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A Ibañez-Justicia, S Teekema, W den Hartog, F Jacobs, M Dik, A Stroo
The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald)) is an invasive mosquito species in Europe. In 2012, it was for the first time detected in the Netherlands, in the municipality of Lelystad. After further research, thousands of specimens were found in the surrounding peri-urban areas of the city. A targeted mosquito control campaign began in 2015 with the objective of reducing populations in locations with the highest concentrations of Ae. japonicus breeding sites: allotment garden complexes. Mosquito control consisted of source reduction combined with application of the larvicide Vectomax in breeding sites...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Alan C Gibbs, Ruth Steele, Gaohua Liu, Brett A Tounge, Gaetano Montelione
Dengue virus poses a significant global health threat as the source of increasingly deleterious dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. As no specific antiviral treatment exists for dengue infection, considerable effort is being applied to discover therapies and drugs for maintenance and prevention of these afflictions. The virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, and infection occurs following viral endocytosis by host cells. Upon entering the cell, viral RNA is translated into a large multi-subunit polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved into mature, structural and non-structural (NS) proteins...
February 15, 2018: Biochemistry
Abeer M Alkhaibari, Thierry Maffeis, James C Bull, Tariq M Butt
Mosquitoes transmit several diseases, which are of global significance (malaria, dengue, yellow fever, Zika). The geographic range of mosquitoes is increasing due to climate change, tourism and trade. Both conidial and blastospore formulations of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum ARSEF 4556, are being investigated as mosquito larvicides. However, concerns have been raised over possible non-target impacts to arthropod mosquito predators such as larvae of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis which feed on larvae of mosquito vector species...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Martina Ferraguti, Santiago Ruiz, David Roiz, Francisco Llorente, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
Mosquito community composition plays a central role in the transmission of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens. We evaluated how the mosquito community affects the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in house sparrows along an urbanisation gradient in an area with the endemic circulation of this virus. We sampled 2544 birds and 340829 mosquitoes in 45 localities, analysed in 15 groups, each containing one urban, one rural and one natural area. WNV seroprevalence was evaluated using an epitope-blocking ELISA kit and a micro virus-neutralization test (VNT)...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shüné V Oliver, Basil D Brooke
Metal exposure is one of the commonest anthropogenic pollutants mosquito larvae are exposed to, both in agricultural and urban settings. As members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which contains several major malaria vector species including An. arabiensis, are increasingly adapting to polluted environments, this study examined the effects of larval metal exposure on various life history traits of epidemiological importance. Two laboratory strains of An. arabiensis, SENN (insecticide susceptible) and SENN DDT (insecticide resistant), were reared in maximum acceptable toxicity concentrations, (MATC-the highest legally accepted concentration) of cadmium chloride, lead nitrate and copper nitrate...
2018: PloS One
Sandra Bos, Wildriss Viranaicken, Jonathan Turpin, Chaker El-Kalamouni, Marjolaine Roche, Pascale Krejbich-Trotot, Philippe Desprès, Gilles Gadea
Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) recently emerged in South Pacific islands and Americas where large epidemics were documented. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of the structural proteins C, prM and E in the permissiveness of human host cells to epidemic strains of ZIKV. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of the epidemic strain BeH819015 to infect epithelial A549 and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells in comparison to the African historical MR766 strain. For that purpose, we generated a molecular clone of BeH819015 and a chimeric clone of MR766 which contains the BeH819015 structural protein region...
January 30, 2018: Virology
Ruth Müller, Timm Knautz, Simone Vollroth, Robert Berger, Aljoscha Kreß, Friederike Reuss, David A Groneberg, Ulrich Kuch
BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an extremely invasive, globally distributed and medically important vector of various human and veterinary pathogens. In Germany, where this species was recently introduced, its establishment may become modulated by interspecific competition from autochthonous mosquito species, especially Culex pipiens (s.l.). While competitive superiority of Ae. albopictus to Cx. pipiens (s.l.) has been described elsewhere, it has not been assessed in the epidemiological conditions of Germany...
February 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Azizia Wahedi, Jean-Paul Paluzzi
The recently discovered adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptide (ACP) is an insect neuropeptide structurally intermediate between corazonin (CRZ) and adipokinetic (AKH) hormones, which all demonstrate homology to the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). To date, the function of the ACP signaling system remains unclear. In the present study, we molecularly identified the complete open reading frame encoding the Aedes aegypti ACP receptor (ACPR), which spans nine exons and undergoes alternative splicing giving rise to three transcript variants...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paola A Caicedo, Idalba Mildred Serrato, Shuzhen Sim, George Dimopoulos, Heather Coatsworth, Carl Lowenberger, Clara B Ocampo
Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, the principal global vector of dengue viruses, has differences in its' susceptibility to dengue virus infection. We compared the global expression of genes in the midguts of Colombian Ae. aegypti dengue-susceptible (Cali-S) and dengue-refractory (Cali-MIB) field derived strains after ingesting either a sugarmeal, a bloodmeal, or a bloodmeal containing dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). Microarray-based transcriptome analysis among treatments indicated a total of 4725 transcripts with differential expression between the two strains...
