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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914189/analysis-of-experiences-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-among-hiv-positive-mothers-in-lusaka-zambia
#1
Alice Ngoma-Hazemba, Busisiwe Purity Ncama
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months offers protection from postnatal HIV infection but remains low in resource-poor settings. Documentation of experiences with exclusive breastfeeding is needed to strengthen infant feeding counselling by health care workers. OBJECTIVE: To explore HIV-positive mothers' experiences with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of the infant's life. DESIGN: A health facility- and community-based exploratory qualitative study was conducted among 30 HIV-positive mothers practising exclusive breastfeeding and meeting the selection criteria...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898591/tenofovir-exposure-in-utero-and-linear-growth-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#3
Stanzi M le Roux, Jennifer Jao, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Seun Olatunbosun, Agnes Ronan, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir (TDF) affects bone health and is widely used in pregnancy but data are limited on the effects of TDF exposure in utero. We examined the association between duration of in-utero TDF exposure and linear growth in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of pregnant women initiating TDF-containing regimens at primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa, were enrolled and followed with their breastfeeding infants through 12 months postpartum...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880749/early-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-infants-one-caribbean-and-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-2011-2015
#4
Karidia Diallo, Andrea A Kim, Shirley Lecher, Dennis Ellenberger, R Suzanne Beard, Helen Dale, Mackenzie Hurlston, Molly Rivadeneira, Peter N Fonjungo, Laura N Broyles, Guoqing Zhang, Katrina Sleeman, Shon Nguyen, Steve Jadczak, Nadine Abiola, Raimi Ewetola, Jérémie Muwonga, Franck Fwamba, Christina Mwangi, Mary Naluguza, Charles Kiyaga, Isaac Ssewanyana, Deyde Varough, Domercant Wysler, David Lowrance, Frantz Jean Louis, Olbeg Desinor, Josiane Buteau, Francois Kesner, Vanessa Rouzier, Nat Segaren, Tessa Lewis, Abdoulaye Sarr, Geoffrey Chipungu, Sundeep Gupta, Daniel Singer, Reuben Mwenda, Hilary Kapoteza, Zawadi Chipeta, Nancy Knight, Sergio Carmona, William MacLeod, Gayle Sherman, Yogan Pillay, Clement B Ndongmo, Bridget Mugisa, Annie Mwila, James McAuley, Peter J Chipimo, Wezi Kaonga, Dailess Nsofwa, Davy Nsama, Fales Zulu Mwamba, Crispin Moyo, Clement Phiri, Marie-Yolande Borget, Leonard Ya-Kouadio, Abo Kouame, Christiane A Adje-Toure, John Nkengasong
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged <15 years were estimated to be living with HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861788/phenotypically-resembling-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-are-increased-in-children-with-hiv-and-exposed-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Nelita Du Plessis, Ruschca Jacobs, Andrea Gutschmidt, Zhuo Fang, Paul D van Helden, Manfred B Lutz, Anneke C Hesseling, Gerhard Walzl
Increased disease susceptibility during early life has been linked to immune immaturity, regulatory T-cell/TH2 immune biasing and hyporesponsiveness. The contribution of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) remains uninvestigated. Here, we assessed peripheral MDSC in HIV-infected and -uninfected children with tuberculosis (TB) disease before, during and after TB treatment, along with matched household contacts (HHCs), HIV-exposed, -infected and -uninfected children without recent TB exposure. Serum analytes and enzymes associated with MDSC accumulation/activation/function were measured by colorimetric- and fluorescence arrays...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861238/complementary-feeding-and-diarrhea-and-respiratory-infection-among-hiv-exposed-tanzanian-infants
#6
P Kamenju, E Liu, E Hertzmark, D Spiegelman, R R Kisenge, R Kupka, S Aboud, K P Manji, C Duggan, W W Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between complementary feeding (CF) and risks of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among HIV-exposed infants aged 6-24 months. DESIGN: We prospectively employed an Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) to measure CF practices (breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity, food group frequency and meal frequency). We determined the association of ICFI and each of its components with the risk of diarrhea and ARI...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856821/determinants-of-early-life-lung-function-in-african-infants
#7
Diane Gray, Lauren Willemse, Ane Visagie, Dorottya Czövek, Polite Nduru, Aneesa Vanker, Dan J Stein, Nastassja Koen, Peter D Sly, Zoltán Hantos, Graham L Hall, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Low lung function in early life is associated with later respiratory illness. There is limited data on lung function in African infants despite a high prevalence of respiratory disease. AIM: To assess the determinants of early lung function in African infants. METHOD: Infants enrolled in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein child health study, had lung function measured at 6-10 weeks of age. Measurements, made with the infant breathing via a facemask during natural sleep, included tidal breathing, sulfur hexafluoride multiple breath washout and the forced oscillation technique...
