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India tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331837/public-health-relevance-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-among-afb-positive-sputa
#1
Prabha Desikan, Karuna Tiwari, Nikita Panwalkar, Saima Khaliq, Manju Chourey, Reeta Varathe, Shaina Beg Mirza, Arun Sharma, Sridhar Anand, Manoj Pandey
BACKGROUND: Sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB) is used by most public health programmes to detect tuberculosis. While most AFB in countries endemic for tuberculosis are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), some may also be non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The inability to differentiate NTM from MTB by sputum smear microscopy may lead to erroneous diagnoses of tuberculosis, leading in turn to inappropriate therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of consecutive sputum samples received from November 2013 to March 2015 in the Department of Microbiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre, Bhopal, India...
March 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331251/is-focus-on-prevention-missing-in-national-health-programs-a-situation-analysis-of-iec-bcc-health-promotion-activities-in-a-district-setting-of-punjab-and-haryana
#2
Jarnail Singh Thakur, Nidhi Jaswal, Ashoo Grover
CONTEXT: Health promotion (HP) has been an integral part of all national programs although it has been a low priority in India, which has resulted in a failure to achieve the desired results. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Situation analysis of information education communication (IEC)/behavior change communication (BCC)/HP activities within the existing national health programs was undertaken in the district of Hoshiarpur in Punjab and the district of Ambala in Haryana during 2013-14...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327478/effectiveness-of-symptom-screening-and-incidence-of-tuberculosis-among-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv-infection-in-india
#3
C Padmapriyadarsini, P K Bhavani, L Sekar, M Selvaraj, N Poornagangadevi, S N Mothi, K Nandagopal, S Vennila, G K Priyadarshini, Mahesh Manisha, G Sanjeeva, Upasna Agarwal, E Suresh, B B Rewari, Soumya Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends the use of a simplified symptom-based algorithm for screening for tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of this algorithm and determined the prevalence and incidence of TB among PLHIV attending antiretroviral treatment (ART) centres in India. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentric implementation research study in four states of India. To rule out TB, we administered the WHO symptom-screen algorithm to all PLHIV every month for 6 months...
November 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318350/clinical-course-and-outcomes-of-pediatric-tubercular-uveitis-in-north-india
#4
Savleen Kaur, Kanika Aggarwal, Aniruddha Agarwal, Deepti Suri, Anju Gupta, Ramandeep Singh, Reema Bansal, Surjit Singh, Nirbhai Singh, Amod Gupta, Vishali Gupta
PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical features, course, management, and outcomes of tubercular (TB) uveitis in the pediatric population and assess the response to anti-tubercular therapy (ATT). METHODS: Hospital records of children (≤16 years) from a large tertiary-care institute between January 2001 and December 2015 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 32 children (mean age: 10.7 ± 4.27 years; range 2-16) were diagnosed with TB-associated uveitis...
March 20, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318342/pattern-of-uveitic-hypotony-in-a-tertiary-eye-hospital-in-india
#5
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Keerthi Burugupalli, Nitin Kumar Menia, Sudha K Ganesh, Jyotirmay Biswas
PURPOSE: To report pattern of uveitic patients with hypotony in Indian population. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of 30 eyes of 21 consecutive patients with uveitic hypotony. Patient demographics, ocular findings and systemic association were recorded. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 29.5 years (range 7-71 years) and 80.9%(17 patients) were below the age of 40 years. Most common complaint associated with the development of hypotony was diminution of vision (26 eyes; 86...
