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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665128/a-role-for-astrocyte-derived-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-the-degeneration-of-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
A Kodam, D Ourdev, M Maulik, J Hariharakrishnan, M Banerjee, Y Wang, S Kar
Kainic acid, an analogue of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, can trigger seizures and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and other limbic structures in a manner that mirrors the neuropathology of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying mechanisms associated with the neurotoxicity remain unclear. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease, can mediate toxicity by activating glutamatergic NMDA receptors, it is likely that the enhanced glutamatergic transmission that renders hippocampal neurons vulnerable to kainic acid treatment may involve Aβ peptides...
April 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662895/heme-oxygenase-1-activity-as-a-correlate-to-exercise-mediated-amelioration-of-cognitive-decline-and-neuropathological-alterations-in-an-aging-rat-model-of-dementia
#2
Andrea Kurucz, Mariann Bombicz, Rita Kiss, Dániel Priksz, Balázs Varga, Tibor Hortobágyi, György Trencsényi, Renáta Szabó, Anikó Pósa, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Zoltán Szilvássy, Béla Juhász
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment. Physical exercise has long been proven to be beneficial in the disorder. The present study was designed to examine the effect of voluntary exercise on spatial memory, imaging, and pathological abnormalities. Particular focus has been given to the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-an important cellular cytoprotectant in preserving mental acuity-using an aging rat model of dementia. Male and female Wistar rats were segregated into six groups-namely, (i) aged sedentary (control) females (ASF, n = 8); (ii) aged sedentary (control) males (ASM, n = 8); (iii) aged running females (ARF, n = 8); (iv) aged running males (ARM, n = 8); (v) young control females (YCF, n = 8); and (vi) young control males (YCM, n = 8)...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662464/white-matter-tract-alterations-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-impulse-control-disorders
#3
Mahtab Mojtahed Zadeh, Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Maryam Haghshomar, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are relatively frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), although it is still unclear whether an underlying pathological process plays a significant role in the development of ICD in PD apart from dopaminergic replacement therapy. In this study, we have investigated alterations of white matter tract in drug-naïve PD patients with ICDs via diffusion MRI connectometry. Our results showed that disrupted connectivity in the complex network of dynamic connections between cerebellum, basal ganglia, cortex, and its spinal projections serves as the underlying neuropathology of ICD in PD not interfered with the contribution of dopaminergic replacement therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660685/evidence-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-alterations-in-brain-and-bone-of-a-tauopathy-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Christine M Dengler-Crish, Hope C Ball, Li Lin, Kimberly M Novak, Lisa Noelle Cooper
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a significant comorbidity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect systemic regulatory pathway dysfunction. Low BMD has been identified in several AD mouse models selective for amyloid-β or tau pathology, but these deficits were attributed to diverse mechanisms. In this study, we identified common pathophysiological mechanisms accounting for bone loss and neurodegeneration in the htau mouse, a tauopathy model with an early low BMD phenotype. We investigated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-a cellular signaling cascade linked to both bone loss and neuropathology...
March 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660636/regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-major-depressive-disorder-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression-and-healthy-subjects
#5
Hui Sun, Lizhu Luo, Xinru Yuan, Lu Zhang, Yini He, Shuqiao Yao, Jiaojian Wang, Jing Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658744/when-does-cognitive-decline-begin-a-systematic-review-of-change-point-studies-on-accelerated-decline-in-cognitive-and-neurological-outcomes-preceding-mild-cognitive-impairment-dementia-and-death
#6
Justin E Karr, Raquel B Graham, Scott M Hofer, Graciela Muniz-Terrera
Older adults who ultimately develop dementia experience accelerated cognitive decline long before diagnosis. A similar acceleration in cognitive decline occurs in the years before death as well. To evaluate preclinical and terminal cognitive decline, past researchers have incorporated change points in their analyses of longitudinal data, identifying point estimates of how many years prior to diagnosis or death that decline begins to accelerate. The current systematic review aimed to summarize the published literature on preclinical and terminal change points in relation to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and death, identifying the order in which cognitive and neurological outcomes decline and factors that modify the onset and rate of decline...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656266/cortical-and-subcortical-changes-in-patients-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#7
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Hai Liao, Geliang Wang, Ru Li, Gaoxiong Duan, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a series of emotional, physical and behavioral symptoms. Although PMS is related to dysfunctions of the central nervous system, the neuropathological mechanism of PMS still has not been clearly established. The aim of this study is to evaluate potential differences in both cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in PMS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Twenty PMS patients and twenty HCs underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan and clinical assessment...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652574/transcriptomic-biomarkers-for-huntington-s-disease-are-gene-expression-signatures-in-whole-blood-reliable-biomarkers
#8
Maja Zadel, Aleš Maver, Anja Kovanda, Borut Peterlin
Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder manifesting as progressive impairment of motor function, cognitive decline, psychiatric symptoms, and immunological and endocrine dysfunction. We explored the consistency of blood transcriptomic biomarkers in HD based on a novel Slovene patient cohort and expert review of previous studies. HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChip microarrays were performed on the whole blood samples of a cohort of 23 HD mutation carriers and 23 controls to identify differentially expressed (DE) transcripts...
