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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726611/added-value-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-multilocus-sequence-typing-analysis-of-a-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-outbreak1
#1
Elena Charpentier, Cécile Garnaud, Claire Wintenberger, Sébastien Bailly, Jean-Benjamin Murat, John Rendu, Patricia Pavese, Thibault Drouet, Caroline Augier, Paolo Malvezzi, Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand, Marie-Reine Mallaret, Olivier Epaulard, Muriel Cornet, Sylvie Larrat, Danièle Maubon
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major threat for immunocompromised patients, and clusters of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) have been increasingly described in transplant units during the past decade. Exploring an outbreak transmission network requires complementary spatiotemporal and strain-typing approaches. We analyzed a PCP outbreak and demonstrated the added value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study of P. jirovecii strains. Thirty-two PCP patients were included...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719897/clinical-manifestations-and-prognostic-factors-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-without-hiv
#2
Nobuhiro Asai, Shinji Motojima, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Ryo Matsunuma, Takuya Iwasaki, Kei Nakashima, Keiji Sogawa, Tamao Nakashita, Norihiro Kaneko
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) can occur in HIV patients but also in those without HIV (non-HIV PCP) but with other causes of immunodeficiency including malignancy or rheumatic diseases. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To evaluate the clinical presentation and prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP, we retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed as having PCP without HIV at Kameda Medical Center, Chiba, Japan, from January 2005 until June 2012. For the purpose of examining a prognostic factor for non-HIV PCP with 30-day mortality, we compared the characteristics of patients, clinical symptoms, radiological images, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS), and the time from the onset of respiratory symptoms to the start of therapy, in both survival and fatality groups...
July 19, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719295/regional-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-major-opportunistic-infections-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-in-japan-northern-thailand-northern-vietnam-and-the-philippines
#3
Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Ikumi Sawada, Naho Tsuchiya, Cuong D Do, Thanh Thuy T Pham, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Marissa Alejandria, Katerina Leyritana, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Panita Pathipvanich, Koya Ariyoshi
To identify regional differences in the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Asia, the medical records of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients who attended the following tertiary hospitals from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed: Nagoya Medical Center (NMC, Nagoya, Japan), Lampang Hospital (LPH, Lampang, northern Thailand), Bach Mai Hospital (BMH, Hanoi, northern Vietnam), and Philippine General Hospital (PGH, Manila, Philippines). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between country of origin and risk of major OIs...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713390/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-an-infant-with-immunodeficiency-centromeric-instability-and-facial-anomaly-syndrome
#4
Katharina L Gössling, Cyrill Schipp, Ute Fischer, Florian Babor, Gerhard Koch, Friedhelm R Schuster, Jutta Dietzel-Dahmen, Dagmar Wieczorek, Arndt Borkhardt, Roland Meisel, Michaela Kuhlen
Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomaly (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic condition with severe immunodeficiency, which leads to lethal infections if not recognized and treated in early childhood. Up-to-date treatment regimens consist of prophylactic and supportive treatment of the recurrent infections. Here, we report the case of a 1-year-old boy of Moroccan consanguineous parents, who was diagnosed at 4 months of age with ICF syndrome with a homozygous missense mutation in the DNMT3B gene...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705464/diversity-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-across-europe-a-multicentre-observational-study
#5
Alexandre Alanio, Maud Gits-Muselli, Nicolas Guigue, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Enrique J Calderon, David Di Cave, Damien Dupont, Axel Hamprecht, Philippe M Hauser, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Marta Kicia, Katrien Lagrou, Martina Lengerova, Olga Matos, Willem J G Melchers, Florent Morio, Gilles Nevez, Anne Totet, Lewis P White, Stéphane Bretagne
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an airborne human-specific ascomycetous fungus responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients, affecting >500,000 patients per year (www.gaffi.org). The understanding of its epidemiology is limited by the lack of standardised culture. Recent genotyping data suggests a limited genetic diversity of P. jirovecii. The objective of the study was to assess the diversity of P. jirovecii across European hospitals and analyse P. jirovecii diversity in respect to clinical data obtained from the patients...
