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HIV-exposed infants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762690/intestinal-integrity-biomarkers-in-early-antiretroviral-treated-perinatally-hiv-1-infected-infants
#1
Wei Li A Koay, Jane C Lindsey, Priyanka Uprety, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Adriana Weinberg, Myron J Levin, Deborah Persaud
Biomarkers of intestinal integrity (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP) and zonulin), were compared in early antiretroviral-treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV+; n=56) African infants and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU; n=53) controls. Despite heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV+ infants, iFABP and zonulin levels at three months of age were not different from those in HEU infants, and largely not correlated with inflammatory and immune activation biomarkers. However, zonulin levels increased, and became significantly higher in HIV+ compared to HEU infants by five months of age despite ART-suppression...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762175/pregnancy-outcomes-and-infant-growth-among-babies-with-in-utero-exposure-to-tenofovir-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#2
Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Ting Hong, Connie Celum, Mark A Marzinke, Kenneth Ngure, Stephen Asiimwe, Elly Katabira, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Nulu Bulya, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Global guidelines recommend pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use by women at risk for HIV, including during pregnancy, a period with heightened HIV risk. However, data to support safety of PrEP use during pregnancy are limited, particularly from women using PrEP throughout pregnancy. METHODS: In an open-label delivery study of PrEP integrated with ART for high risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project), women who became pregnant while using PrEP were offered the option to continue PrEP throughout pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752892/high-vertical-hiv-transmission-rate-in-the-midwest-region-of-brazil
#3
Vanessa Terezinha Gubert de Matos, Fabiani de Morais Batista, Naiara Valera Versage, Clarice Souza Pinto, Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira, Érica Freire de Vasconcelos Pereira, Roberta Barbeta Dos Rios de Matos, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini Dal Fabbro, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: To estimate vertical HIV transmission rate in a capital city of the Midwest region of Brazil and describe the factors related to transmission. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study based on the analysis of secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). The analysis considered all HIV-infected pregnant women with delivery in Campo Grande-MS in the years 2007-2013 and their HIV-exposed infants. RESULTS: A total of 218 births of 176 HIV-infected pregnant women were identified during the study period, of which 187 infants were exposed and uninfected, 19 seroconverted, and 12 were still inconclusive in July 2015...
May 9, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750766/infectious-morbidity-mortality-and-nutrition-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-formula-fed-infants-results-from-the-hptn-040-pactg-1043-trial
#4
Nava Yeganeh, D Heather Watts, Jiahong Xu, Tara Kerin, Esau C Joao, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Gerhard Theron, Glenda Gray, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Valdilea Veloso, Margaret Camarca, Lynne Mofenson, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population with potentially poor health outcomes. We evaluated morbidity and mortality in HEU formula-fed infants enrolled in the NICHD HPTN 040/PACTG 1043 trial. METHODS: Infectious morbidity, mortality, and undernutrition were evaluated within a cohort of 1,000 HEU infants enrolled between 4/2004 and 4/2010 in Brazil (N=766) and South Africa (N=234) as part of the NICHD/HPTN 040 trial of three different antiretroviral regimens to decrease intrapartum HIV vertical transmission...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747581/mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-infection-and-its-associated-factors-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Getachew Mullu Kassa
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the main mode of HIV transmission in children under 15 years old. This problem is significant in the Sub-Saharan African countries, where more than 80% of children living with HIV are found. Previous studies in Ethiopia present inconsistent and inconclusive findings on the prevalence and associated factors of MTCT of HIV. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the pooled prevalence of MTCT of HIV and its associated factors in Ethiopia...
May 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732363/human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-associations-with-immune-mediated-disease-and-infection-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#6
Alice M Doherty, Caroline J Lodge, Shyamali C Dharmage, Xin Dai, Lars Bode, Adrian J Lowe
Complex sugars found in breastmilk, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), may assist in early-life immune programming and prevention against infectious diseases. This study aimed to systematically review the associations between maternal levels of HMOs and development of immune-mediated or infectious diseases in the offspring. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched (last search on 22 February 2018) according to a predetermined search strategy. Original studies published in English examining the effect of HMOs on immune-mediated and infectious disease were eligible for inclusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722482/five-year-neurodevelopment-outcomes-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-on-early-limited-or-deferred-continuous-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Barbara Laughton, Morna Cornell, Martin Kidd, Priscilla Estelle Springer, Els Françoise Marie-Thérèse Dobbels, Anita Janse Van Rensburg, Kennedy Otwombe, Abdel Babiker, Diana M Gibb, Avy Violari, Mariana Kruger, Mark Fredric Cotton
INTRODUCTION: Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-infected (HIV-positive) children; however, little is known about the longer term outcomes in infants commencing early ART or whether temporary ART interruption might have long-term consequences. In the children with HIV early antiretroviral treatment (CHER) trial, HIV-infected infants ≤12 weeks of age with CD4 ≥25% were randomized to deferred ART (ART-Def); immediate time-limited ART for 40 weeks (ART-40W) or 96 weeks (ART-96W)...
