused by lesions to the amygdala. The amygdala lesions can be due to many causes, including traumatic brain injury, systemic conditions and infections such as tuberculosis...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
(no author information available yet)
In 2014, 49 pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients aged 0-14 years were newly notified in Japan, with a notification rate of 0.30 per 100,000 population. Since 2006, the number of pediatric TB patients notified each year has been less than 100. Of the 49 patients, 17 (34.7%) were aged 0-4 years, 15 (30.6%) were 5-9 years, and 17 (34.7%) were 10-14 years. Until recently, the proportion of those aged 0-4 years was higher than those aged 10-14 years, but this year the proportions have become equal. Of these 49, five had meningeal TB and two had miliary TB...
April 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
X H Wang, H P Shi, F J Li
We determined whether two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Toll-like receptor 9 gene (TLR9) (TLR9+2848 rs352140 and TLR9-1237 rs5743836) influenced susceptibility to bacterial meningitis in a Chinese population. The study comprised 126 patients with bacterial meningitis and 252 control subjects, all of whom were recruited from the Tuberculosis Hospital of Shanxi Province. Genotyping of TLR9+2848 rs352140 and TLR9-1237 rs5743836 was performed by polymerase chain reaction coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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