June 29, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702025/cellular-and-molecular-defects-underlying-invasive-fungal-infections-revelations-from-endemic-mycoses
#6
REVIEW
Pamela P Lee, Yu-Lung Lau
The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699887/upward-trend-of-dapsone-induced-methemoglobinemia-in-renal-transplant-community%C3%A2
#7
Sohail Abdul Salim, Lakshmi Ramachandran Nair, Venkataraman Palabindala, Iasmina Craici
Dapsone, a sulfone antibiotic, is used for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with documented sulfa allergy. Acquired methemoglobinemia caused by dapsone is not uncommon in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) levels. Discrepancy between oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) readings, a phenomenon known as "saturation gap," is noted with cases of methemoglobinemia. Although its prevalence in renal transplant patients is poorly described, there is evidence that its incidence is increasing...
July 12, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696635/-how-to-handle-a-non-resolving-pneumonia
#8
Benoit Lechartier, Maura Prella, Oriol Manuel, Laurent P Nicod
Persistent pneumonias are frequent both in hospital and primary care settings. Several parameters have to be taken into account. Firstly the appropriateness of treatment; secondly the immune status of the host; and finally infectious complications need to be ruled out. Several non-infectious diagnoses can mimic a persistent infiltrate, such as neoplastic disorders, organising pneumonias, interstitial disorders and drug - or radiation-induced lung diseases. Uncommon pathogens will not respond to common treatment, for instance atypical bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi including Pneumocystis as well as viruses...
November 16, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694293/the-trophic-life-cycle-stage-of-the-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-pneumocystis-murina-hinders-the-ability-of-dendritic-cells-to-stimulate-cd4-t-cell-responses
#9
Heather M Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J Stromberg, Carol L Pickett, Beth A Garvy
The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple PAMPs, including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding transcription factors...
July 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692651/effects-of-clinical-and-environmental-factors-on-bronchoalveolar-antibody-responses-to-pneumocystis-jirovecii-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-hiv-patients
#10
Robert J Blount, Kieran R Daly, Serena Fong, Emily Chang, Katherine Grieco, Meredith Greene, Stephen Stone, John Balmes, Robert F Miller, Peter D Walzer, Laurence Huang
BACKGROUND: Humoral immunity plays an important role against Pneumocystis jirovecii infection, yet clinical and environmental factors that impact bronchoalveolar antibody responses to P. jirovecii remain uncertain. METHODS: From October 2008-December 2011 we enrolled consecutive HIV-infected adults admitted to San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) who underwent bronchoscopy for suspected Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We used local air quality monitoring data to assign ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate matter exposures within 14 days prior to hospital admission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691431/low-dose-computed-tomography-in-assessment-of-pulmonary-abnormalities-in-children-with-febrile-neutropenia-suffering-from-malignant-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz, Cyprian Michal Olchowy, Mateusz Łasecki, Dąbrówka Sokołowska-Dąbek, Aleksander Pawluś, Jowita Frączkiewicz, Ewa Gorczyńska
BACKGROUND: Management of febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients is challenging. Chest X-ray and CT help to identify infective foci; however, exposure to radiation is a risk factor for development of secondary cancer. For this reason, attention is paid to reduce radiation exposure. OBJECTIVES: TTo define the role of LDCT examination in early detection of pulmonary lesions in children during oncology or autoimmune treatment complicated by neutropenia related fever...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690727/-clinical-and-immunological-profile-of-15-moroccan-patients-with-hyper-igm-syndrome
#12
Hind Ouair, Ibtihal Benhsaien, Leila Jeddane, Jalila El Bakkouri, Naima Elhafidi, Noureddine Rada, Jilali Najib, Fatima Ailal, Hanane Salih Alj, Ahmed Aziz Bousfiha
Hyper IgM syndrome is a well known genetic (primary) immunodeficiency disorder which was first described in 1961. It is caused by B lymphocyte deficiency characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels and low or zero levels of IgG, IgA, IgE resulting from isotype-switching deficiency. Clinical manifestations are dominated by recurrent infections, especially involving the digestive tube of the ENT sphere and the lungs. This syndrome is caused by B-cell immunoglobulin class switch deficiency and decreased capacity to induce proliferation of T lymphocytes...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688008/pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-cystic-fibrosis-in-brittany-france
#13
Gilles Nevez, Florence Robert-Gangneux, Laurence Pougnet, Michèle Virmaux, Chantal Belleguic, Eric Deneuville, Gilles Rault, Sylviane Chevrier, Sophie Ramel, Jean Le Bihan, Thibaud Guillaud-Saumur, Enrique Calderon, Yohann Le Govic, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Solène Le Gal
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a transmissible fungus with a high pulmonary tropism. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been estimated in Germany at 7.4%, in Spain at 21.5% and in Brazil at 38.2%. Data on the prevalence of P. jirovecii in CF patients in France remain scarce, particularly in Brittany, where the prevalence of CF is high (from 1/1600 to 1/4500). Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of colonization of the airways by P. jirovecii in Brittany in CF patients monitored at the "Centre de Ressources et de Compétences de la Mucoviscidose (CRCM)" of Rennes compared to that previously observed at the CRCM of Roscoff-Brest...