April 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643770/neural-control-of-startle-induced-locomotion-by-the-mushroom-bodies-and-associated-neurons-in-drosophila
#9
Jun Sun, An Qi Xu, Julia Giraud, Haiko Poppinga, Thomas Riemensperger, André Fiala, Serge Birman
Startle-induced locomotion is commonly used in Drosophila research to monitor locomotor reactivity and its progressive decline with age or under various neuropathological conditions. A widely used paradigm is startle-induced negative geotaxis (SING), in which flies entrapped in a narrow column react to a gentle mechanical shock by climbing rapidly upwards. Here we combined in vivo manipulation of neuronal activity and splitGFP reconstitution across cells to search for brain neurons and putative circuits that regulate this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643512/innate-immune-memory-in-the-brain-shapes-neurological-disease-hallmarks
#10
Ann-Christin Wendeln, Karoline Degenhardt, Lalit Kaurani, Michael Gertig, Thomas Ulas, Gaurav Jain, Jessica Wagner, Lisa M Häsler, Katleen Wild, Angelos Skodras, Thomas Blank, Ori Staszewski, Moumita Datta, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Vincenzo Capece, Md Rezaul Islam, Cemil Kerimoglu, Matthias Staufenbiel, Joachim L Schultze, Marc Beyer, Marco Prinz, Mathias Jucker, André Fischer, Jonas J Neher
Innate immune memory is a vital mechanism of myeloid cell plasticity that occurs in response to environmental stimuli and alters subsequent immune responses. Two types of immunological imprinting can be distinguished-training and tolerance. These are epigenetically mediated and enhance or suppress subsequent inflammation, respectively. Whether immune memory occurs in tissue-resident macrophages in vivo and how it may affect pathology remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to differential epigenetic reprogramming of brain-resident macrophages (microglia) that persists for at least six months...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642616/scutellarin-mitigates-a%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity-and-improves-behavior-impairments-in-ad-mice
#11
Yue-Qin Zeng, Yin-Bo Cui, Juan-Hua Gu, Chen Liang, Xin-Fu Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) within extracellular spaces of the brain. Aggregation of Aβ has been shown to trigger oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurotoxicity resulting in cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we use models of cerebral Aβ amyloidosis to investigate anti-amyloidogenic effects of scutellarin in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that scutellarin, through binding to Aβ42, efficiently inhibits oligomerization as well as fibril formation and reduces Aβ oligomer-induced neuronal toxicity in cell line SH-SY5Y...
April 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628909/interhemispheric-cortical-inhibition-is-reduced-in-young-adults-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#12
Jason L He, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G Enticott, Wei-Peng Teo, Pamela Barhoun, Christian Hyde
Introduction: While the etiology of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is yet to be established, brain-behavior modeling provides a cogent argument that neuropathology may subserve the motor difficulties typical of DCD. We argue that a number of the core behavioral features of the DCD profile (such as poor surround inhibition, compromised motor inhibition, and the presence of mirror movements) are consistent with difficulties regulating inhibition within the primary motor cortex (M1)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628907/diagnostic-criteria-for-parkinson-s-disease-from-james-parkinson-to-the-concept-of-prodromal-disease
#13
REVIEW
Luca Marsili, Giovanni Rizzo, Carlo Colosimo
The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on clinical features and differently to the common opinion that detecting this condition is easy, seminal clinicopathological studies have shown that up one-fourth of patients diagnosed as PD during life has an alternative diagnosis at postmortem. The misdiagnosis is even higher when only the initial diagnosis is considered, since the diagnostic accuracy improves by time, during follow-up visits. Given that the confirmation of the diagnosis of PD can be only obtained through neuropathology, to improve and facilitate the diagnostic-therapeutic workup in PD, a number of criteria and guidelines have been introduced in the last three decades...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627589/gaussian-process-uncertainty-in-age-estimation-as-a-measure-of-brain-abnormality
#14
Benjamin Gutierrez Becker, Tassilo Klein, Christian Wachinger
Multivariate regression models for age estimation are a powerful tool for assessing abnormal brain morphology associated to neuropathology. Age prediction models are built on cohorts of healthy subjects and are built to reflect normal aging patterns. The application of these multivariate models to diseased subjects usually results in high prediction errors, under the hypothesis that neuropathology presents a similar degenerative pattern as that of accelerated aging. In this work, we propose an alternative to the idea that pathology follows a similar trajectory than normal aging...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625114/memantine-treatment-of-juvenile-rats-with-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus
