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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498191/impact-of-facility-based-mother-support-groups-on-retention-in-care-and-pmtct-outcomes-in-rural-zimbabwe-the-epaz-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Geoff Foster, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Hélène Font, Abigail Kangwende, Vhumani Magezi, Tonderai Sengai, Simba Rusakaniko, Bridget Shumba, Pemberai Zambezi, Talent Maphosa
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission elimination goals are hampered by low rates of retention in care. The Eliminating Paediatric AIDS in Zimbabwe project assessed whether mother support groups (MSGs) improve rates of retention in care of HIV-exposed infants and their HIV-positive mothers, and maternal and infant outcomes. METHODS: The study involved 27 rural clinics in eastern Zimbabwe. MSGs were established in 14 randomly selected clinics and met every 2 weeks coordinated by volunteer HIV-positive mothers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498188/the-impact-of-structured-mentor-mother-programs-on-presentation-for-early-infant-diagnosis-testing-in-rural-north-central-nigeria-a-prospective-paired-cohort-study
#2
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Habib O Ramadhani, Christopher Isah, Salome Erekaha, Chinenye Fan-Osuala, Udochisom Anaba, Ebunoluwa A Adejuyigbe, Manhattan Charurat
BACKGROUND: Early infant diagnosis (EID) by 2 months of age is an important prevention of mother-to-child cascade step that serves as an early postpartum indicator of program success. Uptake and timely presentation for infant HIV diagnosis are significant challenges in resource-limited settings. Few studies on maternal peer support (PS) have demonstrated impact on EID. The MoMent study evaluated the impact of structured PS on timely presentation for EID testing in rural North-Central Nigeria...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498182/integrating-hiv-and-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-services-in-rural-malawi-an-evaluation-of-the-implementation-processes-and-challenges
#3
Andrews Gunda, Aurelie Jousset, Timothy Tchereni, Jessica Joseph, Victor Mwapasa
INTRODUCTION: Introducing Option B+ in Malawi increased antiretroviral therapy coverage among pregnant and breastfeeding women 3 fold. The Promoting Retention among Infants and Mothers Effectively (PRIME) study integrated care of Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health services through a mother-infant pair (MIP) clinic. This article evaluates the implementation processes and challenges health care workers' experienced in implementing these MIP clinics. METHODS: Between May 2013 and August 2016, 20 health facilities implemented MIP clinics...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498181/impact-of-mother-infant-pair-clinics-and-short-text-messaging-service-sms-reminders-on-retention-of-hiv-infected-women-and-hiv-exposed-infants-in-emtct-care-in-malawi-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#4
Victor Mwapasa, Jessica Joseph, Timothy Tchereni, Aurelie Jousset, Andrews Gunda
BACKGROUND: Poor retention of mothers and HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) in HIV care threatens efforts to eliminate pediatric HIV. Novel strategies are required to address this challenge. We compared 12-month maternal and HEI postpartum retention in health facilities implementing the following HIV care delivery models: integrated HIV and maternal, neonatal, and child health services [mother-infant pair (MIP) clinics], MIP clinics plus short-text messaging service (SMS) reminders to prevent default (MIP + SMS), and standard of care (SOC)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484464/altered-natural-killer-cell-function-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#5
Christiana Smith, Emilie Jalbert, Volia de Almeida, Jennifer Canniff, Laurel L Lenz, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Rachel A Cohen, Qilu Yu, Fabiana R Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Jorge O Alarcon, George Siberry, Adriana Weinberg
OBJECTIVES: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher rates of severe and fatal infections compared with HIV-unexposed (HUU) infants, likely due to immune perturbations. We hypothesized that alterations in natural killer (NK) cell activity might occur in HEU infants and predispose them to severe infections. DESIGN: Case-control study using cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at birth and 6 months from HEU infants enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and HUU infants enrolled from 2011 to 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470110/growth-pattern-in-ethiopian-infants-the-impact-of-exposure-to-maternal-hiv-infection-in-relation-to-socio-economic-factors
#6
John König Walles, Taye Tolera Balcha, Niclas Winqvist, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. OBJECTIVE: To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452911/the-effect-of-hiv-centered-obstetric-care-on-perinatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-women-living-with-hiv
#7
Anna M Powell, Julia M DeVita, Amartha Ogburu-Ogbonnaya, Andrea Peterson, Gweneth B Lazenby
BACKGROUND: Elimination of perinatal transmission is possible but limited by missed care opportunities. Our objective was to investigate the effects of HIV-centered obstetric care (HCC) on missed care opportunities and perinatal HIV transmission in two obstetric cohorts at our institution from 2000-2014. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of HIV-exposed mother-infant pairs delivering from 2000-2014, analyzed according to SQUIRE 2.0 (Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence) guidelines...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#8
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422809/associations-between-dietary-intake-prior-to-6-months-of-age-and-rapid-weight-gain-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#9
Daniela Neri, Fernanda C Oliveira, Aline M Carvalho, Gabriel A Somarriba, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
INTRODUCTION: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants are potentially at risk for cardiovascular disease due to in utero exposures. Feeding practices of the infant could compound this risk. However, few studies have evaluated dietary intake of HEU infants. We determined dietary factors associated with rapid weight gain (RWG) among HEU infants from birth to 6 months followed at the University of Miami HIV Screening Program. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, logistic regression was used to determine dietary factors associated with RWG defined as a greater than 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419277/prevention-of-tb-using-rifampicin-plus-isoniazid-reduces-nevirapine-concentrations-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#10
Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418986/performance-of-virological-testing-for-early-infant-diagnosis-a-systematic-review
#11
Divya Mallampati, Nathan Ford, Alisse Hanaford, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
BACKGROUND: Improved access to both maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant prophylaxis may have an impact on the performance of virological assays for diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. This systematic review was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of virological testing at birth as well as the performance of virological testing on dried-blood spots at 6-weeks amongst HIV- and ARV-exposed infants. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for studies published between January 1, 2009 and January 30, 2015...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410276/hiv-transmission-to-premature-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#12
Candyce Levin, David Le Roux, Michael Harrison, Lloyd Tooke
There is sparse literature about HIV transmission in preterm infants. 82 HIV exposed preterm infants received birth PCRs. Five (6.1%) were HIV positive with all 5 mothers receiving inadequate antiretrovirals. Of the PCR negative infants, 9 died and 87% of the survivors received further PCR testing which remained negative. With correct care, intrapartum transmission of HIV can virtually be eliminated.