July 7, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683092/comparison-of-quantitative-real-time-pcr-and-direct-immunofluorescence-for-the-detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#14
Bhavani Moodley, Stefano Tempia, John Andrew Frean
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious risk for HIV-positive patients. Asymptomatic infection or colonisation with P. jirovecii has been shown to occur frequently. PCR assays frequently identify such cases, due to their high sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) gene copy number cut-off values have been suggested to differentiate colonisation and infection; these need to be standardised for routine use. We compared the results of qPCR with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine a specific cut-off value...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671170/platypnea-orthodeoxia-syndrome-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-with-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia
#15
R Swapna, Rahul Roshan, Sunil K Chhabra
Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS), the occurrence of dyspnea and arterial desaturation on changing from supine to sitting position, is a very rare phenomenon. Most case reports have been in association with an intra-atrial communication, and observation of this unusual physiological abnormality in pulmonary conditions has been extremely rare. We present a case of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis where the patient developed characteristic symptoms of POS when it was complicated by Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia...
July 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661231/characteristics-of-hospital-admissions-for-pneumonia-in-hiv-positive-individuals-in-winnipeg-manitoba-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-analysis
#16
S van Gaalen, Michael Duff, Luisa F Arroyave, Zulma Vanessa Rueda, Ken Kasper, Y Keynan
Lung infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, even in the current antiretroviral therapy era. Pneumonia is the most common cause of admission in HIV-positive individuals in our centre as reported in a previously published study. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to further characterize these admissions, with respect to index of disease severity at presentation, organisms identified, and investigations pursued including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660636/pulmonary-co-infections-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-non-hiv-patients-a-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Anthi-Marina Markantonatou, Aliki Ioakimidou, Kostoula Arvaniti, Eleni Manou, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Parthena Kiriklidou, Konstantinos Samaras, Anna Kioumi, Timoleon-Achilleas Vyzantiadis
Pneumocystis jirovecii is the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP), a common and often life-threatening opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. However, non-HIV, immunocompromised patients are at risk of PcP as well, whereas the mortality appears to be higher among these patients. Pneumocystis co-infections with other microorganisms are less frequent and only sparse reports of combined PcP and invasive pulmonary fungal infections exist in the literature, especially in the non-HIV patients...
June 28, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659366/successful-repeat-ecmo-in-a-patient-with-aids-and-ards
#18
Sho Horikita, Masamitsu Sanui, Yuki Fujimoto, Alan Kawarai Lefor
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is being more commonly used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to potentially reversible illnesses. Survival from ARDS using ECMO has been reported even in patients with AIDS. However, the indications for ECMO for ARDS due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in patients with AIDS are unknown. A 23-year-old man with AIDS and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe ARDS refractory to mechanical ventilator support requiring ECMO...
June 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651341/plasma-concentrations-of-atovaquone-given-to-immunocompromised-patients-to-prevent-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#19
Christine Robin, Minh Patrick Lê, Giovanna Melica, Laurent Massias, Rabah Redjoul, Nihel Khoudour, Mathieu Leclerc, Florence Beckerich, Sébastien Maury, Anne Hulin, Catherine Cordonnier
Objectives: Atovaquone is one of the alternatives to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients. In volunteers, there was wide inter-individual variability in atovaquone bioavailability. The aim of this study was to assess the plasma concentrations of atovaquone in immunocompromised patients under PCP prophylaxis. Methods: Adult haematology or HIV-positive patients receiving atovaquone (750 mg oral suspension twice a day) for PCP prophylaxis were included...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649366/pneumocystis-jirovecii-detection-in-asymptomatic-patients-what-does-its-natural-history-tell-us
#20
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an unusual ascomycetous fungus that can be detected in the lungs of healthy individuals. Transmission from human to human is one of its main characteristics in comparison with other fungi responsible for invasive infections. P. jirovecii is transmitted through the air between healthy individuals, who are considered to be the natural reservoir, at least transiently. In immunocompromised patients, P. jirovecii multiplies, leading to subacute infections and acute life-threatening pneumonia, called Pneumocystis pneumonia [PCP]...
2017: F1000Research
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