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HIV-exposed infants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212643/vertical-hiv-transmission-in-perinatally-exposed-infants-in-south-rift-region-of-kenya-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#1
Everline Ashiono, Dunstan Achwoka, Jamlick Mutugi, Joel Rakwar, Andrew Wafula, Otto Nzapfurundi Chabikuli
BACKGROUND: Despite proven efficacy of the prevention mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategy, its adoption in Africa has remained slow. In Kenya, its effectiveness remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in Kenya. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed 2,642 records of HIV-exposed infants who had a deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction test done...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198792/child-growth-according-to-maternal-and-child-hiv-status-in-zimbabwe
#2
Adetayo O Omoni, Robert Ntozini, Ceri Evans, Andrew J Prendergast, Lawrence H Moulton, Parul S Christian, Jean H Humphrey
BACKGROUND: Growth failure is common among HIV-infected infants, but there are limited data on the effects of HIV exposure or timing of HIV acquisition on growth. METHODS: 14110 infants were enrolled in the ZVITAMBO trial in Zimbabwe before the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or co-trimoxazole. Anthropometric measurements were taken from birth through 12-24 months of age. Growth outcomes were compared between 5 groups of children: HIV-infected in utero (IU), intrapartum (IP) or postnatally (PN); HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU); and HIV-unexposed...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181860/factors-associated-with-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-despite-overall-low-transmission-rates-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-rural-kenya
#3
Nicollate A Okoko, Kevin O Owuor, Jayne L Kulzer, George O Owino, Irene A Ogolla, Ronald W Wandera, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Lisa L Abuogi
Despite the availability of efficacious prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and improved access to preventive services in many developing countries, vertical HIV transmission persists. A matched case-control study of HIV-exposed infants between January and June 2012 was conducted at 20 clinics in Kenya. Cases were HIV-infected infants and controls were exposed, uninfected infants. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine characteristics associated with HIV infection...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173741/elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-lessons-learned-from-success-in-thailand
#4
Usa Thisyakorn
In 1988, the generalised HIV/AIDS epidemic in Thailand began and in the same year the first HIV-exposed infant in Thailand was born at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok. From the early to mid-1990s, an epidemic wave of HIV-infected women and infants occurred. Heterosexual HIV transmission, as described in the Asian Epidemic Model, was the major mode of spread in Thailand, causing an increasing number of HIV-infected pregnant women. The early and concerted multi-sectoral response of Thai society reduced the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women from 2% in the mid-1990s to 0...
February 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164027/developmental-delay-and-behavioral-disorders-in-59-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#5
Véronique Reliquet, Cécile Brunet-Cartier, Elise Launay, François Raffi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV pregnant women has led to a dramatic decrease in the rate of HIV mother-to-child transmission but this benefit is counterbalanced with adverse effects related to in utero and neonatal exposure to ART. In 2013, some parents described neurodevelopmental disorders in their children. METHODS: A standardized letter was sent to the 133 women who delivered in Nantes hospital from 01/01/2003 to 31/12/2012 (167 births). RESULTS: Response rate was 33%...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158882/missed-opportunities-for-preventing-perinatal-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-florida-2007-2014
#6
Mary Jo Trepka, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Consuelo Beck-Sagué, Lorene M Maddox, Kristopher P Fennie, Diana M Sheehan, Maithri Prabhakar, Dan Thompson, Spencer Lieb
OBJECTIVES: Despite declining numbers of perinatally exposed infants, an increase in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from 2011 to 2013 prompted this study to identify missed perinatal HIV prevention opportunities. METHODS: Deidentified records of children born from 2007 through 2014, exposed to HIV perinatally, and reported to the Florida Department of Health were obtained. Crude relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with perinatal transmission, nondiagnosis of maternal HIV infection, and nonreceipt of antiretroviral medication were calculated...
February 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145162/early-use-of-corticosteroids-in-infants-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-malawi-a-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#7
Laura Newberry, Bernadette O'Hare, Neil Kennedy, Andrew Selman, Sofia Omar, Pamela Dawson, Kim Stevenson, Yo Nishihara, Samantha Lissauer, Elizabeth Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is the most common opportunistic infection in infants with vertically acquired HIV infection and the most common cause of death in HIV-infected infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early administration of adjuvant corticosteroids in addition to standard treatment reduces mortality in infants with vertically acquired HIV and clinically diagnosed PJP when co-infection with cytomegalovirus and other pathogens cannot be excluded...
February 1, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125026/time-to-consider-moving-beyond-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-southern-africa
#8
Janet M Wojcicki
While there have been considerable advances in the reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa with the advance of anti-retroviral therapies (ART), there remain challenges in the late postpartum period.  Structural issues including food insecurity and stigma make better maternal ART adherence and exclusive breastfeeding unreachable for some women. There are no other scientifically researched feeding options as there have been few studies on different types of mixed feeding practices and risk of HIV infection...