March 20, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317800/are-who-approved-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-causing-large-scale-false-identification-of-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-programmatic-experience-from-south-india
#6
Praveen Sanker, Anusree P Ambika, Vishnu T Santhosh, Ramya Puthukkudi Kottuthodi, Ravikrishnan Balakrishnan, Sunil Kumar Mrithunjayan, Hisham Moosan
INTRODUCTION: The nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs): Line probe assay and GeneXpert (Xpert) have evolved as the primary tool for identification of rifampicin (RIF)-resistant (RR) tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, primarily because of the ease and speed. We rechecked RR isolates identified by NAATs from presumptive RR TB cases belonging to South India by the Revised National TB Control Program, India using multiple RIF concentrations on Bactec MGIT system and compared the mutation patterns with the resistance levels...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315657/magnitude-and-determinants-of-adverse-treatment-outcomes-among-tuberculosis-patients-registered-under-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-program-in-a-tuberculosis-unit-wardha-central-india-a-record-based-cohort-study
#7
Anuj Mundra, Pradeep R Deshmukh, Ajay Dawale
INTRODUCTION: Deaths, defaults, relapses, and treatment failures have made the control of TB difficult across the globe. METHODOLOGY: This study is a record-based follow-up of a cohort of patients registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in the year 2014 in Wardha Tuberculosis Unit, India. Data were collected from the records available at the District Tuberculosis Office. RESULTS: Data of 510 patients were analyzed. The sputum conversion rate was 88%...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303834/trends-in-spoligotype-patterns-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-in-central-india
#8
Prabha Desikan, Devendra S Chauhan, Nikita Panwalkar, Pragya Sharma, Priyanka Yadav
This study aims to understand trends in spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Central India. Elucidation of these trends may provide baseline information to understand the transmission dynamics of strains of MTB in the region. Spoligotyping was carried out on 340 MTB strains isolated from clinical samples received from 2007 to 2011. The prevalence of ST26/CAS1_Del, ST11/EAI3_IND, ST288/CAS2, ST25/CAS1_Del and Beijing lineages showed waxing and waning trends. ST26/CAS1_Del and ST11/EAI3_IND lineages were consistently present and were predominant...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284257/role-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-in-preventing-tuberculous-infection
#9
S Adinarayanan, R K Culp, R Subramani, K M Abbas, S Radhakrishna, S Swaminathan
SETTING: Rural community in South India. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in preventing tuberculous infection in children. DESIGN: A prevalence survey was undertaken in 1999-2001 in a representative rural population in Tiruvallur District in South India using cluster sampling. Tuberculin testing was performed among all children aged <15 years, and all adults aged 15 years were questioned about chest symptoms and underwent radiography, followed by sputum examinations, if indicated...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284256/novel-interferon-gamma-assays-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-young-children-in-india
#10
N Shaikh, A Gupte, S Dharmshale, S Pokkali, M Thakar, V J Upadhye, A A Ordonez, A Kinikar, N Gupte, V Mave, A Kagal, A Gupta, A Lalvani, R Paranjpe, R Bharadwaj, S K Jain
SETTING: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used as supportive evidence to diagnose active tuberculosis (TB). Novel IGRAs could improve diagnosis, but data are lacking in young children. DESIGN: Children (age 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively screened at a tertiary hospital in Pune, India; the children underwent TST, and standard (early secretory antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10) and enhanced (five additional novel antigens) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284251/bottom-up-or-top-down-unit-cost-estimation-of-tuberculosis-diagnostic-tests-in-india
#11
S Rupert, A Vassall, N Raizada, S D Khaparde, C Boehme, V S Salhotra, K S Sachdeva, S A Nair, A H Van't Hoog
SETTING: Of 18 sites that participated in an implementation study of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in India, we selected five microscopy centres and two reference laboratories. OBJECTIVE: To obtain unit costs of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB. DESIGN: Laboratories were purposely selected to capture regional variations and different laboratory types. Both bottom-up and the top-down methods were used to estimate unit costs...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284250/estimating-tuberculosis-incidence-from-primary-survey-data-a-mathematical-modeling-approach
#12
S Pandey, V K Chadha, R Laxminarayan, N Arinaminpathy
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for improved estimations of the burden of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To develop a new quantitative method based on mathematical modelling, and to demonstrate its application to TB in India. DESIGN: We developed a simple model of TB transmission dynamics to estimate the annual incidence of TB disease from the annual risk of tuberculous infection and prevalence of smear-positive TB. We first compared model estimates for annual infections per smear-positive TB case using previous empirical estimates from China, Korea and the Philippines...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282998/non-traumatic-vertebral-lesions-incremental-utility-of-pet-ct-over-mri-and-fnac-in-a-suggested-diagnostic-algorithm
#13
Rajesh Meena, Ashish Aggarwal, Anish Bhattacharya, Vivek Gupta, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Rajesh Chhabra
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FNAC for diagnosis of non- traumatic vertebral lesions fracture in countries like India where tuberculosis is endemic. METHODS: Fifty four patients with non-traumatic spontaneous vertebral lesions were prospectively studied. All patients underwent CEMRI focusing on the spinal lesions, whole-body PET-CT and FNAC.Results were then analysed and compared with final diagnosis obtained either by FNAC or clinical follow up...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274020/role-of-cross-sectional-imaging-in-isolated-chest-wall-tuberculosis
#14
Deb Kumar Boruah, Shantiranjan Sanyal, Barun K Sharma, Arjun Prakash, Dhabal D Dhingani, Karobi Bora
INTRODUCTION: Isolated chest wall tuberculosis though a rare entity, the incidence of it has been on rise among immunocompromised population making it an important challenging diagnosis for the physicians. Its clinical presentation may resemble pyogenic chest wall abscess or chest wall soft tissue tumour. Sometimes it is difficult to detect clinically or on plain radiograph. AIM: The present study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the common sites and varying appearances of isolated chest wall tuberculosis...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271846/non-communicable-disease-syndemics-poverty-depression-and-diabetes-among-low-income-populations
#15
REVIEW
Emily Mendenhall, Brandon A Kohrt, Shane A Norris, David Ndetei, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
The co-occurrence of health burdens in transitioning populations, particularly in specific socioeconomic and cultural contexts, calls for conceptual frameworks to improve understanding of risk factors, so as to better design and implement prevention and intervention programmes to address comorbidities. The concept of a syndemic, developed by medical anthropologists, provides such a framework for preventing and treating comorbidities. The term syndemic refers to synergistic health problems that affect the health of a population within the context of persistent social and economic inequalities...
