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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791949/the-global-neurological-burden-of-tuberculosis
#1
Kiran Thakur, Mitashee Das, Kelly E Dooley, Amita Gupta
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe manifestation of TB and accounts for approximately 5 to 10% of all extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases and approximately 1% of all TB cases. TB meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS TB, though other forms occur, often in conjunction with TBM, including intracranial tuberculomas, tuberculous brain abscesses, and spinal tubercular arachnoiditis. CNS TB often presents with nonspecific clinical features that mimic symptoms of other neurological conditions, often making diagnosis difficult...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789966/beh%C3%A3-et-s-syndrome-and-nervous-system-involvement
#2
REVIEW
Uğur Uygunoğlu, Aksel Siva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although Behçet's syndrome (BS) is classified as a rare disease in European countries and the USA, its neurologic involvement "neuro-Behçet's syndrome (NBS)" is commonly included in the differential diagnosis of many inflammatory and vascular central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Clinical and neuroimaging findings support two major forms of NBS: parenchymal NBS (p-NBS) and an extra-parenchymal form that presents with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST)...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779764/experimental-animal-models-of-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis-a-historical-review
#3
REVIEW
Carlos Sánchez-Garibay, María Elena Hernández-Campos, Martha Lilia Tena-Suck, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara
Animal models are and will remain valuable tools in medical research because their use enables a deeper understanding of disease development, thus generating important knowledge for developing disease control strategies. Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) is the most devastating disease in humans. Moreover, as the variability of signs and symptoms delay a timely diagnosis, patients usually arrive at the hospital suffering from late stage disease. Therefore, it is impossible to obtain fresh human tissue for research before an autopsy...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749044/mycobacteria-employ-two-different-mechanisms-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier
#4
L M van Leeuwen, M Boot, C Kuijl, D I Picavet, G van den Brink, S M A van der Pol, H E de Vries, N N van der Wel, M van der Kuip, A M van Furth, A M van der Sar, W Bitter
Central nervous system (CNS) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis, in particular in early childhood. In order to induce CNS infection, M. tuberculosis needs to cross specialized barriers protecting the brain. How M. tuberculosis crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enters the CNS is not well understood. Here, we use transparent zebrafish larvae and the closely related pathogen Mycobacterium marinum to answer this question. We show that in the early stages of development mycobacteria rapidly infect brain tissue, either as free mycobacteria or within circulating macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740727/the-first-case-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-small-vessel-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#5
REVIEW
Marc-Etienne Parent, Maxime Richer, Patrick Liang
To present an unrecognized vascular complication of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy administered for superficial bladder carcinoma. We also review the potential mimickers for primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) as well as complications of intravesical BCG therapy. An 89-year-old Caucasian man with a history of relapsing high-grade bladder carcinoma treated with intravesical BCG presented with recurring episodes of right upper limb paresthesia with clumsiness and dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed multiple predominantly left-sided frontotemporal micronodular peri-vascular lesions...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614334/safety-pharmacology-in-and-for-africa-establishment-of-the-pre-clinical-drug-development-platform
#6
REVIEW
Brian D Guth, Anne Grobler
Southern Africa (South Africa as well as neighboring countries) has not had an infrastructure for testing the safety of new drugs or other therapeutic entities, including plant-based or herbal treatments coming from the indigenous cultures, according to the current practice and regulatory requirements. Simultaneously, Southern Africa is challenged by very high rates of immune deficiency diseases which have further led to the resurgence of diseases such as tuberculosis, which is commonly thought to be eradicated, at least in Western cultures...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536453/progress-on-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#7
Yi-Yi Wang, Bing-di Xie
Central nervous system (CNS) disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is highly devastating. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS tuberculosis (TB). Rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic tests are not available. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain has a very low sensitivity in cases of TBM, the sensitivity rates is of about 10-20%.The detection rate can be improved by taking large volume CSF samples (>6 ml) and prolonged slide examination (30 min). Culture of MTB from the CSF is slow and insufficiently sensitive...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456899/facial-weakness-diplopia-and-fever-in-a-31-year-old-an-atypical-case-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#8
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypical symptoms. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of diabetes who presented with a sub-acute onset of right-sided facial weakness and right gaze difficulty with diplopia. History revealed low-grade fever, right-sided headache, fatigue and moderate weight loss for the past several weeks. The patient did not report neck stiffness, rigidity, fever, chills or cough...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438557/is-drug-induced-hepatitis-related-to-the-severity-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#9
Mritunjai Kumar, Jayantee Kalita, Abhilasha Tripathi, Usha K Misra
Background: Drug-induced hepatitis (DIH) occurs more commonly in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) than non-CNS tuberculosis. We evaluate DIH in TBM and its relationship with disease severity and surrogate markers of stress. Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were included prospectively. The diagnosis of DIH was based on five times elevation of alanine amino transferase (ALT) in asymptomatic and three times in symptomatic patients, serum bilirubin 1.5 mg/dL or more occurring after 3 days of antitubercular drugs without any other cause of liver dysfunction; and improvement in liver function upon drug withdrawal...
