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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802406/real-time-pcr-followed-by-high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis-a-rapid-and-pragmatic-approach-for-screening-of-multidrug-resistant-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#1
Kusum Sharma, Megha Sharma, Shreya Singh, Manish Modi, Aman Sharma, Pallab Ray, Subhash Varma
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge in an endemic country like India. Timely detection of MDR-TB can contribute to a better patient outcome. OBJECTIVE: To perform real-time PCR (qPCR) using rpoB, mpb64 and IS6110 gene on a variety of EPTB samples and to compare the performance of different gene targets. All qPCR positive samples were subjected to high resolution melt-curve analysis (HRM analysis) for rpoB and katG gene to evaluate its potential for MDR screening among different sample types...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799307/guiding-principles-for-the-use-of-fluroquinolones-in-out-patient-community-settings-of-india-panel-consensus
#2
Agam Vora, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that is looming large especially in context of antibiotic resistance that is confronted both by a pulmonologist as well as a general practitioner. A reflection to this trend has been the rising phenomenon of MICs as shown the respiratory pathogens towards conventional antibiotics including macrolides or β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Respiratory fluoroquinolones offer broad yet potent cover of respiratory pathogens leading to their obvious choice for empirical therapy for clinical persisters or high risk cases with prior history of antibiotics not-withstanding the clinical concerns in tropical countries...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793376/genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-screening-and-characterization-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-associated-mutations-in-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-india
#3
Sunil Sethi, Rakesh Yadav, Shreya Singh, Rajiv Khaneja, Ashutosh Aggarwal, Priyanka Agarwal, Digambar Behera
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is rising and World health organization has recommended the line probe assay (LPA) for screening. In this study we assess LPA at a tertiary care center from North India in 1758 samples from suspected MDR-TB cases. All smear positive and/or M.tuberculosis culture confirmed cases (n=1170) were subjected to GenoType-MTBDR assay. Amongst these the majority were retreatment cases, smear positive at diagnosis (n=637). MDR prevalence of 7.8% was observed with the highest cases reported amongst MDR contacts (33...
August 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791686/the-role-of-dna-polymerase-chain-reaction-culture-and-histopathology-in-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-tuberculosis
#4
Puneet Agarwal, Elangbam Nelson Singh, Uma Shankar Agarwal, Ramsingh Meena, Saroj Purohit, Surendra Kumar
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging as a significant problem in India due to increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), other immunosuppressive states/factors like drugs, and emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR-TB). Proper diagnosis is warranted as there is varied clinical presentation and similarity with many other diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivities of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, and histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous TB in clinically suspected skin lesions...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791245/diagnostic-yield-and-safety-of-closed-needle-pleural-biopsy-in-exudative-pleural-effusion
#5
Govind Singh Rajawat, Supreet Batra, Rajendra Prasad Takhar, Lalit Rathi, Chand Bhandari, Manohar Lal Gupta
BACKGROUND: Closed pleural biopsy was previously considered a procedure of choice in cases of undiagnosed pleural effusion with good efficacy. Currently, the closed pleural biopsy has been replaced by thoracoscopic biopsy but not easily available in resource-limited setups. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic yield and safety of closed needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion and assessment of patients' characteristics with the yield of pleural biopsy...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776532/etiology-and-outcome-of-moderate-to-massive-hemoptysis-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-of-north-india
#6
Ashish Bhalla, Ashok Kumar Pannu, Vikas Suri
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology of hemoptysis in patients presenting to emergency department of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. METHOD: Prospectively 110 patients presenting to the emergency department with history of hemoptysis were screened for a period of one and half years. Out of these, 64 patients having true hemoptysis were enrolled in the study. The patients were clinically evaluated with detailed history...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776529/treatment-outcome-of-patients-having-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-gujarat-india
#7
Krunal Prajapati, Vishal Mishra, Mira Desai, Rajesh Solanki, Purvi Naik