April 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407452/uptake-and-performance-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-and-early-infant-diagnosis-in-pregnant-hiv-infected-women-and-their-exposed-infants-at-seven-health-centres-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#13
Marshet Girma, Rahel Wendaferash, Hailu Shibru, Yemane Berhane, Michael Hoelscher, Arne Kroidl
OBJECTIVE: To assess the uptake of WHO-recommended PMTCT procedures in Ethiopia's health services. METHODS: Prospective observational study of HIV-positive pregnant mothers and their newborns attending PMTCT services at seven health centres in Addis Ababa. Women were recruited during antenatal care and followed-up with their newborns at delivery, day 6 and week 6 postpartum. Retention to PMCTC procedures, self-reported ART adherence, and HIV infant outcome were assessed...
April 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406596/improving-early-identification-of-hiv-infected-neonates-with-birth-pcr-testing-in-a-large-urban-hospital-in-johannesburg-south-africa-successes-and-challenges
#14
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Sergio Carmona, Gayle Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Timely diagnosis is necessary to avert early death in HIV-infected neonates. Birth PCR testing may improve early identification and facilitate access to care. We implemented a birth HIV diagnosis programme in Johannesburg, South Africa and present successes and challenges of the first two and a half years of operation. METHODS: Between June 2014 and December 2016, we sought to identify all HIV-exposed births and offer newborn HIV PCR testing before discharge after delivery...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405623/bcg-vaccination-induces-hiv-target-cell-activation-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-trial
#15
Melanie A Gasper, Anneke C Hesseling, Isaac Mohar, Landon Myer, Tali Azenkot, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Willem Hanekom, Mark F Cotton, I Nicholas Crispe, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399000/overcoming-health-system-challenges-for-women-and-children-living-with-hiv-through-the-global-plan
#16
Surbhi Modi, Tegan Callahan, Jessica Rodrigues, Mwikemo D Kajoka, Helen M Dale, Judite O Langa, Marilena Urso, Matsepeli I Nchephe, Helene Bongdene, Sostena Romano, Laura N Broyles
To meet the ambitious targets set by the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan), the initial 22 priority countries quickly developed innovative approaches for overcoming long-standing health systems challenges and providing HIV testing and treatment to pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. The Global Plan spurred programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission to integrate HIV-related care and treatment into broader maternal, newborn, and child health services; expand the effectiveness of the health workforce through task sharing; extend health services into communities; strengthen supply chain and commodity management systems; reduce diagnostic and laboratory hurdles; and strengthen strategic supervision and mentorship...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398997/scale-up-of-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-and-improving-access-to-pediatric-hiv-care-in-global-plan-countries-past-and-future-perspectives
#17
Shaffiq Essajee, Ravikiran Bhairavabhotla, Martina Penazzato, Karusa Kiragu, Ilesh Jani, Sergio Carmona, Bharat Rewari, Charles Kiyaga, John Nkengasong, Trevor Peter
Investment to scale-up early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV has increased substantially in the last decade. This investment includes physical infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and specimen transportation systems as well as specialized mechanisms to deliver laboratory results to clinics. The Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive, as well as related international initiatives to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and treat children living with HIV have been important drivers of this scale-up by mobilizing resources, creating advocacy, developing normative recommendations, and providing direct technical support to countries through the global community of international stakeholders...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395832/co-trimoxazole-for-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#18
Ceri Evans, Andrew J Prendergast
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359325/early-versus-late-bcg-vaccination-in-hiv-1-exposed-infants-in-uganda-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Victoria Nankabirwa, James K Tumwine, Olive Namugga, Thorkild Tylleskär, Grace Ndeezi, Bjarne Robberstad, Mihai G Netea, Halvor Sommerfelt
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have nonspecific effects, i.e., effects on childhood morbidity and mortality that go beyond its effect on the risk of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Though the available scientific literature is mostly from observational studies, and is fraught with controversy, BCG vaccination at birth may protect infants in high-mortality populations against serious infections other than TB. Yet, other studies indicate that giving BCG later in infancy may modify immune responses to non-TB antigens and potentially enhance immunity, potentially also against tuberculosis (TB)...
March 31, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350554/high-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-qualitative-point-of-care-test-among-newborns-in-botswana
#20
Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Gelman, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Chloe Auletta-Young, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 PCR platform using dried blood spots from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis (PEP) and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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