November 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395996/cerebral-tryptophan-metabolism-and-outcome-of-tuberculous-meningitis-an-observational-cohort-study
#10
Arjan van Laarhoven, Sofiati Dian, Raúl Aguirre-Gamboa, Julian Avila-Pacheco, Isis Ricaño-Ponce, Carolien Ruesen, Jessi Annisa, Valerie A C M Koeken, Lidya Chaidir, Yang Li, Tri Hanggono Achmad, Leo A B Joosten, Richard A Notebaart, Rovina Ruslami, Mihai G Netea, Marcel M Verbeek, Bachti Alisjahbana, Vinod Kumar, Clary B Clish, A Rizal Ganiem, Reinout van Crevel
BACKGROUND: Immunopathology contributes to the high mortality of tuberculous meningitis, but the biological pathways involved are mostly unknown. We aimed to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum metabolomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis with that of controls without tuberculous meningitis, and assess the link between metabolite concentrations and mortality. METHODS: In this observational cohort study at the Hasan Sadikin Hospital (Bandung, Indonesia) we measured 425 metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in CSF and serum from 33 HIV-negative Indonesian patients with confirmed or probable tuberculous meningitis and 22 control participants with complete clinical data between March 12, 2009, and Oct 27, 2013...
May 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395320/pattern-recognition-receptor-mrna-expression-and-cytokine-and-granzyme-levels-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-neurotuberculosis
#11
Deepashri Rao, Ravi Vasanthapuram, P Satishchandra, Anita Desai
Neurotuberculosis is one of the commonest HIV-associated opportunistic infections (OI) of the CNS. Cross-talk between HIV, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host immune responses may alter expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), thereby affecting cytokine profiles and functional responses. We examined PRR mRNA expression and cytokine and granzyme levels in HIV infected individuals with neurotuberculosis and found significant downregulation of TLR9 and increased MDA5 expression compared to healthy subjects...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347976/intracisternal-tuberculoma-a-refractory-type-of-tuberculoma-indicating-surgical-intervention
#12
Fanfan Chen, Lei Chen, Yongfu Cao, Yongjun Yi, Jingwen Zhuang, Wuhua Le, Wei Xie, Lanbo Tu, Peng Li, Yimin Fang, Ling Li, Yuqing Kou, Kaikai Fu, Hua He, Hongbin Ju
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma is a rare disease with severe neurological deficits. This retrospective research is to review the data of patients diagnosed as CNS tuberculoma. Surgeries were performed in all patients. The clinical features especially the neurological image and the anatomical characters of the tuberculomas were concerned. METHODS: Totally 11 patients diagnosed as CNS tuberculoma were admitted in Guangzhou First People's Hospital (7cases) and Changzheng Hospital (4 cases) during 2006-2015...
