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India tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142744/-who-has-to-do-it-at-the-end-of-the-day-programme-officials-or-hospital-authorities-airborne-infection-control-at-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-dr-tb-centres-of-karnataka-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#1
Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ottapura Prabhakaran Aslesh, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Abhay Subashrao Nirgude, Anil Singarajipura, Anil G Jacob
Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) centers admit patients with DR-TB for initiation of treatment and thereby concentrate the patients under one setting. It becomes imperative to assess the compliance of DR-TB centres to national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines and explore the provider perspectives into reasons for unsatisfactory compliance. Methods: This mixed methods study (triangulation design) was carried out across all the six DR-TB centers of Karnataka state, India, between November 2016 and April 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141727/point-of-care-ultrasound-for-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients
#2
Stefan F Weber, Kavitha Saravu, Tom Heller, Rajagopal Kadavigere, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Stephan Gehring, Sabine Bélard, And Pocus Eti Study Group
Diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated EPTB is applied in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of POCUS for diagnosing EPTB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients in India, a country of moderate relative TB and HIV burden. Presumptive TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, prospectively underwent POCUS evaluating for pericardial, pleural and ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and hepatic and splenic microabscesses...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124005/massive-hemoptysis-from-rasmussen-s-aneurysm-in-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-case-report-of-successful-treatment-with-bronchial-artery-embolization
#3
K V Rajamannar, Hemanth Kilaru, Srujana Aravelly, Ananta Ram Gudipati, Satish Chandra Kilaru
Rasmussen's aneurysm, a very rare complication of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), is a pulmonary artery aneurysm adjacent to or within a tuberculous cavity. It may lead to rupture and life threatening massive hemoptysis, an uncommon but challenging medico-surgical emergency. This complication warrants attention in view of the resurgence of tuberculosis and increasing occurrence of multi-drug resistant TB, especially in resource-poor, high-TB burden countries like India. We present a case of an elderly man who presented to the emergency room with low-grade fever, cough and hemoptysis...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110869/prevalence-of-zoonotic-tuberculosis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-central-indian-populations
#4
Prachi R Bapat, Renuka S Dodkey, Seema D Shekhawat, Aliabbas A Husain, Amit R Nayak, Anuja P Kawle, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra K Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
In the present study, we aimed to estimate the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and examine the determinants of distribution of the disease in three high-risk populations of Central India. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Central India between March 2014 and June 2015. Based on the requisite inclusion criteria, we recruited a total of 301 participants whose blood samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110864/pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patna-india-durations-delays-and-health-care-seeking-behaviour-among-patients-identified-through-household-surveys
#5
Nerges Mistry, Eunice Lobo, Shimoni Shah, Sheela Rangan, Yatin Dholakia
BACKGROUND: Delays in accessing effective health care plays a pivotal role in increasing Tuberculosis (TB) transmission within the community. Patna, North India, with high levels of poverty and weak public health system, faces huge challenges for achieving effective TB control. The study aims to determine delays that occur from onset of TB symptoms until initiation of pulmonary TB (PTB) treatment among patients in Patna. METHODS: Of the 109 self-reporting TB patients identified through an active household survey, 64 PTB patients were interviewed...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110862/low-pre-diagnosis-attrition-but-high-pre-treatment-attrition-among-patients-with-mdr-tb-an-operational-research-from-chennai-india
#6
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Dina Nair, Joel S Klinton, Malik Parmar, J Lavanya, Lakshmi Murali, Vivek Gupta, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there's concern over high pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attritions or delays in Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment pathway (DTP). We conducted this operational research among patients with presumptive MDR-TB in north and central Chennai, India to determine attrition and turnaround times (TAT) at various steps of DTP and factors associated with attrition. METHODS: Study was conducted in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110861/-before-reaching-the-last-mile-knowledge-attitude-practice-and-perceived-barriers-related-to-tuberculosis-directly-observed-therapy-among-asha-workers-in-central-india-a-mixed-method-study
#7
Akash Ranjan Singh, Abhijit Pakhare, Arun M Kokane, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ashish Chauhan, Abhishek Singh, Arti Gangwar, Prahlad Singh Thakur
INTRODUCTION: Community-based direct observed treatment (DOT) providers are an important bridge for the national tuberculosis programme in India to reach the unreached. The present study has explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers perceived by the community-based DOT providers. METHODS: Mixed-methods study design was used among 41 community-based DOT providers (Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHAs)) working in 67 villages from a primary health center in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, India...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099000/enhancing-the-role-of-private-practitioners-in-tuberculosis-prevention-and-care-activities-in-india
