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HIV-exposed infants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633455/fetal-metabolic-stress-disrupts-immune-homeostasis-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-hiv-1-and-cart-exposed-infants
#1
Johannes C Schoeman, Gontse P Moutloatse, Amy C Harms, Rob J Vreeken, Henriette J Scherpbier, Liesbeth Van Leeuwen, Taco W Kuijpers, Carools J Reinecke, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Madeleine J Bunders
Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress skewing the cell's immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART)-exposure on the infants' immune-metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609400/cytomegalovirus-viraemia-is-associated-with-poor-growth-and-t-cell-activation-with-an-increased-burden-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#2
Miguel A Garcia-Knight, Eunice Nduati, Amin S Hassan, Irene Nkumama, Timothy J Etyang, Naseem J Hajj, Faith Gambo, Denis Odera, James A Berkley, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Britta Urban
OBJECTIVE: Factors associated with poor health in HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants are poorly defined. We describe the prevalence and correlates of CMV viraemia in HEU and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) infants, and quantify associations with anthropometric, haematological and immunological outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, including HEU and HUU infants from rural coastal Kenya. METHODS: Infants aged 2-8 months were studied. The primary outcome was CMV viraemia and viral load, determined by quantitative PCR...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575201/birth-weight-and-preterm-delivery-outcomes-of-perinatally-vs-non-perinatally-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-the-u-s-results-from-the-phacs-smartt-study-and-impaact-p1025-protocol
#3
Jennifer Jao, Deborah Kacanek, Paige L Williams, Mitchell E Geffner, Elizabeth G Livingston, Rhoda S Sperling, Kunjal Patel, Arlene D Bardeguez, Sandra K Burchett, Nahida Chakhtoura, Gwendolyn B Scott, Russell B Van Dyke, Elaine J Abrams
Background: Pregnancy outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected women (PHIV) are poorly defined. Methods: We compared preterm delivery and birth weight (BW) outcomes [low BW (LBW, <2500 g), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and BW z-scores (BWZ)] in HIV-exposed uninfected infants of PHIV vs. non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV) pregnant women in the PHACS SMARTT or IMPAACT P1025 studies. Mixed effects models were fit to assess the association of maternal PHIV status with infant BWZ; log binomial models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (aRR) for dichotomous outcomes...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574336/early-infant-diagnosis-of-hiv-in-myanmar-call-for-innovative-interventions-to-improve-uptake-and-reduce-turnaround-time
#4
Soe Thiha, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Sairu Philip, Thet Ko Aung, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Myo Minn Oo, Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, May Wint War, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: In collaboration with the national AIDS program, early infant diagnosis (EID) is implemented by Integrated HIV Care (IHC) program through its anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centers across 10 cities in five states and regions of Myanmar. Blood samples from the ART centers are sent using public transport to a centralized PCR facility. OBJECTIVES: Among HIV-exposed babies <9 months at enrolment into IHC program (2013-15), to describe the EID cascade (enrolment, sample collection for PCR, result receipt by mother, HIV diagnosis and ART initiation) and factors associated with delayed (>8 weeks of age) or no blood sample collection for EID...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567281/toward-elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-south-africa-how-best-to-monitor-early-infant-infections-within-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-program
#5
Gayle G Sherman, Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Peter Barron, Sanjana Bhardwaj, Ronelle Niit, Margaret Okobi, Adrian Puren, Debra J Jackson, Ameena Ebrahim Goga
BACKGROUND: South Africa has utilized three independent data sources to measure the impact of its program for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. These include the South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), the District Health Information System (DHIS), and South African PMTCT Evaluation (SAPMTCTE) surveys. We compare the results of each, outlining advantages and limitations, and make recommendations for monitoring transmission rates as South Africa works toward achieving elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT)...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537936/zidovudine-use-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-malformations-meta-analysis-and-bayesian-incorporation-of-medicaid-data
#6
Kathryn Rough, Jenny W Sun, George R Seage, Paige L Williams, Krista F Huybrechts, Brian T Bateman, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
OBJECTIVE: There is inconsistent evidence that zidovudine use during pregnancy increases overall, cardiac, and male genital malformations. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of zidovudine use and malformations and, using Bayesian methods, combined it with data from a cohort study of mother-infant pairs in the nationwide Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX). METHODS: Using MAX data (2000-2010), we identified pregnant women with HIV treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
May 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536653/infant-feeding-counseling-and-knowledge-are-the-key-determinants-of-prelacteal-feeding-among-hiv-exposed-infants-attending-public-hospitals-in-ethiopia
#7
Melaku Kindie Yenit, Haregewoyn Genetu, Amare Tariku
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that breastfeeding promotes optimal health and growth for infants and young children, inappropriate feeding practice, such as prelacteal feeding increases the risk of neonatal death and illness and remains a public health problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of prelacteal feeding and associated factors among HIV positive mothers with children aged 7-20 months attending government hospitals in North Gondar zone, northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#8
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498191/impact-of-facility-based-mother-support-groups-on-retention-in-care-and-pmtct-outcomes-in-rural-zimbabwe-the-epaz-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Geoff Foster, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Hélène Font, Abigail Kangwende, Vhumani Magezi, Tonderai Sengai, Simba Rusakaniko, Bridget Shumba, Pemberai Zambezi, Talent Maphosa
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission elimination goals are hampered by low rates of retention in care. The Eliminating Paediatric AIDS in Zimbabwe project assessed whether mother support groups (MSGs) improve rates of retention in care of HIV-exposed infants and their HIV-positive mothers, and maternal and infant outcomes. METHODS: The study involved 27 rural clinics in eastern Zimbabwe. MSGs were established in 14 randomly selected clinics and met every 2 weeks coordinated by volunteer HIV-positive mothers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498188/the-impact-of-structured-mentor-mother-programs-on-presentation-for-early-infant-diagnosis-testing-in-rural-north-central-nigeria-a-prospective-paired-cohort-study
