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India tuberculosis

Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
Seema Shetty, Shashikiran Umakanth, Bhawani Manandhar, Pankaj Bahadur Nepali
Leprosy and tuberculosis (TB) are endemic to India, however, their coinfection is not frequently encountered in clinical practice. Here, we report a 32-year-old female patient who presented with a history of high-grade intermittent fever, cough and painless skin lesions since a month, along with bilateral claw hand (on examination). The haematological profile was suggestive of anaemia of chronic disease, chest radiograph showed consolidation, sputum smears were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and skin slit smear confirmed leprosy...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Urmi Bajpai, Abhishek Kumar Mehta, Kandasamy Eniyan, Avni Sinha, Ankita Ray, Simran Virdi, Shazeb Ahmad, Aridni Shah, Deepanksha Arora, Devyani Marwaha, Gunjan Chauhan, Prarthna Saraswat, Punita Bathla, Ruchi Singh
Bacteriophages are being considered as a promising natural resource for the development of alternative strategies against mycobacterial diseases, especially in the context of the wide spread occurrence of drug-resistance amongst the clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. However, there isn't much information documented on mycobacteriophages from India. Here, we report the isolation of 17 mycobacteriophages using M. smegmatis as the bacterial host where 9 phages also lyse M. tuberculosis H37Rv. We present detailed analysis of one of these mycobacteriophage (PDRPv)...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Bhagya Sudheer, Manisha Agarwal, Deepa Sharma, Ravi Mehta, Kalpana Babu
PURPOSE: To report our experience of using Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial lymph node aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in assessing the etiology in uveitis from two tertiary eye-care centers in India. MATERIALS & METHODS: Retrospective interventional case series. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients of uveitis who underwent EBUS-TBNA were included in the study. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) was detected on culture in 5 cases, 3 cases by polymerase chain reaction and caseating granulomas in 25 cases...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Valliappan Muthu, Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal, Kuruswamy Thurai Prasad, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Digambar Behera, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal
Background: There is a paucity of literature regarding outcome of critically ill patients with tuberculosis (TB) from India. Herein, we describe our experience of patients with active TB admitted to a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all the patients admitted with active TB. The baseline clinical, demographic, ICU parameters and mortality were recorded. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors predicting mortality...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Astha Giri, Shraddha Gupta, Hassan Safi, Anshika Narang, Kamal Shrivastava, Naresh Kumar Sharma, Subramanya Lingaraju, Mahmud Hanif, Anuj Bhatnagar, Balakrishnan Menon, David Alland, Mandira Varma-Basil
Mutations at embB306 are the most prevalent polymorphisms associated with ethambutol (EMB) resistance, responsible for 40-60% of EMB resistant clinical cases of tuberculosis (TB). The present study analyzed additional mutations associated with EMB resistance in the embB, embC, embA and Rv3806c (ubiA) genes in 29 EMB resistant and 29 EMB susceptible clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis selected from 360 patients with TB. The entire ubiA gene, mutational hotspot regions of embB, embC, and upstream region of embA were screened for polymorphisms by DNA sequencing and the results correlated with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of EMB...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Tilman E Klassert, Surabhi Goyal, Magdalena Stock, Dominik Driesch, Abid Hussain, Luis Carlos Berrocal-Almanza, Rajashekar Myakala, Gaddam Sumanlatha, Vijayalakshmi Valluri, Niyaz Ahmed, Ralf R Schumann, Carlos Flores, Hortense Slevogt
Tuberculosis (TB) is a multifactorial disease governed by bacterial, host and environmental factors. On the host side, growing evidence shows the crucial role that genetic variants play in the susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Such polymorphisms have been described in genes encoding for different cytokines and pattern recognition receptors (PRR), including numerous Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In recent years, several members of the C-type lectin receptors (CTLRs) have been identified as key PRRs in TB pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Narendran Gopalan, Ramesh Kumar Santhanakrishnan, Alangudi Natarajan Palaniappan, Pradeep Aravindan Menon, Sekar Lakshman, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Gomathi Narayan Sivaramakrishnan, Devarajulu Reddy, Bhavani Perumal Kannabiran, Hemanth Kumar Kupparam Agiboth, Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Sridhar Rathinam, Chandrasekar Chockalingam, Tamizhselvan Manoharan, MahilMaran Ayyamperumal, Nalini Jayanthi, Kumar Satagopan, Ravichandran Narayanan, Raja Krishnaraja, Sekar Sathiyavelu, Bhanu Kesavamurthy, Chandra Suresh, Murugesan Selvachitiram, Gunasundari Arasan, Stella Susaimuthu, Prabhakaran Rathinam, Prabhakar Angamuthu, Lavanya Jayabal, Lakshmi Murali, Ranjani Ramachandran, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan
Importance: The benefit of daily over thrice-weekly antituberculosis therapy among HIV-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy remains unproven. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens in the treatment of HIV-associated pulmonary TB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted by the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, south India...
March 5, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Erik J Groessl, Theodore G Ganiats, Naomi Hillery, Andre Trollip, Roberta L Jackson, Donald G Catanzaro, Timothy C Rodwell, Richard S Garfein, Camilla Rodrigues, Valeriu Crudu, Thomas C Victor, Antonino Catanzaro
BACKGROUND: Growth-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) is the reference standard for diagnosing drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), but standard time to result (TTR) is typically ≥ 3 weeks. Rapid tests can reduce that TTR to days or hours, but accuracy may be lowered. In addition to the TTR and test accuracy, the cost of a diagnostic test may affect whether it is adopted in clinical settings. We examine the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostics for extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) in three different high-prevalence settings...