January 18, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296673/glutathione-responsive-selenosulfide-prodrugs-as-a-platform-strategy-for-potent-and-selective-mechanism-based-inhibition-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases
#13
Caroline Chandra Tjin, Kate D Otley, Tyler D Baguley, Pradeep Kurup, Jian Xu, Angus C Nairn, Paul J Lombroso, Jonathan A Ellman
Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in a number of human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. As a result of their essential role in regulating protein tyrosine phosphorylation levels, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have emerged as important yet challenging therapeutic targets. Here we report on the development and application of a glutathione-responsive motif to facilitate the efficient intracellular delivery of a novel class of selenosulfide phosphatase inhibitors for the selective active site directed inhibition of the targeted PTP by selenosulfide exchange with the active site cysteine...
December 27, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290197/primary-cns-lymphoma-vs-tumefactive-multiple-sclerosis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#14
Sameen Bin Naeem, Farheen Niazi, Atif Baig, Hina Sadiq, Mubbasher Sattar
Primary CNS (central nervous system) lymphoma is a rare condition with the incidence of less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and approximately 2% of all primary brain tumours. Diagnosis can be challenging and necessitates brain biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 41-year male presented with history of impaired cognition, facial asymmetry, visual impairment and left sided body weakness. MRI brain demonstrated multiple enhancing lesions with one larger lesion in right basal ganglia with surrounding oedema and mass effect...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201438/pathomorphological-peculiarities-of-tuberculous-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-hiv-infection
#15
Volodymyr M Kozko, Andriy V Bondarenko, Anatoliy V Gavrylov, Olga S Shevchenko, Vitalii V Gargin
Background and aims: One of the most severe manifestation displays of tuberculosis (TB) generalization is meningitis/meningoencephalitis. The purpose of this work was to improve the diagnostic efficiency of TB central nervous system (CNS) affection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Materials and methods: Meninges and cerebral tissues, taken from died patients, who were HIV-infected and dead from TB of CNS affection, were investigated histologically...
September 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196175/anti-tubercular-and-probiotic-properties-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-koozh-a-traditional-fermented-food-of-south-india
#16
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Azger Dusthackeer, Paul Agastian
In the last few years, the demand for the tremendous therapeutic applications of indigenous probiotic bacteria from diversified fermented food products has surged. In view of this, the present study was documented to evaluate the anti-tubercular and probiotic properties of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) indigenous to Koozh, a traditional fermented food product of South India. A total of 18 isolates were purified from Koozh, and tested for anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay...
January 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167512/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-activity-and-a-downregulated-hedgehog-pathway-impair-blood-brain-barrier-function-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-cns-tuberculosis
#17
Sara Brilha, Catherine W M Ong, Babette Weksler, Nacho Romero, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Jon S Friedland
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) has a high mortality and morbidity associated with severe inflammation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from inflammation but the mechanisms causing BBB damage in CNS TB are uncharacterized. We demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes breakdown of type IV collagen and decreases tight junction protein (TJP) expression in a co-culture model of the BBB. This increases permeability, surface expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte transmigration...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
January 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067986/modelling-of-cerebral-tuberculosis-in-balb-c-mice-using-clinical-strain-from-patients-with-cns-tuberculosis-infection
#19
Aliabbas A Husain, Umesh Datta Gupta, Pushpa Gupta, Amit R Nayak, Nitin H Chandak, Hatim F Daginawla, Lokendra Singh, Rajpal Singh Kashyap
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) due to a high level of mortality and morbidity. Limited studies are available on CNS-TB animal model development. The present study describes the development of a murine model of CNS-TB using a clinical strain (C3) isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CNS-TB patients. METHODS: Groups of mice were infected by the intravenous route with MTB C3 strain isolated from the CSF of CNS-TB patients...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026544/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis-in-a-man-from-cambodia-with-worsening-headaches
#20
Daniel S Krauth, Kristi K Stone-Garza, Deirdre E Amaro, Sharon L Reed, Theodoros F Katsivas
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis should be considered in patients from endemic nations with worsening neurological symptoms. If imaging reveals possible CNS tuberculomas, potentially life-threatening lesions should be excised and analyzed. When disease is less severe, other tissues possibly infected should be biopsied first for diagnosis to avoid neurosurgery.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
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