May 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707387/completeness-of-the-road-to-health-booklet-and-road-to-health-card-results-of-cross-sectional-surveillance-at-a-provincial-tertiary-hospital
#8
Harishia Naidoo, Theunis Avenant, Ameena Goga
Background: Accurate record-keeping is important for continuity and quality of care. Completing a child's Road-to-Health Booklet (RTHB), or the older, less detailed, Road-to-Health Card/Chart (RTHC), immediate interpretation thereof and appropriate action facilitates comprehensive care, which could contribute to a decline in child morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study aimed to assess the extent to which healthcare personnel working in catchment clinics of Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital (KPTH), Tshwane district, South Africa, complete HIV-related, sociodemographic, neonatal, growth and immunisation information in the RTHC and/or RTHB...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707385/similar-hiv-protection-from-four-weeks-of-zidovudine-versus-nevirapine-prophylaxis-among-formula-fed-infants-in-botswana
#9
Kathleen M Powis, Shahin Lockman, Gbolahan Ajibola, Michael D Hughes, Kara Bennett, Jean Leidner, Oganne Batlang, Kerapetse Botebele, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, Haruna B Jibril, Kenneth McIntosh, Max Essex, Roger L Shapiro
Background: The World Health Organization HIV guidelines recommend either infant zidovudine (ZDV) or nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis for the prevention of intrapartum mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) among formula-fed infants. No study has evaluated the comparative efficacy of infant prophylaxis with twice daily ZDV versus once daily NVP in exclusively formula-fed HIV-exposed infants. Methods: Using data from the Mpepu Study, a Botswana-based clinical trial investigating whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole could improve infant survival, retrospective analyses of MTCT events and Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Grade 3 or Grade 4 occurrences of anaemia or neutropenia were performed among infants born full-term (≥ 37 weeks gestation), with a birth weight ≥ 2500 g and who were formula-fed from birth...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696404/mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-hiv-free-survival-in-swaziland-a-community-based-household-survey
#10
Caspian Chouraya, Rhoderick Machekano, Simangele Mthethwa, Krysia Lindan, Munamato Mirira, Kwashie Kudiabor, Michelle M Gill, Gugu Maphalala, Godfrey Woelk, Laura Guay
In Swaziland, no data are available on the rates of HIV infection and HIV-free survival among children at the end of the breastfeeding period. We performed a national crosssectional community survey of children born 18-24 months prior to the study, in randomly selected constituencies in all 4 administrative regions of Swaziland, from April to June 2015. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and HIV-free survival rates were calculated for all HIV-exposed children. The overall HIV-free survival rate at 18-24 months was 95...
April 25, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694825/birth-outcomes-for-pregnant-women-with-hiv-using-tenofovir-emtricitabine
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kathryn Rough, George R Seage, Paige L Williams, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Yanling Huo, Ellen G Chadwick, Judith S Currier, Risa M Hoffman, Emily Barr, David E Shapiro, Kunjal Patel
BACKGROUND: In a previous trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) involving pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, those randomly assigned to receive tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) had infants at greater risk for very premature birth and death within 14 days after delivery than those assigned to receive zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ZDV-3TC-LPV/r). METHODS: Using data from two U...
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676342/audit-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programme-interventions-in-hiv-exposed-children-at-national-hospital-abuja-nigeria
#12
Mariya Mukhtar-Yola, Adekunle Tolulope Otuneye, Amsa Baba Mairami, Yewande Wey, Vincent Nwatah, Lamidi Isah Audu
Background: Ninety percentage of children acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the form of Mother-to-child Transmission (MTCT). In the absence of interventions, transmission rates range from 15% to 45%. This can be reduced to below 5% with effective interventions. The last published national guideline (NG) on prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) was in 2010. Clinical audits are essential in improving the quality of care delivered to patients. Objectives: The study objectives were to determine the rate of MTCT of HIV in exposed infants at a follow-up clinic between 2011 and 2014 and to determine the level of adherence to 2010 NG on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, feeding options, antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis and the use of co-trimoxazole (CTZ)...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667336/optimal-breastfeeding-durations-for-hiv-exposed-infants-the-impact-of-maternal-art-use-infant-mortality-and-replacement-feeding-risk
#13
Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Roger Shapiro, Francois Dabis, Barbara Engelsmann, Kenneth A Freedberg, Valeriane Leroy, Shahin Lockman, Rochelle Walensky, Nigel Rollins, Andrea Ciaranello
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. METHODS: Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663621/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-young-children-born-to-hiv-positive-mothers-in-rural-yunnan-china
#14
Jie Wu, Jing Li, Yan Li, Kek Khee Loo, Haixia Yang, Qiong Wang, Rufei Duan, Xia Xiao, Xiaoxiao Song, Siwei Yang, Lin Sun
BACKGROUND: Children born to HIV-infected mothers are at risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Little is known about neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants and toddlers who were born to HIV-positive mothers but were not themselves infected by HIV, especially in poor rural areas. This study was conducted to compare developmental outcomes between young children who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) and their HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) peers in rural Yunnan, China. METHODS: A total of 250 HEU children aged 6-36 months and 250 HUU children matched on age, gender and residency were recruited from rural Yunnan, China...