BACKGROUND: To investigate the factors affecting treatment outcome of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in Gujarat, India. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted on patients with XDR TB from January 2012 to October 2016. Details of demography, clinical symptoms, sputum/culture and radiological examination, drug treatment, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and treatment outcome were recorded in pretested case record form (CRF). Data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and paired student's t test...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776523/screening-of-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#8
Anand Bimari Janagond, Vithiya Ganesan, G S Vijay Kumar, Arunagiri Ramesh, Prem Anand, M Mariappan
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. While national-level data on the burden of TB in general population is available from reliable sources, nationally representative data on latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden in HCWs in the high burden countries is lacking. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to assess the risk of TB infection among HCWs who directly engage in medical duties...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776520/a-neglected-infection-in-literature-childhood-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-most-influential-papers
#9
REVIEW
Michael Held, Marie-Fien Bruins, Sophie Castelein, Maritz Laubscher, Robert Dunn, Sven Hoppe
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is known to have a wide range of presentations, and if left untreated, primary TB may lead to bone and joint involvement. The literature on this topic is very scarce, and no comprehensive systematic review or meta-analysis of the current knowledge is available to date. The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the literature with highest impact based on citation rate analysis. All databases of the Thomson and Reuters "Web of Knowledge" were used to conduct our search of the 100 most cited articles on this topic published between 1950 and 2014...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774694/improvement-of-fungal-disease-identification-and-management-combined-health-systems-and-public-health-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Donald C Cole, Nelesh P Govender, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Jahit Sacarlal, David W Denning
More than 1·6 million people are estimated to die of fungal diseases each year, and about a billion people have cutaneous fungal infections. Fungal disease diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and specialised laboratory testing, in addition to culture, histopathology, and imaging expertise. Physicians with varied specialist training might see patients with fungal disease, yet it might remain unrecognised. Antifungal treatment is more complex than treatment for bacterial or most viral infections, and drug interactions are particularly problematic...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764749/evaluation-of-antimycobacterial-leishmanicidal-and-antibacterial-activity-of-three-medicinal-orchids-of-arunachal-pradesh-india
#11
Manisha Bhatnagar, Nandan Sarkar, Nigam Gandharv, Ona Apang, Sarman Singh, Sabari Ghosal
BACKGROUND: The ethnic population of Arunachal Pradesh uses a number of orchids as such, or in decoction for various ailments. Three untapped orchids namely, Rhynchostylis retusa, Tropidia curculioides and Satyrium nepalense, traditionally used in tuberculosis, asthma and cold stage of malaria in folk medicine, were selected for the present study. METHODS: Dried material of each plant was divided into three parts. Solvent extraction and fractionation afforded altogether 30 extracts and fractions, which were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and MDR strain) for antimycobacterial activity; promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani for leishmanicidal activity and two gram positive and three gram negative clinical isolates for antibacterial activity...
August 1, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764205/prevalence-and-patterns-of-multimorbidity-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-people-in-odisha-india-an-exploratory-study
#12
Sanghamitra Pati, Shreeporna Bhattacharya, Subhashisa Swain
INTRODUCTION: Improved and efficient Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) has turned HIV positive into a chronic disorder. The increase in life expectancy and quality of life comes with an increased risk of multimorbidity from the traditional risk factors. AIM: To explore the prevalence of multimorbidity among People Living with HIV (PLHIV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study was carried out in an ART center of Odisha, India, from November 2013 to December 2013...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764146/role-of-anaemia-and-magnesium-levels-at-the-initiation-of-tuberculosis-therapy-with-sputum-conversion-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#13
Yuthika Agrawal, Vipin Goyal, Abhishek Singh, Sandhya Lal
INTRODUCTION: Both pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) and anaemia are prevalent in India. Magnesium levels also influence TB. There is limited and inconsistent literature on the association among anaemia, serum magnesium levels and sputum conversion during tuberculosis treatment. AIM: To study the effect of anaemia and serum magnesium levels on sputum conversion in pulmonary TB patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred each of newly diagnosed sputum smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB), sputum smear negative PTB patients initiated on Directly Observed Treatment Short Course chemotherapy (DOTS) and healthy age and sex matched controls were recruited in the study...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762894/how-patients-navigate-the-diagnostic-ecosystem-in-a-fragmented-health-system-a-qualitative-study-from-india
