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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520902/early-acquisition-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-colonization-and-potential-association-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-preterm-newborn-infants
#1
Pilar Rojas, Vicente Friaza, Elisa Garcia, Carmen de la Horra, Sergio L Vargas, Enrique J Calderón, Antonio Pavón
Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a well-recognized lung disease of premature and malnourished babies. Even though, serologic studies have shown that children are exposed to Pneumocystis jirovecii early in life the epidemiology of human P. jirovecii infection and the host-microorganism relationship in infancy remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in preterm infants and its possible association with medical complications...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516132/life-threatening-hypercalcemia-during-prodrome-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-an-immunocompetent-infant
#2
Judith Sebestyen VanSickle, Tarak Srivastava, Uri S Alon
Severe hypercalcemia in infants is usually attributed to genetic etiologies and less commonly to acquired ones. An 8-week-old girl presented with failure to thrive, mild respiratory distress, and life-threatening hypercalcemia (23.5 mg/dL). Serum 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D (1,25(OH)2-D) level was elevated and parathyroid hormone undetectable. Evaluation for genetic mutations and malignant etiologies of hypercalcemia was negative. Treatment with intravenous hydration, loop diuretic, and calcitonin failed to correct the hypercalcemia, which was subsequently controlled with bisphosphonate therapy...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515602/respiratory-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-an-important-diagnostic-tool-in-immunocompromised-patients
#3
Amarjeet Kaur, Navin Kumar, Sharmila Sengupta, Yatin Mehta
BACKGROUND: Viruses and atypical pathogens can cause significant respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) has improved the diagnostic yield of pathogens, and it is easier to identify the co-infections also. The present study was done to evaluate the performance of MPCR on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Atotal of 177 BAL specimens collected over a 19 months period from immunocompromised patients with respiratory illness were analyzed with the MPCR and aerobic culture...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507640/histopathological-features-of-methotrexate-induced-pulmonary-lesions-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-systematic-review-of-case-reports
#4
REVIEW
Anthony Thaniyan, Foad F A Ayman, Hyder O Mirghani, Badr A Al-Sayed, Tarig H Merghani
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used disease-modifying drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it causes many side effects, including pulmonary lesions. In this review, we characterised the histopathological features of MTX-induced pulmonary lesions in RA patients. AIM: We carried out an electronic search of the relevant literature published during the period from 1990 to 2016. We included only the cases with definitive histo-pathological findings caused by MTX therapy...
April 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506688/human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-fungal-infections
#5
REVIEW
Jeannette Guarner
The discovery of HIV was largely due to the presence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in young patients that did not have the usual known causes of immune deficiencies in the early 1980s. Currently, treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and the use of prophylaxis for PCP have lowered the frequency of fungal infections; however, these infections continue to cause morbidity and mortality in those patients that fall out or are not in care. The frequency of specific fungal diseases in HIV patients will depend on the prevalence of fungi in the particular geographic location...
April 8, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491889/infections-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-results-from-the-organ-transplant-infection-project-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Mindy G Schuster, Angela A Cleveland, Erik R Dubberke, Carol A Kauffman, Robin K Avery, Shahid Husain, David L Paterson, Fernanda P Silveira, Tom M Chiller, Kaitlin Benedict, Kathleen Murphy, Peter G Pappas
BACKGROUND: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our object was to better define the epidemiology and outcomes of infections after HCT. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HCT recipients and conducted from 2006 to 2011. The study included 4 US transplant centers and 444 HCT recipients. Data were prospectively collected for up to 30 months after HCT using a standardized data collection tool...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491877/nodular-regenerative-hyperplasia-a-case-of-rare-prognosis
#7
Mindy Lee, Manhal Izzy, Ashwin Akki, Kathryn Tanaka, Harmit Kalia