#10
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Habib O Ramadhani, Christopher Isah, Salome Erekaha, Chinenye Fan-Osuala, Udochisom Anaba, Ebunoluwa A Adejuyigbe, Manhattan Charurat
BACKGROUND: Early infant diagnosis (EID) by 2 months of age is an important prevention of mother-to-child cascade step that serves as an early postpartum indicator of program success. Uptake and timely presentation for infant HIV diagnosis are significant challenges in resource-limited settings. Few studies on maternal peer support (PS) have demonstrated impact on EID. The MoMent study evaluated the impact of structured PS on timely presentation for EID testing in rural North-Central Nigeria...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498182/integrating-hiv-and-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-services-in-rural-malawi-an-evaluation-of-the-implementation-processes-and-challenges
#11
Andrews Gunda, Aurelie Jousset, Timothy Tchereni, Jessica Joseph, Victor Mwapasa
INTRODUCTION: Introducing Option B+ in Malawi increased antiretroviral therapy coverage among pregnant and breastfeeding women 3 fold. The Promoting Retention among Infants and Mothers Effectively (PRIME) study integrated care of Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health services through a mother-infant pair (MIP) clinic. This article evaluates the implementation processes and challenges health care workers' experienced in implementing these MIP clinics. METHODS: Between May 2013 and August 2016, 20 health facilities implemented MIP clinics...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498181/impact-of-mother-infant-pair-clinics-and-short-text-messaging-service-sms-reminders-on-retention-of-hiv-infected-women-and-hiv-exposed-infants-in-emtct-care-in-malawi-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#12
Victor Mwapasa, Jessica Joseph, Timothy Tchereni, Aurelie Jousset, Andrews Gunda
BACKGROUND: Poor retention of mothers and HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) in HIV care threatens efforts to eliminate pediatric HIV. Novel strategies are required to address this challenge. We compared 12-month maternal and HEI postpartum retention in health facilities implementing the following HIV care delivery models: integrated HIV and maternal, neonatal, and child health services [mother-infant pair (MIP) clinics], MIP clinics plus short-text messaging service (SMS) reminders to prevent default (MIP + SMS), and standard of care (SOC)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484464/altered-natural-killer-cell-function-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#13
Christiana Smith, Emilie Jalbert, Volia de Almeida, Jennifer Canniff, Laurel L Lenz, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Rachel A Cohen, Qilu Yu, Fabiana R Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Jorge O Alarcon, George Siberry, Adriana Weinberg
OBJECTIVES: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher rates of severe and fatal infections compared with HIV-unexposed (HUU) infants, likely due to immune perturbations. We hypothesized that alterations in natural killer (NK) cell activity might occur in HEU infants and predispose them to severe infections. DESIGN: Case-control study using cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at birth and 6 months from HEU infants enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and HUU infants enrolled from 2011 to 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470110/growth-pattern-in-ethiopian-infants-the-impact-of-exposure-to-maternal-hiv-infection-in-relation-to-socio-economic-factors
#14
John König Walles, Taye Tolera Balcha, Niclas Winqvist, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. OBJECTIVE: To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452911/the-effect-of-hiv-centered-obstetric-care-on-perinatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-women-living-with-hiv
#15
Anna M Powell, Julia M DeVita, Amartha Ogburu-Ogbonnaya, Andrea Peterson, Gweneth B Lazenby
BACKGROUND: Elimination of perinatal transmission is possible but limited by missed care opportunities. Our objective was to investigate the effects of HIV-centered obstetric care (HCC) on missed care opportunities and perinatal HIV transmission in two obstetric cohorts at our institution from 2000-2014. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of HIV-exposed mother-infant pairs delivering from 2000-2014, analyzed according to SQUIRE 2.0 (Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence) guidelines...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#16
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422809/associations-between-dietary-intake-prior-to-6-months-of-age-and-rapid-weight-gain-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#17
Daniela Neri, Fernanda C Oliveira, Aline M Carvalho, Gabriel A Somarriba, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
INTRODUCTION: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants are potentially at risk for cardiovascular disease due to in utero exposures. Feeding practices of the infant could compound this risk. However, few studies have evaluated dietary intake of HEU infants. We determined dietary factors associated with rapid weight gain (RWG) among HEU infants from birth to 6 months followed at the University of Miami HIV Screening Program. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, logistic regression was used to determine dietary factors associated with RWG defined as a greater than 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419277/prevention-of-tb-using-rifampicin-plus-isoniazid-reduces-nevirapine-concentrations-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#18
Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418986/performance-of-virological-testing-for-early-infant-diagnosis-a-systematic-review
#19
Divya Mallampati, Nathan Ford, Alisse Hanaford, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
BACKGROUND: Improved access to both maternal antiretroviral therapy and infant prophylaxis may have an impact on the performance of virological assays for diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. This systematic review was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of virological testing at birth as well as the performance of virological testing on dried blood spots at 6 weeks among HIV- and antiretroviral (ARV)-exposed infants. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for studies published between January 1, 2009 and January 30, 2015...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410276/hiv-transmission-to-premature-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#20
Candyce Levin, David Le Roux, Michael Harrison, Lloyd Tooke
There is sparse literature about HIV transmission in preterm infants. 82 HIV exposed preterm infants received birth PCRs. Five (6.1%) were HIV positive with all 5 mothers receiving inadequate antiretrovirals. Of the PCR negative infants, 9 died and 87% of the survivors received further PCR testing which remained negative. With correct care, intrapartum transmission of HIV can virtually be eliminated.
April 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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