#14
Vijayashree Yellapa, Narayanan Devadasan, Anja Krumeich, Nitika Pant Pai, Caroline Vadnais, Madhukar Pai, Nora Engel
BACKGROUND: Depending on a country's diagnostic infrastructure, patients and providers play different roles in ensuring that correct and timely diagnosis is made. However, little is known about the work done by patients in accessing diagnostic services and completing the 'test and treat' loop. OBJECTIVE: To address this knowledge gap, we traced the diagnostic journeys of patients with tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension and typhoid, and examined the work they had to do to arrive at a diagnosis...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761548/intracranial-en-plaque-tuberculoma-impersonating-en-plaque-meningioma-case-report-and-brief-review-of-literature
#15
Jayendra Kumar, Jeevesh Mallik, Ben A Strickland, Viraat Harsh, Anil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis of the central nervous system continues to be a major health hazard in developing countries like India. There are various manifestations of central nervous system tuberculosis including meningitis and space occupying lesions. We present a case of tuberculoma en-plaque which is often initially confused with a meningioma on presentation. We also review the literature relevant to this unusual entity. METHODS: A search of PubMed, PubMed Central, the Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE were performed to identify all English language reports of intracranial en-plaque tuberculomas...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756826/frequency-of-multi-drug-resistance-and-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-punjab-state-of-india
#16
Ritu Singhal, Jyoti Arora, Grish C Sah, Manpreet Bhalla, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
Data regarding prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and associated common mutations is scarce from Punjab region. The study was designed to determine rate of MDR-TB among presumptive MDR-TB from Punjab and mutation patterns using GenoType MTBDRplus assay. Total of 812 consecutive sputum samples were received from January 2012 to July 2013, from 14 districts of Punjab at the National Reference Laboratory at New Delhi for diagnosis of MDR-TB as hand holding activity. Presumptive MDR-TB patients were identified on basis of criterion B defined by the programme...
September 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754448/evaluation-of-omnigene%C3%A2-%C3%A2-sputum-for-tuberculosis-sample-processing-and-liquid-culture-at-a-hospital-laboratory-in-india
#17
Remya Nambiar, Kaitlyn Shaw, Patricia S Curry
This preliminary evaluation examined the reagent OMNIgene®•SPUTUM (OM-S) as a tool to eliminate NaOH/NALC processing prior to Middlebrook liquid culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). Twenty-seven manually split samples (OM-S-treated vs. NaOH/NALC) showed 100% agreement: 81.5% MTb-positive and 18.5% MTb-negative. On average, OM-S-treated specimens required 1.2 additional days to culture positivity.
July 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749390/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india-current-evidence-on-diagnosis-management
#18
REVIEW
Rajendra Prasad, Abhijeet Singh, Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Nikhil Gupta
Emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has significantly threatened to jeopardize global efforts to control TB, especially in HIV endemic regions. XDR-TB is mainly an iatrogenically created issue, and understanding the epidemiological and risk factors associated with it is of paramount importance in curbing this menace. Emergence of this deadly phenomenon can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment with second-line drugs in rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) as well as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730751/tuberculosis-and-biologics-in-rheumatology-india-a-special-situation
#19
REVIEW
Rohini Handa, Sundeep Upadhyaya, Sanjiv Kapoor, Ramesh Jois, Bimlesh D Pandey, Anuj K Bhatnagar, Ashwani Khanna, Vishal Goyal, Kamal Kumar
India has a huge patient burden of rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatoid arthritis. The use of biologics has transformed the treatment paradigm for RD; however, biologic treatment-related infections (especially tuberculosis [TB]) are an area of potential concern for TB-endemic nations like India. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy impairs the physiological TNF-mediated signaling and may cause reactivation and dissemination of latent TB infection (LTBI). Careful screening is, thus, crucial in RD patients who are about to commence anti-TNF treatment...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729202/high-proportion-of-modern-genotypes-of-m-tuberculosis-and-their-affinity-with-drug-resistance-in-northern-region-of-india
#20
Sunil Kumar Dhatwalia, Rakesh Yadav, Digambar Behera, Harsimran Kaur, Manoj Kumar, Sunil Sethi
OBJECTIVES: Comparative genomics on the basis of TbD1 deletion has differentiated the members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in two major genogroups. They exhibit differential distribution and virulence potential. The present study was carried out to see the proportion of these genogroups and their association with drug resistance. METHODS: The drug resistance pattern of 205 culture positive cases of M. tuberculosis and their relation with TbD1 deletion was analysed from the tertiary care centre...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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