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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343366/motor-learning-in-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-motor-cortex
#1
REVIEW
Tonghui Xu, Shaofang Wang, Rupa R Lalchandani, Jun B Ding
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion causes major changes in the brain, resulting in the typical cardinal motor features of the disease. PD neuropathology has been restricted to postmortem examinations, which are limited to only a single time of PD progression. Models of PD in which dopamine tone in the brain is chemically or physically disrupted are valuable tools in understanding the mechanisms of the disease. The basal ganglia have been well studied in the context of PD, and circuit changes in response to dopamine loss have been linked to the motor dysfunctions in PD...
March 25, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343297/association-of-the-cx3cr1-v249i-variant-with-neurofibrillary-pathology-progression-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Alan López-López, Ellen Gelpi, Diana Maria Lopategui, Jose M Vidal-Taboada
Neuroinflammation and microglial dysfunction have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). CX3CR1 is a microglia-specific gene involved in microglia-neuron crosstalk and neuroinflammation. Numerous evidence show the involvement of CX3CR1 in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate if some functional genetic variants of this gene could influence on LOAD's outcome, in a neuropathologically confirmed Spanish cohort. We designed an open, pragmatic, case-control retrospective study including a total of 475 subjects (205 pathologically confirmed AD cases and 270 controls)...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340083/evaluating-the-patterns-of-aging-related-tau-astrogliopathy-unravels-novel-insights-into-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Gabor G Kovacs, John L Robinson, Sharon X Xie, Edward B Lee, Murray Grossman, David A Wolk, David J Irwin, Dan Weintraub, Christopher F Kim, Theresa Schuck, Ahmed Yousef, Stephanie T Wagner, Eunran Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
The term "aging-related tau astrogliopathy" (ARTAG) describes pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes. We evaluated the correlates of ARTAG types (i.e., subpial, subependymal, white and gray matter, and perivascular) in different neuroanatomical regions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic (eg, APOE ε4 allele, MAPT H1/H2 haplotype) data from 628 postmortem brains from subjects were investigated; most of the patients had been longitudinally followed at the University of Pennsylvania...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339400/a-systematic-review-of-the-huntington-disease-like-2-phenotype
#4
David G Anderson, Ruth H Walker, Myles Connor, Jonathan Carr, Russell L Margolis, Amanda Krause
BACKGROUND: Huntington Disease-like 2 (HDL2) is a neurodegenerative disorder similar to Huntington Disease (HD) in its clinical phenotype, genetic characteristics, neuropathology and longitudinal progression. Proposed specific differences include an exclusive African ancestry, lack of eye movement abnormalities, increased Parkinsonism, and acanthocytes in HDL2. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the similarities and differences between HD and HDL2 by establishing the clinical phenotype of HDL2 with the published cases...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339077/paeoniflorin-attenuates-the-neuroinflammatory-response-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-constriction-injury
#5
Jianyu Zhou, Jingxia Wang, Wei Li, Chenglong Wang, Li Wu, Jianjun Zhang
Neuropathic pain remains the most frequent cause of suffering and disability worldwide. Paeoniflorin (PF), a water‑soluble monoterpene glycoside extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has a wide range of pharmacological functions. Although the neuroprotective effect of PF has been reported in animal models of neuropathology, no systematic investigation has reported on the analgesic properties of PF in neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PF can alleviate neuropathic pain and to examine its possible mechanism...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337129/novel-neuromodulation-techniques-to-assess-interhemispheric-communication-in-neural-injury-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Samuel S Shin, Galit Pelled
Interhemispheric interaction has a major role in various neurobehavioral functions. Its disruption is a major contributor to the pathological changes in the setting of brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, peripheral nerve injury, and stroke, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Because interhemispheric interaction has a crucial role in functional consequence in these neuropathological states, a review of noninvasive and state-of-the-art molecular based neuromodulation methods that focus on or have the potential to elucidate interhemispheric interaction have been performed...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337124/interleukin-4-protects-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vitro-but-is-dispensable-for-mptp-induced-neurodegeneration-in-vivo
#7
Laura Hühner, Jennifer Rilka, Ralf Gilsbach, Xiaolai Zhou, Venissa Machado, Björn Spittau
Microglia are involved in physiological as well as neuropathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Their functional states are often referred to as M1-like and M2-like activation, and are believed to contribute to neuroinflammation-mediated neurodegeneration or neuroprotection, respectively. Parkinson's disease (PD) is one the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335020/znhit3-is-defective-in-peho-syndrome-a-severe-encephalopathy-with-cerebellar-granule-neuron-loss
