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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045479/perception-of-climate-change-in-patients-with-chronic-lung-disease
#1
Jeremias Götschke, Pontus Mertsch, Michael Bischof, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Sandhya Matthes, Ellen D Renner, Konrad Schultz, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Hans-Werner Duchna, Jürgen Behr, Jürgen Schmude, Rudolf M Huber, Katrin Milger
BACKGROUND: Climate change affects human health. The respective consequences are predicted to increase in the future. Patients with chronic lung disease are particularly vulnerable to the involved environmental alterations. However, their subjective perception and reactions to these alterations remain unknown. METHODS: In this pilot study, we surveyed 172 adult patients who underwent pulmonary rehabilitation and 832 adult tourists without lung disease in the alpine region about their perception of being affected by climate change and their potential reaction to specific consequences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043015/-show-me-which-parasites-you-carry-and-i-will-tell-you-what-you-eat-or-how-to-infer-the-trophic-behavior-of-hematophagous-arthropods-feeding-on-wildlife
#2
Boris Makanga, Carlo Costantini, Nil Rahola, Patrick Yangari, Virginie Rougeron, Diego Ayala, Franck Prugnolle, Christophe Paupy
Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses originating from wildlife among which vector-borne diseases constitute a major risk for global human health. Understanding the transmission routes of mosquito-borne pathogens in wildlife crucially depends on recording mosquito blood-feeding patterns. During an extensive longitudinal survey to study sylvatic anophelines in two wildlife reserves in Gabon, we collected 2,415 mosquitoes of which only 0.3% were blood-fed. The molecular analysis of the blood meals contained in guts indicated that all the engorged mosquitoes fed on wild ungulates...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040058/recommendations-for-laboratory-containment-and-management-of-gene-drive-systems-in-arthropods
#3
Mark Q Benedict, Austin Burt, Margareth L Capurro, Paul De Barro, Alfred M Handler, Keith R Hayes, John M Marshall, Walter J Tabachnick, Zach N Adelman
Versatile molecular tools for creating driving transgenes and other invasive genetic factors present regulatory, ethical, and environmental challenges that should be addressed to ensure their safe use. In this article, we discuss driving transgenes and invasive genetic factors that can potentially spread after their introduction into a small proportion of individuals in a population. The potential of invasive genetic factors to increase their number in natural populations presents challenges that require additional safety measures not provided by previous recommendations regarding accidental release of arthropods...
October 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031692/development-and-application-of-a-bioluminescent-imaging-mouse-model-for-chikungunya-virus-based-on-pseudovirus-system
#4
Jiajing Wu, Chenyan Zhao, Qiang Liu, Weijin Huang, Youchun Wang
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that is transmitted to humans primarily via the bite of an infected mosquito. Infection of humans by CHIKV can cause chikungunya fever which is an acute febrile illness associated with severe, often debilitating polyarthralgias. Since a re-emergence of CHIKV in 2004, the virus has spread into novel locations in nearly 40 countries including non-endemic regions and has led to millions of cases of disease throughout countries. Handling of CHIKV is restricted to the high-containment Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) facilities, which greatly impede the research progress of this virus...