#8
REVIEW
Tanu Anand, Ranjith Babu, Anil G Jacob, Karuna Sagili, Sarabjit S Chadha
India accounts for the highest number of incident tuberculosis (TB) cases globally. Hence, to impact the TB incidence world over, there is an urgent need to address and accelerate TB control activities in the country. Nearly, half of the TB patients first seek TB care in private sector. However, the participation of private practitioners (PPs) has been patchy in TB prevention and care and distrust exists between public and private sector. PPs usually have varied diagnostic and treatment practices that are inadequate and amplify the risk of drug resistance...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081357/genetic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-par%C3%A3-brazil-reveals-a-higher-frequency-of-ancestral-strains-than-previously-reported-in-south-america
#9
Emilyn Costa Conceição, Nalin Rastogi, David Couvin, Maria Luíza Lopes, Ismari Perini Furlaneto, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Sidra Ezídio Gonçalves Vasconcellos, Philip Noel Suffys, Maria Paula Cruz Schneider, Maísa Silva de Sousa, Christophe Sola, Ricardo José de Paula Souza E Guimarães, Rafael Silva Duarte, Karla Valéria Batista Lima
There is only scarce information available on genotypic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates circulating in the Northern part of Brazil, a relatively neglected region regarding research on tuberculosis. We therefore characterized 980 MTBC clinical isolates from the state of Pará, by spoligotyping and data was compared with patterns from around the world, besides analyzing drug susceptibility, and collecting sociodemographic data. We also performed 24 loci MIRU-VNTR typing to evaluate phylogenetic inferences among the East-African-India (EAI) lineage strains...
October 30, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073910/spot-sputum-samples-are-at-least-as-good-as-early-morning-samples-for-identifying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Michael E Murphy, Patrick P J Phillips, Carl M Mendel, Emily Bongard, Anna L C Bateson, Robert Hunt, Saraswathi Murthy, Kasha P Singh, Michael Brown, Angela M Crook, Andrew J Nunn, Sarah K Meredith, Marc Lipman, Timothy D McHugh, Stephen H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: The use of early morning sputum samples (EMS) to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) can result in treatment delay given the need for the patient to return to the clinic with the EMS, increasing the chance of patients being lost during their diagnostic workup. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of EMS over spot sputum samples. In this new analysis of the REMoxTB study, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of EMS with spot samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis pre- and post-treatment...
October 27, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067983/occurrence-patterns-predictors-of-hypogonadism-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-in-india
#11
Deep Dutta, Lokesh Kumar Sharma, Neera Sharma, Adesh K Gadpayle, Atul Anand, Kumar Gaurav, Ankit Gupta, Yashwanth Poondla, Bindu Kulshreshtha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Data on hypogonadism among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Indians are not available. This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence, pattern and predictors of hypogonadism in HIV-infected Indians. METHODS: Consecutive stable HIV-infected patients, 18-70 yr age, without any severe comorbid state, having at least one year follow up data at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. RESULTS: From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients (225 males; 134 females), having disease duration of 61...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063892/hantavirus-and-tuberculosis-co-infection-in-an-indian-child
#12
Someshwar Chate, Ira Shah, Hiren Doshi
Hantaviruses are a group of antigenically distinct viruses carried out in rodents and insectivores. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine, faeces and saliva of infected rodents. Hantaviruses are identified as aetiological agents of two human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus causing pulmonary renal disease has rarely been reported in children in India. Hantavirus infection is uncommon under the age of 12 years...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063875/laboratory-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-advances-in-technology-and-drug-susceptibility-testing
#13
REVIEW
Seema Oommen, Nandita Banaji
There have been rapid technological advances in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its drug susceptibility in clinical samples. These include advances in microscopic examination, in vitro culture and application of molecular techniques. The World Health Organization (WHO) has played a large role in evaluating these technologies for their efficacy and feasibility, especially in the developing countries. Amongst these, the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), through its national network of designated microscopy centres and intermediate reference laboratories, has adopted certain technologies that are currently implemented in India...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061522/prognostic-value-of-fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-unexplained-atrioventricular-block
#14
Tamiruddin A Danwade, Soumen Devidutta, Abhijeet B Shelke, Daljeet Kaur Saggu, Sachin D Yalagudri, Chennapragada Sridevi, Nallamala Krishna Reddy, Calambur Narasimhan
BACKGROUND: The cause of atrioventricular conduction block (AVB) remains unexplained in a significant number of patients. Granulomatous myocarditis (GM) is an uncommon but important cause of AVB. Fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (18-FDG PET) scan has emerged as a sensitive tool for diagnosing GM. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of 18-FDG PET scan in patients with unexplained AVB...