#8
Anna-Kaisa Anttonen, Anni Laari, Maria Kousi, Yawei J Yang, Tiina Jääskeläinen, Mirja Somer, Eija Siintola, Eveliina Jakkula, Mikko Muona, Saara Tegelberg, Tuula Lönnqvist, Helena Pihko, Leena Valanne, Anders Paetau, Melody P Lun, Johanna Hästbacka, Outi Kopra, Tarja Joensuu, Nicholas Katsanis, Maria K Lehtinen, Jorma J Palvimo, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki
Progressive encephalopathy with oedema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy (PEHO) syndrome is an early childhood onset, severe autosomal recessive encephalopathy characterized by extreme cerebellar atrophy due to almost total granule neuron loss. By combining homozygosity mapping in Finnish families with Sanger sequencing of positional candidate genes and with exome sequencing a homozygous missense substitution of leucine for serine at codon 31 in ZNHIT3 was identified as the primary cause of PEHO syndrome. ZNHIT3 encodes a nuclear zinc finger protein previously implicated in transcriptional regulation and in small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle assembly and thus possibly to pre-ribosomal RNA processing...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334883/selective-impairment-of-hippocampus-and-posterior-hub-areas-in-alzheimer-s-disease-an-meg-based-multiplex-network-study
#9
Meichen Yu, Marjolein M A Engels, Arjan Hillebrand, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Charlotte Teunissen, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Cornelis J Stam
Although frequency-specific network analyses have shown that functional brain networks are altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease, the relationships between these frequency-specific network alterations remain largely unknown. Multiplex network analysis is a novel network approach to study complex systems consisting of subsystems with different types of connectivity patterns. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography to integrate five frequency-band specific brain networks in a multiplex framework...
March 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332488/parkinson-disease
#10
REVIEW
Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi, Caroline M Tanner, Glenda M Halliday, Patrik Brundin, Jens Volkmann, Anette-Eleonore Schrag, Anthony E Lang
Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332094/cryptic-exon-incorporation-occurs-in-alzheimer-s-brain-lacking-tdp-43-inclusion-but-exhibiting-nuclear-clearance-of-tdp-43
#11
Mingkuan Sun, William Bell, Katherine D LaClair, Jonathan P Ling, Heather Han, Yusuke Kageyama, Olga Pletnikova, Juan C Troncoso, Philip C Wong, Liam L Chen
Abnormal accumulation of TDP-43 into cytoplasmic or nuclear inclusions with accompanying nuclear clearance, a common pathology initially identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), has also been found in Alzheimer' disease (AD). TDP-43 serves as a splicing repressor of nonconserved cryptic exons and that such function is compromised in brains of ALS and FTD patients, suggesting that nuclear clearance of TDP-43 underlies its inability to repress cryptic exons. However, whether TDP-43 cytoplasmic aggregates are a prerequisite for the incorporation of cryptic exons is not known...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332092/the-spectrum-of-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#12
Leila Chimelli, Adriana S O Melo, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Clayton A Wiley, Aline H S Camacho, Vania S Lopes, Heloisa N Machado, Cecilia V Andrade, Dione C A Dock, Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Patricia S Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Angela C G Carvalho, Odile N Ugarte, Alba G M Batista, Melania M R Amorim, Fabiana O Melo, Thales A Ferreira, Jacqueline R L Marinho, Girlene S Azevedo, Jeime I B F Leal, Rodrigo F Madeiro da Costa, Stevens Rehen, Monica B Arruda, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Rodrigo Delvechio, Renato S Aguiar, Amilcar Tanuri
A major concern associated with ZIKV infection is the increased incidence of microcephaly with frequent calcifications in infants born from infected mothers. To date, postmortem analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) in congenital infection is limited to individual reports or small series. We report a comprehensive neuropathological study in ten newborn babies infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, including the spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and also muscle, pituitaries, eye, systemic organs, and placentas...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331471/manipulating-micrornas-in-murine-models-targeting-the-multi-targeting-in-epilepsy
#13
David C Henshall
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that work posttranscriptionally to negatively regulate protein levels. They influence neuronal and glial structure and function, neuroinflammatory signaling, cell death, neurogenesis, and other processes relevant to epileptogenesis. Functional studies using oligonucleotide inhibitors (antagomirs) and mimics (agomirs) to modulate microRNAs in rat and mouse models of epilepsy show effects on evoked and spontaneous seizures and attendant neuropathology. The present review summarizes recent findings and points to gaps in our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms and directions for the future...