January 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122933/formula-feeding-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-african-children-is-associated-with-faster-growth-in-length-during-the-first-6-months-of-life-in-the-kesho-bora-study
#9
Kirsten A Bork, Cécile Cames, Marie-Louise Newell, Jennifer S Read, Kossiwavi Ayassou, Faith Musyoka, Grace Mbatia, Amandine Cournil
BACKGROUND: Early feeding patterns may affect the growth of HIV-exposed children and thus their subsequent health and cognition. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association of infant feeding (IF) mode with length-for-age z score (LAZ) and stunting from age 2 d to 18 mo in HIV-exposed African children within a controlled randomized trial, which evaluated triple antiretrovirals initiated during pregnancy and continued for 6 mo postpartum to prevent HIV transmission. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women with CD4(+) counts of 200-500 cells/mm(3) from Burkina Faso, Kenya, and South Africa were advised to exclusively breastfeed for up to 6 mo or to formula-feed from birth...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118236/in-utero-exposure-to-tenofovir-is-associated-with-impaired-fetal-and-infant-growth-need-for-follow-up-studies-in-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-hiv-exposed-infants-author-s-reply
#10
L Denneman, S Cohen, M H Godfried, E van Leeuwen, J F Nellen, T W Kuijpers, D Pajkrt, A van de Plas, C Smit, A M Weijsenfeld, Henriette J Scherpbier, Madeleine J Bunders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099432/an-analysis-of-the-last-clinical-encounter-before-outpatient-mortality-among-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure-in-lilongwe-malawi
#11
Chris A Rees, Robert J Flick, David Sullivan, Menard Bvumbwe, Joseph Mhango, Mina C Hosseinipour, Peter N Kazembe
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes to nearly 20% of all deaths in children under five years of age in Malawi. Expanded coverage of antiretroviral therapy has allowed children to access treatment on an outpatient basis. Little is known about characteristics of the final outpatient encounter prior to mortality in the outpatient setting. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study assessed clinical factors associated with mortality among HIV-exposed infants and HIV-infected children less than 18 years of age at the Baylor College of Medicine Abbott Fund Children's Center of Excellence in Lilongwe, Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088692/evaluation-of-motor-and-cognitive-development-among-infants-exposed-to-hiv
#12
Kaitiana Martins da Silva, Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso de Sá, Raquel Carvalho
This study of a prospective and cross-sectional nature compared the motor and cognitive development of HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in their first 18months of age. 40 infants exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy (Experimental Group - EG) and 40 unexposed infants (Control Group - CG) participated in the study. They were divided into four age groups of 4, 8, 12 and 18months old, with 10 infants from EG and 10 from CG in each group. The infants were evaluated once on motor and cognitive development by the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development...
January 12, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081048/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-common-childhood-infections-in-south-african-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-unexposed-infants
#13
Amy L Slogrove, Monika M Esser, Mark F Cotton, David P Speert, Tobias R Kollmann, Joel Singer, Julie A Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty). METHODS: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060886/point-of-care-p24-infant-testing-for-hiv-may-increase-patient-identification-despite-low-sensitivity
#15
Bindiya Meggi, Timothy Bollinger, Nédio Mabunda, Adolfo Vubil, Ocean Tobaiwa, Jorge I Quevedo, Osvaldo Loquiha, Lara Vojnov, Trevor F Peter, Ilesh V Jani
The long delay in returning test results during early infant diagnosis of HIV (EID) often causes loss-to-follow-up prior to antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation in resource-limited settings. A point-of-care (POC) test may help overcome these challenges. We evaluated the performance of the LYNX p24 Antigen POC test in Mozambique. 879 HIV-exposed infants under 18 months of age were enrolled consecutively at three primary healthcare clinics (PHC). Lancet heel-drawn blood was tested on-site by nurses using a prototype POC test for HIV Gag p24 antigen detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060016/excess-respiratory-viral-infections-and-low-antibody-responses-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#16
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Maria L B Teixeira, Regina C M Succi, Laura Freimanis, Jennifer S Read, George Siberry
OBJECTIVE: HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) have frequent severe infection, hospitalization and death. We performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in HEUs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. METHODS: Among 247 HEUs and 88 HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infant-mother pairs, we measured maternal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumococcus (PNC 1, 5, 6B, 14); infant antibodies to RSV, influenza A (Flu), parainfluenza viruses (PIV 1, 2, 3), and PNC 1, 5, 6B and 14 were measured at 0 and 6 months, and anti-tetanus antibodies at 6 months...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011912/cmv-acquisition-and-inflammation-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-zimbabwean-infants
#17
Ceri Evans, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey, Andrew J Prendergast
Cytomegalovirus acquisition and inflammation were evaluated in 231 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 100 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants at age 6 weeks. HEU and HIV-unexposed infants had a similarly high prevalence of CMV (81.4% vs. 74.0%, respectively; P=0.14), but HEU infants had higher CMV viral loads (P=0.005) and >2-fold higher CRP concentrations (P<0.0001). CMV-positive HEU infants had higher CRP than CMV-negative HEU infants; this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal HIV viral load...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005487/perinatal-hiv-exposure-surveillance-and-reporting-in-the-united-states-2014
#18
Kathleen A Brady, Deborah S Storm, Azita Naghdi, Toni Frederick, Jessica Fridge, Mary Jo Hoyt
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the current status of perinatal HIV exposure surveillance (PHES) activities and regulations in the United States and to make recommendations to strengthen PHES. METHODS: In 2014, we sent an online survey to health departments in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and 6 cities and counties (Chicago, Illinois; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Francisco, California)...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999576/optimizing-research-methods-to-understand-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infant-and-child-morbidity-report-of-the-second-heu-infant-and-child-workshop
#19
Amy L Slogrove, Moherndran Archary, Mark F Cotton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941493/early-infant-diagnosis-of-hiv-review-of-current-and-innovative-practices
#20
Francesca Celletti, Gayle Sherman, Ahmad H Mazanderani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Only 51% of HIV-exposed infants receive an HIV test between 4 and 6 weeks of age, with even lower repeat testing rates at older ages, and only 49% of infants tested are initiated on antiretroviral therapy. The purpose of this article is to discuss potential solutions for increasing coverage of early infant diagnosis (EID), decreasing turnaround time for result return, improving linkages to care and treatment and fulfilling the objective of improving outcomes for HIV-infected children...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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