October 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028826/identification-of-cis-regulatory-sequences-reveals-potential-participation-of-lola-and-deaf1-transcription-factors-in-anopheles-gambiae-innate-immune-response
#5
Bernardo Pérez-Zamorano, Sandra Rosas-Madrigal, Oscar Arturo Migueles Lozano, Manuel Castillo Méndez, Verónica Valverde-Garduño
The innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae involves the transcriptional upregulation of effector genes. Therefore, the cis-regulatory sequences and their cognate binding factors play essential roles in the mosquito's immune response. However, the genetic control of the mosquito's innate immune response is not yet fully understood. To gain further insight on the elements, the factors and the potential mechanisms involved, an open chromatin profiling was carried out on A. gambiae-derived immune-responsive cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026852/effect-of-climatic-conditions-and-water-bodies-on-population-dynamics-of-the-dengue-vector-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae
#6
Shabab Nasir, Farhat Jabeen, Sadia Abbas, Iram Nasir, Mustapha Debboun
BACKGROUND: The population of mosquitoes is mainly influenced by the biotic and abiotic factors. Although Aedes aegypti was reported until 1960's in the Punjab, Pakistan, the population has increased dramatically since 2009 and caused severe epidemics in 2011 due to heavy floods and rains. Thus, this study was carried out to know the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the population of Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected from fresh, sewage, and rain water ponds, fish ponds, rice fields, tyres, tree holes, and manmade storage containers present in and around residential homes twice during every winter (October-February), summer (March-June) and monsoon season (July-September) from marked rural areas...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994790/modelling-zika-virus-infection-of-the-developing-human-brain-in-vitro-using-stem-cell-derived-cerebral-organoids
#7
Max R Salick, Michael F Wells, Kevin Eggan, Ajamete Kaykas
The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in susceptible populations has led to an abrupt increase in microcephaly and other neurodevelopmental conditions in newborn infants. While mosquitos are the main route of viral transmission, it has also been shown to spread via sexual contact and vertical mother-to-fetus transmission. In this latter case of transmission, due to the unique viral tropism of ZIKV, the virus is believed to predominantly target the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of the developing brain. Here a method for modeling ZIKV infection, and the resulting microcephaly, that occur when human cerebral organoids are exposed to live ZIKV is described...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991904/epidemiological-consequences-of-immune-sensitisation-by-pre-exposure-to-vector-saliva
#8
Tsukushi Kamiya, Megan A Greischar, Nicole Mideo
Blood-feeding arthropods-like mosquitoes, sand flies, and ticks-transmit many diseases that impose serious public health and economic burdens. When a blood-feeding arthropod bites a mammal, it injects saliva containing immunogenic compounds that facilitate feeding. Evidence from Leishmania, Plasmodium and arboviral infections suggests that the immune responses elicited by pre-exposure to arthropod saliva can alter disease progression if the host later becomes infected. Such pre-sensitisation of host immunity has been reported to both exacerbate and limit infection symptoms, depending on the system in question, with potential implications for recovery...
October 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989226/oviposition-preference-and-offspring-performance-in-container-breeding-mosquitoes-evaluating-the-effects-of-organic-compounds-and-laboratory-colonisation
#9
David W Allgood, Donald A Yee
The preference-performance hypothesis predicts that organisms lacking parental care should oviposit in habitats that optimize offspring performance. We investigated preference-performance relationships for the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus Skuse) and the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say) (Diptera:Culicidae), two medically important container-breeding species, in response to an organic chemical blend mimicking decaying plant matter. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of long-term laboratory colonization of Cx...
August 2017: Ecological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985234/pathogenesis-and-sexual-transmission-of-spondweni-and-zika-viruses
#10
Erin M McDonald, Nisha K Duggal, Aaron C Brault
The Spondweni serogroup of viruses (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is comprised of Spondweni virus (SPONV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which are mosquito-borne viruses capable of eliciting human disease. Numerous cases of ZIKV sexual transmission in humans have been documented following the emergence of the Asian genotype in the Americas. The African ZIKV genotype virus was previously implicated in the first reported case of ZIKV sexual transmission. Reports of SPONV infection in humans have been associated with non-specific febrile illness, but no association with sexual transmission has been reported...
October 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981650/surveillance-for-immature-mosquitoes-in-windshield-wash-basins-at-gas-stations
#11
Michael H Reiskind, Kristen A Hopperstad
Gas stations often provide windshield wash basins (WWBs) that customers may use to clean their windshields. Motivated by casual observations, we conducted a survey of WWBs in and around Raleigh, NC, to determine whether these WWBs also serve as larval habitats for mosquitoes. We found that 27.7% (95% CI: 12.4-43.14%) of the 36 surveyed gas stations had mosquito larvae in their WWBs, and 22.4% (95% CI: 15.07-29.1%) of the 152 WWBs surveyed were positive for mosquito larvae. Two species were identified inhabiting these containers: Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968892/laboratory-evaluation-of-a-novel-lethal-ovitrap-for-control-of-aedes-aegypti
#12
Casey N Parker, Roberto M Pereira, Rebecca W Baldwin, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Philip G Koehler
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) are known to flourish in a variety of natural and residential habitats and are competent vectors of at least 22 different arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Their global distribution, anthropophilic nature, and vector competency make them species of interest for control. A novel durable dual-action lethal ovitrap (DDALO) with combined larviciding and adulticiding effects, as well as a slow-release polymer (isobutyl methacrylate), was designed to target Ae...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959086/ecological-entomology
#13
Katie M Westby, Steven A Juliano
General theory from aquatic ecology predicts that smaller aquatic habitats have shorter hydroperiods favouring species that are better resource competitors and complete development quickly. Larger habitats are predicted to have longer hydroperiods enabling longer-lived predators to persist. Habitats with long hydroperiods and predators are predicted to favour slower-developing, predator resistant species, rather than competitive species.In a field experiment, we manipulated independently habitat size and hydroperiod in water-filled containers, to test these hypotheses about processes structuring aquatic communities...