January 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330543/-vascular-dementia
#14
Kristian Steen Frederiksen
Vascular dementia comprises a heterogeneous group of conditions covering a range of clinical and neuropathological presentations of cerebrovascular disease-causing dementia. Vascular dementia is a common occurrence, but many questions regarding the disease remain unanswered. Recently, proposed criteria focus on constructing an overarching disease concept, which captures both pre-dementia stages and the clinical and neuropathological heterogeneity. Future research should focus on identifying subtypes with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms in order to facilitate treatment development...
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330458/the-effects-of-an-extensive-exercise-programme-on-the-progression-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Kate E Devenney, Brian Lawlor, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Stefan Schneider
BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions to prevent dementia and delay cognitive decline have gained considerable attention in recent years. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that regular physical activity targets brain function by increasing cognitive reserve. There is also evidence of structural changes caused by exercise in preventing or delaying the genesis of neurodegeneration. Although initial studies indicate enhanced cognitive performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) following an exercise intervention, little is known about the effect of an extensive, controlled and regular exercise regimen on the neuropathology of patients with MCI...
March 22, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329845/spatiotemporal-progression-and-remission-of-lesions-in-the-rat-brain-following-acute-intoxication-with-diisopropylfluorophosphate
#16
Sílvia Sisó, Brad A Hobson, Danielle J Harvey, Donald A Bruun, Douglas J Rowland, Joel R Garbow, Pamela J Lein
Similar to organophosphate (OP) nerve agents, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) rapidly and irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase, leading to convulsions that can progress to status epilepticus (SE). However, in contrast to the OP nerve agents, the long-term consequences of DFP-induced SE are not well known. Thus, we characterized the spatiotemporal profile of neuropathology during the first two months following acute DFP intoxication. Adult, male Sprague Dawley rats administered pyridostigmine bromide (0...
March 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329842/magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-progressive-brain-injury-in-rats-acutely-intoxicated-with-diisopropylfluorophosphate
#17
Brad A Hobson, Sílvia Sisó, Douglas J Rowland, Danielle J Harvey, Donald A Bruun, Joel R Garbow, Pamela J Lein
Acute intoxication with organophosphates (OPs) can trigger seizures that progress to status epilepticus, and survivors often exhibit chronic neuropathology, cognitive impairment, affective disorders and/or electroencephalographic abnormalities. Understanding how acute injury transitions to persistent neurological sequelae is critical to developing medical countermeasures for mitigating damage following OP-induced seizures. Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of neuropathology for one month after acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)...
March 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329084/obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-early-but-possibly-modifiable-alzheimer-s-disease-changes
#18
Claudio Liguori, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Francesca Izzi, Andrea Romigi, Alberto Cordella, Giuseppe Sancesario, Fabio Placidi
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder. Actually, literature lacks studies examining sleep, cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cerebrospinal-fluid biomarkers in OSA patients. Therefore, we firstly studied cognitive performances, polysomnographic sleep, and CSF β-amyloid, tau proteins and lactate levels in patients affected by subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) divided in three groups: OSA patients (showing an Apnea-Hypopnea Index - AHI ≥15/h), controls (showing an AHI<15/h), and patients treating OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
January 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326890/functional-and-molecular-correlates-following-single-and-repeated-rat-closed-head-concussion-indices-of-vulnerability-following-brain-injury
#19
Andrea Mountney, Angela Boutte, Casandra M Cartagena, William J Flerlage, David Johnson, Chanyang Rho, Xi-Chun M Lu, Angela M Yarnell, Sean R Marcsisin, Jason Sousa, Chau Vuong, Victor E Zottig, Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Janice Gilsdorf, Frank C Tortella, Deborah A Shear
Closed-head concussive injury is one of the most common causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Isolated concussions frequently produce acute neurological impairments; however, individuals typically recover spontaneously within a short time frame. In contrast, brain injuries resulting from multiple concussions can result in cumulative damage and elevated risk of developing chronic brain pathologies, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Increased attention has focused on identification of diagnostic markers that can prognostically serve as indices of brain health after injury, revealing the temporal profile of vulnerability to a second insult...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326017/adiponectin-regulates-the-polarization-and-function-of-microglia-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-under-amyloid-%C3%AE-toxicity
#20
Juhyun Song, Seong-Min Choi, Byeong C Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), is gradually increasing globally. Given that AD is considered a neuroinflammatory disease, recent studies have focused on the cellular mechanisms in brain inflammatory conditions that underlie AD neuropathology. Microglia are macrophage cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that are activated in response to Aβ condition. The function of microglia contributes to the neuroinflammation in AD brain, suggesting that microglia regulate the production of inflammatory mediators and contribute to the regeneration of damaged tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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