April 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651922/prior-exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-associated-with-less-hiv-testing-among-young-women
#15
Yukiko Washio, Elizabeth Novack Wright, Annet Davis-Vogel, Jesse Chittams, Claire Anagnostopulos, Linda M Kilby, Anne M Teitelman
Low-income minority women are disproportionately represented among those living with HIV in the United States. They are also at risk for the SAVA (substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS) syndemic issues. Women who have recently given birth are at high risk for substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV), and HIV testing is not routinely administered during the postpartum visit. We explored the relationship between substance use, IPV, and HIV testing among low-income young adult women attending Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a federally supported nutrition program...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629683/near-real-time-tracking-of-gaps-in-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-three-districts-of-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa
#16
F Moyo, A Haeri Mazanderani, S Bhardwaj, O B Mhlongo, T Kufa, K Ng'oma, B A Smith, G G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Identifying and addressing gaps in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is required if South Africa (SA) is to achieve targets for eliminating MTCT (eMTCT). Potential PMTCT gaps that increase MTCT risk include late maternal HIV diagnosis, lack of or delayed antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and lack of effective prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants. OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in near real time, PMTCT gaps among HIV-infected infants in three districts of KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625591/neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-early-treated-hiv-infected-children-study-protocol
#17
Renate Strehlau, Tamryn van Aswegen, Joanne Potterton
OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of children at risk of not achieving their developmental potential, attributable largely to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic coupled with negative environmental factors. Childhood developmental stimulation programmes can mitigate adverse outcomes. METHODS: Neonates testing HIV positive at birth will be initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and receive an age-appropriate stimulation program, updated at 3 monthly intervals through the first year of life...
April 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620934/factors-associated-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#18
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana R Amaral, Laura Freimanis, D Robert Harris, Christiana Smith, George Siberry
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that predispose HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization and death in the first 6 to 24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. DESIGN: Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the NISDI Perinatal and LILAC studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months of, matched by date and place of birth...
March 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595649/next-generation-sequencing-provides-an-added-value-in-determining-drug-resistance-and-viral-tropism-in-cameroonian-hiv-1-vertically-infected-children
#19
Joseph Fokam, Maria C Bellocchi, Daniele Armenia, Aubin J Nanfack, Luca Carioti, Fabio Continenza, Desire Takou, Edith S Temgoua, Charlotte Tangimpundu, Judith N Torimiro, Paul N Koki, Charles N Fokunang, Giulia Cappelli, Alexis Ndjolo, Vittorio Colizzi, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Carlo-Federico Perno, Maria M Santoro
With limited and low-genetic barrier drugs used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, vertically transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance (HIVDR) is concerning and might prompt optimal pediatric strategies.The aim of this study was to ascertain HIVDR and viral-tropism in majority and minority populations among Cameroonian vertically infected children.A comparative analysis among 18 HIV-infected children (7 from PMTCT-exposed mothers and 11 from mothers without PMTCT-exposure) was performed...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567959/hiv-exposure-early-life-feeding-practices-and-delivery-mode-impacts-on-faecal-bacterial-profiles-in-a-south-african-birth-cohort
#20
Shantelle Claassen-Weitz, Sugnet Gardner-Lubbe, Paul Nicol, Gerrit Botha, Stephanie Mounaud, Jyoti Shankar, William C Nierman, Nicola Mulder, Shrish Budree, Heather J Zar, Mark P Nicol, Mamadou Kaba
There are limited data on meconium and faecal bacterial profiles from African infants and their mothers. We characterized faecal bacterial communities of infants and mothers participating in a South African birth cohort. Stool and meconium specimens were collected from 90 mothers and 107 infants at birth, and from a subset of 72 and 36 infants at 4-12 and 20-28 weeks of age, respectively. HIV-unexposed infants were primarily exclusively breastfed at 4-12 (49%, 26/53) and 20-28 weeks (62%, 16/26). In contrast, HIV-exposed infants were primarily exclusively formula fed at 4-12 (53%; 10/19) and 20-28 weeks (70%, 7/10)...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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