March 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Reyaz A Para, Bashir A Fomda, Rafi A Jan, Sonaullah Shah, Parvaiz A Koul
Background: There is a paucity of literature regarding the microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in India. The current study was aimed to study the microbial etiology of hospitalized adults with CAP. Methods: The study was conducted in a 700-bedded North Indian hospital. Consecutive adults admitted with CAP over a period of 2 years from 2013 to 2015 were recruited for the study, and apart from clinical evaluation underwent various microbiological studies in the form of blood culture, sputum culture, urinary antigen for pneumococcus and Legionella, serology for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for influenza viruses...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
J Zhang, Y K Fan, P Wang, Q Q Chen, G Wang, A E Xu, L Q Chen, R Hu, W Chen, Z Q Song, F Hao
BACKGROUND: China has one of the largest populations with tuberculosis worldwide. Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare manifestation of mycobacterial infection. Although CTB is well described, it is important to periodically revisit the prevailing clinical and epidemiological features in most populated countries such as China, India, and Indonesia, where tuberculosis is still a major health problem. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to reevaluate the CTB cases in China in the past 50 years to btain a comprehensive insight into this multiplex entity...
February 23, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Agibothu Kupparam Hemanth Kumar, Alok Kumar, Thiruvengadam Kannan, Rakesh Bhatia, Dipti Agarwal, Santosh Kumar, Rajeshwar Dayal, Sheo Pratap Singh, Geetha Ramachandran
We studied the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin (LFX), pyrazinamide (PZA), ethionamide (ETH) and cycloserine (CS) in children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) being treated according to the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines in India. This observational, pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 25 children with MDR TB at the Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, India who were being treated with a 24-month daily regimen. Serial blood samples were collected after directly observed administration of drugs...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Poonam Ramesh Naik, Patrick K Moonan, Abhay Subhashrao Nirgude, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Srinath Satyanarayana, Pracheth Raghuveer, Malik Parmar, Chinnappareddy Ravichandra, Anil Singarajipura
Of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), <50% complete treatment. Most treatment failures for patients with MDR TB are due to death during TB treatment. We sought to determine the proportion of deaths during MDR TB treatment attributable to TB itself. We used a structured verbal autopsy tool to interview family members of patients who died during MDR TB treatment in India during January-December 2016. A committee triangulated information from verbal autopsy, death certificate, or other medical records available with the family members to ascertain the underlying cause of death...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Michael Held, Sophie Castelein, Marie-Fien Bruins, Maritz Laubscher, Robert Dunn, Marius Keel, Sufian Ahmad, Sven Hoppe
Study Design: Bibliometric review of the literature. Objective: This bibliometric analysis aims to give an overview of the most influential academic literature written on spinal tuberculosis. Methods: All databases included in the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge were searched for the most influential publications in spinal tuberculosis. The most cited articles published between 1950 and 2015, with the main focus on orthopedic surgery, were identified using a multistep approach, and a total of 100 articles were included...
February 2018: Global Spine Journal
Gabriella Ferlazzo, Erika Mohr, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Catherine Hewison, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Naira Khachatryan, Virginia De Avezedo, Lusine Egazaryan, Amir Shroufi, Stobdan Kalon, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline and delamanid have been approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in the past 5 years. Because of theoretical safety concerns, patients have been unable to access the two drugs in combination. Médecins Sans Frontières has supported the use of combination bedaquiline and delamanid for people with few treatment options since 2016. We describe early safety and efficacy of regimens containing the bedaquiline and delamanid combination in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Yerevan, Armenia; Mumbai, India; and Khayelitsha, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Betsy Rebecca, Anila Chacko, Valsan Verghese, Winsley Rose
Background: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is often underdiagnosed with poor estimate of its true burden. Availability of Xpert MTB/RIF assay enhances diagnostic capacity of pediatric TB. Methods: A 3-year retrospective review of hospital records was done for all children diagnosed with confirmed and unconfirmed TB. Comparison was made between intrathoracic, single-site extrathoracic and disseminated TB. Results: In total, 274 children had TB with 130 (47...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Colin Millard, Abhay B Kadam, Rushikesh Mahajan, Allyson M Pollock, Petra Brhlikova
Background: The aim of this study is to assess the availability and rational use of six essential medicines in private retail outlets in Maharashtra state. The study focuses on the range of brands for each medicine, and the availability of these brands in the pharmacies. The medicines were chosen because they are included in the World Health Organization's (WHO) essential medicines list (EML), the Indian national and Maharashtra state medicines list, and are all included in existing Indian public health initiatives and national disease control programmes...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Vandana Midha, Ramit Mahajan, Varun Mehta, Vikram Narang, Arshdeep Singh, Kirandeep Kaur, Ajit Sood
Background/Aims: Data on the efficacy and safety of the adalimumab biosimilar Exemptia are limited. Methods: Patients with moderate-to-severe active steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) treated at Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, India were offered cyclosporine A, biologicals or biosimilars, or surgery. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who were treated with the adalimumab biosimilar, Exemptia. These patients were administered an induction dosing schedule of 160 mg Exemptia at week 0, 80 mg at week 2, and then 40 mg every other week from week 4 to 8...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
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