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Pneumocystis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329650/increased-risk-of-opportunistic-infections-among-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Junko Takeshita, Daniel B Shin, Alexis Ogdie, Joel M Gelfand
Infection is the second leading cause of death among psoriasis patients on phototherapy or systemic medications. The types of infections associated with psoriasis remain poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine the risk of opportunistic infection (OI) among patients with psoriasis. We conducted a cohort study of patients with (N=199,700) and without (N=954,315) psoriasis in The Health Improvement Network electronic medical record database. Patients receiving phototherapy or systemic therapy were considered to have moderate-to-severe psoriasis (N=12,442)...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321223/abo-incompatible-kidney-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Christian Morath, Martin Zeier, Bernd Döhler, Gerhard Opelz, Caner Süsal
ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316430/comparison-of-three-cost-effective-staining-methods-for-detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#3
Mohamad Mohsen Homayouni, Ali Rostami, Hamed Gholizadeh, Amir Sayed Ali Mehbod, Maryam Ebrahimi, Saeed Mehravar
Pneumocystis pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is an emerging health problem not only for HIV-infected patients but also for other immunocompromised patients in many countries. We compared Gomori methenamine silver (GMS), Toluidine Blue O (TBO) and Giemsa staining methods using standard procedures. The sensitivity and specificity of GMS were 100 %. The sensitivity and specificity of TBO were 96 and 100 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Giemsa stain were 84 and 90 %, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303545/low-prevalence-of-dhfr-and-dhps-mutations-in-pneumocystis-jirovecii-strains-obtained-from-a-german-cohort
#4
Isabelle Suárez, Lisa Roderus, Edeltraud van Gumpel, Norma Jung, Clara Lehmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Pia Hartmann, Georg Plum, Jan Rybniker
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic and potentially life-threatening infection of immunocompromised individuals. A combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is widely used for prophylaxis and treatment of PCP. Polymorphisms in the drug targets, the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) or the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are presumably a reason for treatment failure. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the prevalence of DHPS and DHFR mutations in Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates obtained from HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected PCP patients...
March 16, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302661/severe-co-trimoxazole-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-a-patient-with-microscopic-polyangiitis
#5
Thomas Edward Conley, Atif Mohiuddin, Noshaba Naz
A 69-year-old man presented to the emergency department with lower respiratory tract infection and febrile neutropaenia. He was recently discharged following a 50-day hospital stay with newly diagnosed microscopic polyangiitis, complicated by pulmonary haemorrhage and severe renal dysfunction requiring renal replacement therapy, plasma exchange and immunosuppression (cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone). High risk of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) led to an escalation in treatment from prophylactic to therapeutic oral co-trimoxazole, alongside broad-spectrum antibiotics...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301552/radiological-characteristics-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#6
Zhiliang Hu, Jun Chen, Juan Wang, Qingfang Xiong, Yandan Zhong, Yongfeng Yang, Chuanjun Xu, Hongxia Wei
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is largely based on studies performed about 2 decades ago which reported that the most common findings on chest radiograph were diffuse interstitial infiltrates. Few studies are available regarding the computed tomography (CT) findings. The aim of this study was to characterize chest CT features of HIV-associated PC. METHODS: HIV patients with cryptococccal infection and pulmonary abnormalities on Chest CT between September 2010 and May 2016 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of the Southeast University were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298521/the-interaction-of-pneumocystis-with-the-c-type-lectin-receptor-mincle-exerts-a-significant-role-in-host-defense-against-infection
#7
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Vijayalakshmi Nandakumar, Marcel Wüthrich, Huafeng Wang, Bruce Klein, Sho Yamasaki, Bernd Lepenies, Andrew H Limper
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality within immunocompromised patients. In this study, we examined the potential role of macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) for host defense against Pneumocystis Binding assays implementing soluble Mincle carbohydrate recognition domain fusion proteins demonstrated binding to intact Pneumocystis carinii as well as to organism homogenates, and they purified major surface glycoprotein/glycoprotein A derived from the organism. Additional experiments showed that rats with PCP expressed increased Mincle mRNA levels...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287298/pneumocystis-jirovecii-induced-chronic-interstitial-lung-disease-in-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-s-macroglobulinemia
#8
Wolfram Windisch, Axel Meissner, Axel Goßmann, Michael Brockmann, Verena Schildgen, Oliver Schildgen
Infections with Pneumocystis jirovecii can result in asymptomatic colonization or induce life threatening clinical symptoms. However, there appears to be a 'gray area' between colonization and severe pneumonia that remains underestimated so far. We describe a case with chronic interstitial lung disease and chronic cough that was attributed to P. jirovecii. The patient's history of chronic cough, although very likely being fostered by the underlying Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and interstitial lung disease, was most likely caused by P...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287010/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection
#9
P Lewis White, Matthijs Backx, Rosemary A Barnes
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous fungus, which causes pneumonia in humans. Diagnosis was hampered by the inability to culture the organism, and based on microscopic examination of respiratory samples or clinical presentation. New assays can assist in the diagnosis and even aid with the emergence of resistant infections. Areas Covered: This manuscript will provide background information on Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). Diagnosis, from radiological to non-microbiological (e.g. Lactate dehydrogenase) and microbiological investigations (Microscopy, PCR, β-D-Glucan) will be discussed...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267082/guidelines-for-the-prophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pjp-in-children-with-solid-tumors