Introduction: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is a known etiology of noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Cases of biopsy-proven NRH in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have been described. While these patients often have normal synthetic liver function, several reports described disease progression to liver failure. Case: We here present a 26-year-old woman with history of congenital HIV on antiretroviral therapy complicated by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia at age 14. CD4 counts have been >300 with undetectable viral load...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490578/investigating-clinical-issues-by-genotyping-of-medically-important-fungi-why-and-how
#8
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Stéphane Bretagne
Genotyping studies of medically important fungi have addressed elucidation of outbreaks, nosocomial transmissions, infection routes, and genotype-phenotype correlations, of which secondary resistance has been most intensively investigated. Two methods have emerged because of their high discriminatory power and reproducibility: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. MLST relies on single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding regions of housekeeping genes...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488228/pneumocystis-pneumonia-and-the-rheumatologist-which-patients-are-at-risk-and-how-can-pcp-be-prevented
#9
REVIEW
Rachel M Wolfe, James E Peacock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunosuppressive therapy for connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is steadily becoming more intense. The resultant impairment in cell-mediated immunity has been accompanied by an increasing risk for opportunistic infection (OI). Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) has been recognized as an OI in patients with CTDs, but specific risk factors and precise indications for PCP prophylaxis remain poorly defined. This review was undertaken to update information on the risk of PCP in patients with CTDs and to examine current guidelines for PCP prophylaxis in this population...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484441/molecular-demonstration-of-a-pneumocystis-outbreak-in-stem-cell-transplant-patients-evidence-for-transmission-in-the-daycare-center
#10
Christine Robin, Alexandre Alanio, Maud Gits-Muselli, Giulia la Martire, Frédéric Schlemmer, Françoise Botterel, Cécile Angebault, Mathieu Leclerc, Florence Beckerich, Rabah Redjoul, Cécile Pautas, Andrea Toma, Sébastien Maury, Stéphane Bretagne, Catherine Cordonnier
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection in hematology. Although occasionally reported, the role of interhuman transmission of P. jirovecii in PCP, compared to that of reactivation, remains an unresolved question; the recommendation to isolate PCP patients in the hematology ward are not well evidence-based. Following an unexpected increase in the number of febrile pneumonia patients with P. jirovecii DNA detected in respiratory samples in our hematology ward, we explored 12 consecutive patients from November 2015 to May 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484270/risk-factors-for-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pjp-in-kidney-transplantation-recipients
#11
Su Hwan Lee, Kyu Ha Huh, Dong Jin Joo, Myoung Soo Kim, Soon Il Kim, Juhan Lee, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Yu Seun Kim, Song Yee Kim
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a potentially life-threatening infection that occurs in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for PJP in kidney transplantation recipients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patient data from 500 consecutive kidney transplants performed at Severance Hospital between April 2011 and April 2014. Eighteen kidney transplantation recipients (3.6%) were diagnosed with PJP. In the univariate analysis, acute graft rejection, CMV infection, use of medication for diabetes mellitus, and lowest lymphocyte count were associated with PJP...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480275/characteristics-and-mortality-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-a-plea-for-timely-initiation-of-chemoprophylaxis
#12
Karlijn van Halem, Lucia Vrolijk, Alberto Martin Pereira, Markus Gerardus Johannes de Boer
In patients with Cushing's syndrome, development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with extreme cortisol production levels. In this setting, immune reconstitution after abrogation of cortisol excess appears to induce development of symptomatic PCP. The high mortality rate warrants timely initiation of chemoprophylaxis or even preemptive treatment of PCP.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469989/drug-induced-hypersensitivity-reaction-a-case-of-simultaneous-thyroiditis-and-fulminant-type-1-diabetes
#13
Michael Marchese, Matthew Leinung, Hassan Shawa
A 43-year-old incarcerated man with AIDS was hospitalized for 30 pounds weight loss and diffuse pruritic rash. Three months prior, he was started on dapsone for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prevention. Biochemical evaluation was remarkable for eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, acute renal insufficiency, transaminitis, thyrotoxicosis, and significant hyperglycemia (450 mg/dl; nl, 65-99). His hemoglobin A1c level was 5.9% (nl, 4.1-5.6). Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and islet cell autoantibodies were within the normal range...