October 20, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050774/whole-genome-sequencing-of-clinical-strains-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-mumbai-india-a-potential-tool-for-determining-drug-resistance-and-strain-lineage
#15
Anirvan Chatterjee, Kayzad Nilgiriwala, Dhananjaya Saranath, Camilla Rodrigues, Nerges Mistry
Amplification of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and its transmission are significant barriers in controlling tuberculosis (TB) globally. Diagnostic inaccuracies and delays impede appropriate drug administration, which exacerbates primary and secondary drug resistance. Increasing affordability of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and exhaustive cataloguing of drug resistance mutations is poised to revolutionise TB diagnostics and facilitate personalized drug therapy. However, application of WGS for diagnostics in high endemic areas is yet to be demonstrated...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050763/variants-of-katg-inha-and-nat-genes-are-not-associated-with-mutations-in-efflux-pump-genes-mmpl3-and-mmpl7-in-isoniazid-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-india
#16
A Nusrath Unissa, V N Azger Dusthackeer, Micheal Prem Kumar, P Nagarajan, S Sukumar, V Indira Kumari, A Ramya Lakshmi, L E Hanna
To understand the impact of efflux pump genes such as mmpL3 and mmpL7 on isoniazid (INH) resistance and to correlate with presence or absence of mutations in essential genes of INH resistance (katG, inhA, and nat) in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). One hundred (75 resistant and 25 sensitive) clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from India were selected for the study. The presence of mutations in specific regions of katG, inhA, and nat, efflux pump genes (mmpL3 and mmpL7) associated with INH resistance were analyzed using multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods, respectively...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043204/autopsy-findings-of-miliary-tuberculosis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#17
Khushdeep Shergill, Divya Shelly, Manoj G, Ritu Ranjan Kumar
Miliary tuberculosis is a lethal form of disseminated tuberculosis (TB), deriving its name from the millet-seed-sized granulomas in multiple organs. As TB still remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India, its disseminated forms need to be diagnosed early to ensure more aggressive treatment at the earliest possible time. However, a considerable number of cases are missed ante-mortem. We discuss the case of a 32-year-old immunocompromised, non-HIV patient with an ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary TB...
July 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041901/prevalence-of-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Vishal Goyal, Vijay Kadam, Prashant Narang, Vikram Singh
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a significant public health issue that considerably deters the ongoing TB control efforts in India. The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence of DR-TB and understand the regional variation in resistance pattern across India from 1995 to 2015, based on a large body of published epidemiological studies. METHODS: A systematic review of published studies reporting prevalence of DR-TB from biomedical databases (PubMed and IndMed) was conducted...
October 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031528/a-rare-unusual-presentation-of-primary-tuberculosis-in-the-temporomandibular-joint
#19
Geetha N Towdur, Amarnath P Upasi, Umashankara Kagathur Veerabhadrappa, Kirthikumar Rai
Tuberculosis (TB) is a very common health problem in developing nations such as India. It can present as its primary form or as secondary forms (extrapulmonary TB). Maxillofacial manifestations of TB compose nearly 10% of all extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease. Extrapulmonary TB involving the maxillofacial region is very rare and can present in any tissues in this region. These infections generally involve the head and neck through hematogenous or lymphatic routes. Very few cases of primary TB of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have been reported in the literature...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025634/catastrophic-costs-potentially-averted-by-tuberculosis-control-in-india-and-south-africa-a-modelling-study
#20
Stéphane Verguet, Carlos Riumallo-Herl, Gabriela B Gomez, Nicolas A Menzies, Rein M G J Houben, Tom Sumner, Marek Lalli, Richard G White, Joshua A Salomon, Ted Cohen, Nicola Foster, Susmita Chatterjee, Sedona Sweeney, Inés Garcia Baena, Knut Lönnroth, Diana E Weil, Anna Vassall
BACKGROUND: The economic burden on households affected by tuberculosis through costs to patients can be catastrophic. WHO's End TB Strategy recognises and aims to eliminate these potentially devastating economic effects. We assessed whether aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services might reduce catastrophic costs. METHODS: We estimated the reduction in tuberculosis-related catastrophic costs with an aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services in India and South Africa from 2016 to 2035, in line with the End TB Strategy...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
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