March 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253922/counting-the-lives-saved-by-dots-in-india-a-model-based-approach
#16
Sandip Mandal, Vineet K Chadha, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Nimalan Arinaminpathy
BACKGROUND: Against the backdrop of renewed efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, there is a need for improved methods to estimate the public health impact of TB programmes. Such methods should not only address the improved outcomes amongst those receiving care but should also account for the impact of TB services on reducing transmission. METHODS: Vital registration data in India are not sufficiently reliable for estimates of TB mortality. As an alternative approach, we developed a mathematical model of TB transmission dynamics and mortality, capturing the scale-up of DOTS in India, through the rollout of the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP)...
March 3, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246455/molecular-markers-for-resistance-against-infectious-diseases-of-economic-importance
#17
REVIEW
B M Prajapati, J P Gupta, D P Pandey, G A Parmar, J D Chaudhari
Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Some of the major infectious diseases which have great economic impact on Indian dairy industries are tuberculosis (TB), Johne's disease (JD), mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), foot and mouth disease, etc...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245710/diabetes-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-global-overview-with-special-focus-on-the-situation-in-asian-countries-with-high-tb-dm-burden
#18
Chunlan Zheng, Minhui Hu, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: The double burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is hitting certain Asian countries harder than other areas. In a global estimate, 15% of all TB cases could be attributable to DM, with 40% of those cases coming from India and China. Many other countries of South, East, and South-East Asia are of particular concern given their TB burdens, large projected increases in DM prevalence, and population size. OBJECTIVE: In this narrative review, we aimed to: (i) give an overall insight into the evidence on TB-DM epidemiology from high double burden Asian countries, (ii) present the evidence on bi-directional screening implementation in this region, (iii) discuss possible factors related to higher TB susceptibility of Asian diabetic patients, and (iv) identify TB-DM comorbidity treatment challenges...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242663/factors-influencing-tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-in-adult-patients-treated-with-thrice-weekly-regimens-in-india
#19
Geetha Ramachandran, A K Hemanth Kumar, V Chandrasekaran, T Kannan, R Vijayalakshmi, V N Azger Dusthackeer, K Ramesh, J Lavanya, Soumya Swaminathan
The Indian Revised National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme uses thrice-weekly treatment with standard drug dosages. The role of plasma drug levels and other factors in determining TB treatment outcomes is not well understood. We aimed to determine factors influencing 2-hour post-dosing concentrations of rifampicin (RMP), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) in adult TB patients and to study factors impacting TB treatment outcome. We recruited 1912 adult TB patients (new and re-treatment) with pulmonary/extrapulmonary TB, receiving anti-TB treatment (ATT) in the RNTCP in Chennai city...
February 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239319/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency-viral-infections-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-north-india
#20
Parnita Harsh, Vipin Gupta, Saurabh Kedia, Sawan Bopanna, Sucharita Pilli, Surendernath, Govind Kumar Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often require immunosuppressive therapy and blood transfusions and therefore are at a high risk of contracting infections due to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the present study, we assessed the prevalence of these infections in patients with IBD. METHODS: This retrospective study included 908 consecutive patients with IBD (ulcerative colitis [UC], n=581; Crohn's disease [CD], n=327) who were receiving care at a tertiary care center...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
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