April 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453022/-evolution-of-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-adults-patients-belonging-to-the-national-program-at-start-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-chilean-aids-cohort-2001-2015
#14
Carlos Beltrán, Pedro Zitko, Marcelo Wolff, Fernando Bernal, Alicia Asenjo, Ana M Fernández, Ana Miles, Elizabeth Barthel, Gonzalo Wilson
BACKGROUND: Chilean AIDS Cohort is the oldest and extensive in Latin America and one of most numerous and with longer follow up time to international level. Records information from 14,873 patients out of approximately 22,000 in antiretroviral therapy in the public system and its results have allowed to know the national reality and have contributed to the adoption of public policies. AIM: To describe the demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics of patients who have started ART in Chile and its evolution over the past 15 years...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438973/pulmonary-il-17-lymphocytes-increase-during-pneumocystis-murina-infection-but-are-not-required-for-clearance-of-pneumocystis
#15
Chiara Ripamonti, Lisa R Bishop, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis remains an important pathogen of immunosuppressed patients, causing a potentially life-threatening pneumonia. Despite its medical importance, the immune responses required to control infection, including the role of IL-17, which is important in controlling other fungal infections, have not been clearly defined. Using flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining following stimulation with PMA and ionomycin, we examined interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 production by lung lymphocytes in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice over time following infection with P...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425200/high-dose-calcineurin-inhibitor-free-everolimus-as-a-maintenance-regimen-for-heart-transplantation-may-be-a-risk-factor-for%C3%A2-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#16
Yu-Ning Hu, Nan-Yao Lee, Jun-Neng Roan, Chi-Hsin Hsu, Chwan-Yao Luo
BACKGROUND: Everolimus reduces the incidence of cardiac-allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and is less renally toxic than are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We evaluated the safety of CNI-free everolimus for post-heart transplant (HTx) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 36 consecutive patients who had undergone an HTx between January 2006 and December 2013 in National Cheng Kung University Hospital. All patients initially had been treated with the standard tacrolimus regimen...
April 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401321/circulating-genotypes-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-its-clinical-correlation-in-patients-from-a-single-tertiary-center-in-india
#17
Y Singh, B R Mirdha, R Guleria, S Khalil, A Panda, R Chaudhry, A Mohan, S K Kabra, L Kumar, S K Agarwal
The present study was carried out with the objectives of genotyping Pneumocystis jirovecii at three distinct loci, to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and to study its clinical implications in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Analysis of genetic diversity in P. jirovecii from immunocompromised patients was carried out by genotyping at three distinct loci encoding mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSU rRNA), cytochrome b (CYB), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays followed by direct DNA sequencing...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399687/low-prevalence-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-review-of-a-clinical-data-warehouse
#18
T M Kapoor, P Mahadeshwar, S Nguyen, J Li, S Kapoor, J Bathon, J Giles, A Askanase
Objective In the era of powerful immunosuppression, opportunistic infections are an increasing concern in systemic lupus erythematosus. One of the best-studied opportunistic infections is Pneumocystis pneumonia; however, the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus is not clearly defined. This study evaluates the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus patients, with a focus on validating the Pneumocystis pneumonia and systemic lupus erythematosus diagnoses with clinical information...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393663/herpes-simplex-virus-cytomegalovirus-and-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-a-treatment-naive-hiv-positive-patient-with-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-case-report
#19
Anita Bapat, Eliahu Bishburg, Sandhya Nagarakanti
Infection with multiple pathogens concurrently has become less common since the introduction of potent antiretroviral agent and effective prophylactic agents. We describe a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) admitted with pneumonia who was found to have AIDS and diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1), and a concomitant cytomegalovirus viremia. Polymerase chain reaction viral load was used for diagnosis of HHV-1 and follow-up. The patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ganciclovir and had a resolution of pneumonia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389165/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-followed-by-immune-recovery-uveitis-in-an-elderly-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-undergoing-administration-of-methotrexate-and-tofacitinib-combination-therapy
#20
Kunio Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki Ogawa, Mayumi Hosogai, Daisuke Todokoro, Takeki Mitsui, Akihiko Yokohama, Shoji Kishi, Hiroshi Handa
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an opportunistic ocular infection most commonly observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present a rare case of CMV retinitis that developed in a non-HIV patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over the preceding 5 months, a family doctor had been treating the 78-year-old male patient with a combination therapy of methotrexate (MTX) and tofacitinib (TOF). CMV retinitis occurred when the patient's CD4+ T cells were low (196 cells/μl), and preceded the onset of Pneumocystis pneumonia...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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