August 2017: Ecological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945882/extensive-genetic-differentiation-between-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-the-mosquito-vector-aedes-aegypti
#14
Albin Fontaine, Igor Filipovic, Thanyalak Fansiri, Ary A Hoffmann, Changde Cheng, Mark Kirkpatrick, Gordana Rašic, Louis Lambrechts
Mechanisms and evolutionary dynamics of sex-determination systems are of particular interest in insect vectors of human pathogens like mosquitoes because novel control strategies aim to convert pathogen-transmitting females into nonbiting males, or rely on accurate sexing for the release of sterile males. In Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and Zika viruses, sex determination is governed by a dominant male-determining locus, previously thought to reside within a small, nonrecombining, sex-determining region (SDR) of an otherwise homomorphic sex chromosome...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931684/zika-virus-encoding-non-glycosylated-envelope-protein-is-attenuated-and-defective-in-neuroinvasion
#15
Arun S Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R Sahoo, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, David Steffen, Hiep L X Vu, Gustavo Delhon, Fernando A Osorio, Thomas M Petro, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K Pattnaik
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, responsible for sporadic outbreaks of mild and febrile illness in Africa and Asia, re-emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases including microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that genetic evolution may have led to enhanced virulence of ZIKV, experimental evidence supporting the role of specific genetic changes in virulence is currently outstanding. One sequence motif, VNDT, containing an N-linked glycosylation site in the envelope (E) protein, is polymorphic, being absent in many of the African isolates while present in all isolates from the recent outbreaks...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931018/pyrethroid-resistance-alters-the-blood-feeding-behavior-in-puerto-rican-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-exposed-to-treated-fabric
#16
Natasha M Agramonte, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Ulrich R Bernier
Emerging insecticide resistance is a major issue for vector control. It decreases the effectiveness of insecticides, thereby requiring greater quantities for comparable control with a net increase in risk of disease resurgence, product cost, and damage risk to the ecosystem. Pyrethroid resistance has been documented in Puerto Rican populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. In this study, topical toxicity of five insecticides (permethrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, DDT, transfluthrin) was determined for susceptible (Orlando-ORL) and resistant (Puerto Rico-PR) strains of Ae...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922357/analysis-of-nuclear-and-organellar-genomes-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-in-humans-reveals-ancient-population-structure-and-recent-recombination-among-host-specific-subpopulations
#17
Ernest Diez Benavente, Paola Florez de Sessions, Robert W Moon, Anthony A Holder, Michael J Blackman, Cally Roper, Christopher J Drakeley, Arnab Pain, Colin J Sutherland, Martin L Hibberd, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark
The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916758/role-of-the-venus-kinase-receptor-in-the-female-reproductive-physiology-of-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#18
Cynthia Lenaerts, Jolien Palmans, Elisabeth Marchal, Rik Verdonck, Jozef Vanden Broeck
Venus kinase receptors (VKR) are a subfamily of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases, which have only recently been discovered. They contain an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular Venus FlyTrap domain. VKRs have been functionally and pharmacologically characterized in only two invertebrate species, namely the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the mosquito Aedes aegypti, where they play a crucial role in oogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of a VKR in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#19
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903759/knowledge-access-and-utilization-of-bed-nets-among-stable-and-seasonal-migrants-in-an-artemisinin-resistance-containment-area-of-myanmar
#20
Wint Phyo Than, Tin Oo, Khin Thet Wai, Aung Thi, Philip Owiti, Binay Kumar, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Rony Zachariah
BACKGROUND: Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characteristics, b) contact with health workers and information material, and c) household knowledge, access and utilization of bed nets...
September 14, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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