#10
Rebecca Proudfoot, Bob Phillips, Sophie Wilne
Although it is well-established that children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplants and treatment for leukemia should be offered prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, the risk for children with solid malignancies is less certain. This guideline has been developed with the aim of standardizing practice and optimizing the benefit versus risk of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. P. jirovecii pneumonia has a high mortality rate even with prompt antimicrobial treatment. Since prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole is safe, effective, and inexpensive, we suggest that all children with malignancies undergoing immunosuppressive therapy are offered prophylaxis unless there are clear contraindications...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264809/spontaneous-pneumothorax-in-a-patient-with-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#11
Richard Gr Lloyd, Frances Aitchison, Guy Hagan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257752/efficacy-and-safety-of-idelalisib-in-combination-with-ofatumumab-for-previously-treated-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-an-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#12
Jeffrey A Jones, Tadeusz Robak, Jennifer R Brown, Farrukh T Awan, Xavier Badoux, Steven Coutre, Javier Loscertales, Kerry Taylor, Elisabeth Vandenberghe, Malgorzata Wach, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Loic Ysebaert, Lyndah Dreiling, Ronald Dubowy, Guan Xing, Ian W Flinn, Carolyn Owen
BACKGROUND: Idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ, is approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in combination with rituximab. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of idelalisib in combination with a second-generation anti-CD20 antibody, ofatumumab, in a similar patient population. METHODS: In this global, open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients with relapsed CLL progressing less than 24 months from last therapy...
March 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250304/pneumocystis-pneumonia-concomitant-with-ectopic-acth-syndrome-caused-by-a-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-thymus
#13
Naohiro Oda, Nobuaki Miyahara, Masahiro Tabata, Daisuke Minami, Kiichiro Ninomiya, Arihiko Kanehiro, Motoshi Komatsubara, Kenichi Inagaki, Mitsune Tanimoto, Katsuyuki Kiura
We herein report the case of a 44-year-old man who was diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) concomitant with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, which had been caused by a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacities in the lungs. PCP was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction with bronchoalveolar lavage. The levels of cortisol were slowly corrected with an adrenal enzyme inhibitor, and the exacerbation of PCP was successfully avoided...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248133/an-emerging-role-of-b-cell-immunity-in-susceptibility-to-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#14
Jay K Kolls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243758/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-guatemala
#15
N Medina, B Samayoa, D Lau-Bonilla, D W Denning, R Herrera, D Mercado, B Guzmán, J C Pérez, E Arathoon
Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243035/infections-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#16
REVIEW
Eleni Karakike, Christophe Moreno, Thierry Gustot
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH), defined by a modified discriminant function ≥32, is the most severe form of alcohol-induced liver disease and is associated with a 1-month mortality rate of around 30%. Corticosteroid treatment remains the only therapeutic option that improves short-term survival. Infectious complications, occurring in approximately 50% of patients, are the main causes of death, even in patients who benefit from corticosteroids. Liver failure, recent alcohol consumption and immunosuppressive drugs contribute to this infectious risk...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223177/pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-or-autoimmune-diseases-usefulness-of-lymphocyte-subtyping
#17
Yi Li, Marc Ghannoum, Chuntao Deng, Yanxia Gao, Huadong Zhu, Xuezhong Yu, Valery Lavergne
OBJECTIVES: No consensus currently exists on the indications for Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis in patients with inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The main objective was to identify biomarkers associated with P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in this population. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out at Beijing Union Medical College Hospital (2003-2014). All patients with an inflammatory or autoimmune disease presenting with acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms were included...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220322/serious-fungal-infections-in-the-philippines
#18
M C R Batac, D Denning
The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217822/how-to-diagnose-early-5-azacytidine-induced-pneumonitis-a-case-report
#19
Srimanta Chandra Misra, Laurence Gabriel, Eric Nacoulma, Gérard Dine, Valentina Guarino
Interstitial pneumonitis is a classical complication of many drugs. Pulmonary toxicity due to 5-azacytidine, a deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase inhibitor and cytotoxic drug, has rarely been reported. We report a 67-year-old female myelodysplastic syndrome patient treated with 5-azacytidine at the conventional dosage of 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days. One week after starting she developed moderate fever along with dry cough and subsequently her temperature rose to 39.5 °C. She was placed under broad-spectrum antibiotics based on the protocol for febrile neutropenia, including ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily, ceftazidime 1 g three times daily (tid), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 400 mg/80 mg tid...
December 2017: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217592/profile-of-infections-in-renal-transplant-recipients-from-india
#20
Arun Kumar, Chaturbhuj Agarwal, Ashok K Hooda, Ashutosh Ojha, Mukesh Dhillon, K V S Hari Kumar
BACKGROUND: Infectious disorders are a major cause of concern in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) leading to considerable morbidity and mortality. We studied the profile and outcomes of infectious disorders in a cohort of RTR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, we evaluated all RTR who presented with the features of infection. We also included asymptomatic patients with microbiological evidence of infection. We excluded patients with acute rejection, drug toxicity, and malignancy...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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