November 17, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846070/implementation-and-operational-research-an-integrated-and-comprehensive-service-delivery-model-to-improve-pediatric-and-maternal-hiv-care-in-rural-africa
#8
Anna Gamell, Tracy R Glass, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Leila Samson, Tom Mtoi, Angelo Nyamtema, Lukas Muri, Alex Ntamatungiro, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Manuel Battegay, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Strategies to improve HIV diagnosis and linkage into care, antiretroviral treatment coverage, and treatment outcomes of mothers and children are urgently needed in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: From December 2012, we implemented an intervention package to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and pediatric HIV care in our rural Tanzanian clinic, consisting of: (1) creation of a PMTCT and pediatric unit integrated within the reproductive and child health clinic; (2) implementation of electronic medical records; (3) provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in the hospital wards; and (4) early infant diagnosis test performed locally...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831952/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-safety-for-women-and-their-infants-during-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding-systematic-review
#9
Lynne M Mofenson, Rachel C Baggaley, Ioannis Mameletzis
OBJECTIVES: Pregnant/lactating women in some sub-Saharan Africa settings are at substantial risk of HIV acquisition and could benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), but safety data in pregnancy/lactation are limited. DESIGN: Systematic data review through August 2016. METHODS: We reviewed research reports/conference abstracts with maternal/child adverse outcome data in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant/lactating women receiving TDF alone or in combination with other drugs compared with non-TDF regimens...
November 7, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829511/high-burden-of-morbidity-and-mortality-but-not-growth-failure-in-infants-exposed-to-but-uninfected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-tanzania
#10
Lindsey M Locks, Karim P Manji, Roland Kupka, Enju Liu, Rodrick Kisenge, Christine M McDonald, Said Aboud, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: To compare health and growth outcomes in children infected with HIV, children exposed to but uninfected with HIV, and children unexposed to HIV. STUDY DESIGN: Our cohort included 3554 Tanzanian children enrolled in 2 trials of micronutrient supplementation. Among infants born to mothers infected with HIV, 264 were infected with HIV and 2088 were exposed to but uninfected at 6 weeks of age. An additional 1202 infants were unexposed to HIV. Infants were followed until 18 months of age, death, or loss to follow-up...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812086/tuberculosis-disease-during-pregnancy-and-treatment-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-women-at-a-referral-hospital-in-cape-town
#11
Adrie Bekker, Hendrik S Schaaf, Heather R Draper, Magdalena Kriel, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis during pregnancy and treatment outcomes are poorly defined in high prevalence tuberculosis and HIV settings. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of pregnant and postpartum women identified to be routinely on antituberculosis treatment was conducted at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from January 2011 through December 2011. Maternal tuberculosis disease spectrum and tuberculosis-exposed newborns were characterized by maternal HIV status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798550/bone-age-and-mineral-density-assessments-using-plain-roentgenograms-in-tenofovir-exposed-infants-in-malawi-and-brazil-enrolled-in-hiv-prevention-trials-network-hptn-057
#12
Luiz Eduardo Osorio, Maria Ines Boechat, Mark Mirochnick, Newton Kumwenda, Regis Kreitchmann, Lynda Emel, Jorge Pinto, Esau Joao, Breno Santos, Molly Swenson, Kathleen George, Paul Sato, Lynne Mofenson, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use during pregnancy has been increasing and studies linking bone toxicity with exposure to TDF have raised concern for its use in infants. METHODS: Hand/wrist and spine radiographs were obtained at 3 days and 12 weeks of age in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 057 pharmacokinetic study of TDF conducted in Malawi and Brazil assigned to three TDF dosing cohorts...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798549/performance-of-hiv-rapid-tests-among-breastfeeding-malawian-infants
#13
Emily R Smith, Anna D Sheahan, Robert S Heyderman, William C Miller, Stephanie Wheeler, Michael Hudgens, Julie A E Nelson, Queen Dube, Annelies Van Rie
INTRODUCTION: Timely, accurate and affordable testing algorithms at point-of-care are critical for early infant HIV diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the postpartum period. We aimed to assess the utility of HIV rapid tests for young, breastfed HIV-exposed infants in resource limited, high HIV burden settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data on the performance of two commonly used rapid tests (Determine and Unigold) in Malawi between 2008 and 2012 or at the University of North Carolina between 2014 and 2015...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781102/cytomegalovirus-and-paediatric-hiv-infection