#15
Domenico L Di Curzio, Gurjit Nagra, Xiaoyan Mao, Marc R Del Bigio
Memantine is a selective, non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has previously been shown to have neuroprotective qualities in some animal models of neurologic disease. We hypothesized that memantine therapy would improve behavioral, neuropathological, and/or biochemical outcomes in juvenile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Three-week old rats received an injection of kaolin (aluminum silicate) into the cisterna magna. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed one week later to assess ventricle size and stratify rats to three treatment groups...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623934/acetyl-11-keto-%C3%AE-boswellic-acid-extracted-from-boswellia-serrata-promotes-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-sciatic-nerve-function-recovery
#16
Xiao-Wen Jiang, Bin-Qing Zhang, Lu Qiao, Lin Liu, Xue-Wei Wang, Wen-Hui Yu
Frankincense can promote blood circulation. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a small molecule with anti-inflammatory properties that is derived from Boswellia serrata. Here, we hypothesized that it may promote regeneration of injured sciatic nerve. To address this hypothesis, we established a rat model of sciatic nerve injury using a nerve clamping method. Rats were administered AKBA once every 2 days at doses of 1.5, 3, and 6 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection for 30 days from the 1st day after injury...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623843/differential-cued-stroop-performance-in-cognitively-asymptomatic-older-adults-with-biomarker-identified-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#17
Ryan Van Patten, Anne M Fagan, David A S Kaufman
BACKGROUND: There exists a need for more sensitive measures, capable of detecting subtle cognitive decline due to Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To advance the literature in Alzheimer's disease by demonstrating that performance on a cued-Stroop task is impacted by preclinical Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. METHOD: Twenty-nine cognitively asymptomatic older adults completed a computerized, cued-Stroop task in which accuracy rates and intraindividual variability in reaction times were the outcomes of interest...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623842/platelet-tau-protein-as-a-potential-peripheral-biomarker-in-alzheimer-s-disease-an-explorative-study
#18
Elizabeta B Mukaetova-Ladinska, Zeinab Abdell-All, Joana Andrade, Joaquim Alves da Silva, Irina Boksha, Gulnur Burbaeva, Raj N Kalaria, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures of tau and amyloid proteins have now been largely accepted to be a diagnostic tool to aid the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but CSF is not routinely obtained in most clinical settings. There is a need, therefore, to uncover additional readily accessible peripheral biomarkers that will enable comprehensive detection of AD-specific proteins in blood and blood derivates. OBJECTIVES: Blood platelets contain proteins found in neuronal cell lines, including tau protein...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623840/fruitless-wolfberry-sprout-extract-rescued-cognitive-deficits-and-attenuated-neuropathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-transgenic-mice
#19
Shu-Ying Liu, Shuai Lu, Xiao-Lin Yu, Shi-Gao Yang, Wen Liu, Xiang-Meng Liu, Shao-Wei Wang, Jie Zhu, Mei Ji, Dong-Qun Liu, Zi-Ping Zhang, Rui-Tian Liu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease featured by memory loss, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Overproduction or insufficient clearance of Aβ leads to the pathological aggregation and deposition, which is considered the predominant neuropathological hallmark of AD. Therefore, reducing Aβ levels and inhibiting Aβ-induced neurotoxicity are feasible therapeutic strategies for AD treatment. Wolfberry has been traditionally used as a natural antioxidant and anti-aging product...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623833/new-therapeutic-drugs-from-bioactive-natural-molecules-the-role-of-gut-microbiota-metabolism-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Francesco Di Meo, Stella Donato, Alba Di Pardo, Vittorio Maglione, Stefania Filosa, Stefania Crispi
The gut-brain axis is considered a neuroendocrine system, which connects brain and gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in stress response. The homeostasis of gut-brain axis is important for healthy conditions and its alterations are associated to neurological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Gut microbiota is a dynamic ecosystem that can be altered by external factors such as diet composition, antibiotics or xenobiotics. Recent advances in gut microbiota analyses indicate that the gut bacterial community plays a key role in maintaining normal brain functions...
April 3, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
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