#14
EDITORIAL
Jennifer A Slyker
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was among the most common AIDS-defining illnesses prior to the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the ART era, CMV disease remains a significant public health threat among HIV-infected adults and children with delayed HIV diagnosis. CMV co-infection may additionally contribute to accelerated HIV progression, development of inflammation-related comorbidities, immune senescence and developmental deficits. Elimination of CMV would have tremendous public health significance and is an important priority; however, current vaccine strategies are not targeted at HIV-infected individuals...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761979/maternal-systemic-or-cord-blood-inflammation-is-associated-with-birth-anthropometry-in-a-tanzanian-prospective-cohort
#15
A L Wilkinson, S H Pedersen, M Urassa, D Michael, A Andreasen, J Todd, S M Kinung'hi, J Changalucha, J M McDermid
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for fetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. METHODS: A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n=44) and HIV-negative (n=70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758117/a-proposed-framework-for-the-implementation-of-early-infant-diagnosis-point-of-care
#16
Karidia Diallo, Surbhi Modi, Mackenzie Hurlston, R Suzanne Beard, John N Nkengasong
Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, with approximately half of all HIV-exposed infants receiving virological testing for HIV by the recommended age of 2 months in 2015. To reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and close the treatment gap for HIV-infected children, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing programmatic and laboratory practices for early infant diagnosis and introduce strategies to improve identification of HIV-exposed infants and ensure access to systematic, early HIV testing, with early linkage to treatment for HIV-infected infants...
November 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756308/malaria-burden-in-a-birth-cohort-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-ugandan-infants-living-in-a-high-malaria-transmission-setting
#17
Abel Kakuru, Paul Natureeba, Mary K Muhindo, Tamara D Clark, Diane V Havlir, Deborah Cohan, Grant Dorsey, Moses R Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants suffer high morbidity and mortality in the first year of life compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) infants, but accurate data on the contribution of malaria are limited. METHODS: The incidence of febrile illnesses and malaria were evaluated in a birth cohort of HEU infants. Infants were prescribed daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis from 6 weeks of age until exclusion of HIV-infection after cessation of breastfeeding...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755111/tenofovir-exposure-in-utero-and-linear-growth-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-a-prospective-study
#18
Stanzi M le Roux, Jennifer Jao, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Seun Olatunbosun, Agnes Ronan, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir (TDF) affects bone health and is widely used in pregnancy but data are limited on the effects of TDF exposure in utero. We examined the association between duration of in utero TDF exposure and linear growth in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of pregnant women initiating TDF-containing regimens at primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa were enrolled and followed with their breastfeeding infants through 12 months postpartum...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749662/perinatal-antiretroviral-exposure-and-prevented-mother-to-child-hiv-infections-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-prophylaxis-in-the-united-states-1994-2010
#19
Kristen M Little, Allan W Taylor, Craig B Borkowf, Maria C B Mendoza, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Steven R Nesheim
OBJECTIVE: Using published, nationally representative estimates, we calculated the total number of perinatally HIV-exposed and -infected infants born during 1978-2010, the number of perinatal HIV cases prevented by interventions designed for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and the number of infants exposed to antiretroviral drugs during the prenatal and intrapartum periods. DESIGN: We calculated the number of infants exposed to antiretroviral drugs since 1994, and the number of cases of mother-to-child HIV transmission prevented from 1994-2010 using published data...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741954/disclosing-in-utero-hiv-arv-exposure-to-the-hiv-exposed-uninfected-adolescent-is-it-necessary
#20
Jennifer Jao, Rohan Hazra, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Elaine J Abrams
INTRODUCTION: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. DISCUSSION: Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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