February 1, 2018: Insect Science
Judy Chiu-Ho Webb, Andrej Lupták
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-like ribozymes are self-cleaving catalytic RNAs with widespread distribution in nature and biological roles ranging from self-scission during rolling-circle replication in viroids to co-transcriptional processing of eukaryotic retrotransposons, among others. The ribozymes fold into a double-pseudoknot with a common catalytic core motif and highly variable peripheral domains. Like other self-cleaving ribozymes, HDV-like ribozymes can be converted into trans-acting catalytic RNAs by bisecting the self-cleaving variants at non-essential loops...
February 1, 2018: Biochemistry
Darren A N Cook, Nils Pilotte, Corrado Minetti, Steven A Williams, Lisa J Reimer
Background: Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the testing of insect vectors for the presence of human pathogens, has the potential to provide a non-invasive and cost-effective method for monitoring the prevalence of disease within a community. Current MX methods require the capture and processing of large numbers of mosquitoes, particularly in areas of low endemicity, increasing the time, cost and labour required. Screening the excreta/feces (E/F) released from mosquitoes, rather than whole carcasses, improves the throughput by removing the need to discriminate vector species since non-vectors release ingested pathogens in E/F...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
M T Hall, A C Briley, E J Lindroth, J D Fajardo, J E Cilek, A G Richardson
Larvicidal oils can be used to control immature Aedes aegypti and other pestiferous mosquitoes. To test whether oil-based larvicides also act as oviposition deterrents, indoor and semi-field trials were conducted at the Navy Entomology Center of Excellence in Jacksonville, FL. In both studies, treatment cages consisted of oviposition cups lined with seed germination paper as an oviposition substrate and filled with 1-wk-old southern live oak ( Quercus virginiana) leaf litter-infused water. Treatment cages consisted of 2 cups treated with CocoBear™ Mosquito Larvicidal Oil, while 2 cups were untreated...
December 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Ferdinand V Salazar, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, John P Grieco, Atchariya Prabaripai, Suppaluck Polsomboon, Kaymart A Gimutao, Michael J Bangs, Nicole L Achee
The efficacy of the BG-Sentinel™ (BGS) trap as a "pull" component of a "push-pull" system (PPS) for management of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, was evaluated using local households in Pu Tuey, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. The pull component was the concluding phase of a 3-part investigation using a PPS combination spatial repellent (SR) and BGS trap to capture adult vector mosquitoes. Two sentinel households were selected for evaluation of BGS trap efficacy based on the highest pretrial indoor resting densities of Ae...
December 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Antonia Dibernardo, Michael J Turell, L Robbin Lindsay, Courtney Loomer, Mahmood Iranpour
The recent introduction of Zika virus (ZIKV) into the Americas and the occurrence of birth defects associated with infection during pregnancy have created a concern about the spread of this virus into more northern countries in the Americas. Therefore, we examined several species of mosquitoes found in southern Manitoba, Canada, for their susceptibility to infection and their ability to transmit ZIKV. Aedes cinereus, Ae. euedes, Ae. fitchii, Ae. sticticus, Ae. vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex restuans, and Cx...
December 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Matthew W Eng, Anthony Clemons, Casey Hill, Roberta Engel, David W Severson, Susanta K Behura
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of human arboviral diseases caused by dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Many studies have shown the potential roles of small RNA molecules such as microRNA, small interfering RNA and PIWI-interacting RNA in vector mosquitoes. The function of tRNA fragments (tRF), the newly discovered class of small RNAs, in mosquitoes is not known. In this study, we show that specific tRFs are expressed in significantly differential manner between males and females of Ae...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zach N Adelman, David Pledger, Kevin M Myles
The biosafety landscape for studies involving gene drive in arthropods is at a critical juncture. Numerous arthropod species represent potential targets for gene-drive-based population suppression or replacement, due to the large number of arthropods that transmit diseases, damage crops, or act as deleterious invasive species. Containment measures for gene drive research in arthropods have been discussed in the literature, but the importance of developing safe and effective standard operating procedures (SOPs) for these types of experiments has not been adequately addressed...
January 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Sameer Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Prabhudutta Mamidi, Atul Tiwari, Sriram Kumar, Animamalar Mayavannan, Sagarika Mudulli, Ajit Kumar Singh, Bharat Bhusan Subudhi, Soma Chattopadhyay
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus, which has created an alarming threat in the world due to unavailability of vaccine and antiviral compounds. The CHIKV nsP2 contains ATPase, RTPase, helicase and protease activities, whereas, nsP1 is a viral capping enzyme. In alphaviruses, the four non-structural proteins form the replication complex in the cytoplasm and this study characterizes the interaction between CHIKV nsP1 and nsP2. It was observed that, both the proteins co-localize in the cytoplasm and interact in the CHIKV infected cells by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assay...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Diane Bigot, Célestine M Atyame, Mylène Weill, Fabienne Justy, Elisabeth A Herniou, Philippe Gayral
In the global context of arboviral emergence, deep sequencing unlocks the discovery of new mosquito-borne viruses. Mosquitoes of the species Culex pipiens, C. torrentium, and C. hortensis were sampled from 22 locations worldwide for transcriptomic analyses. A virus discovery pipeline was used to analyze the dataset of 0.7 billion reads comprising 22 individual transcriptomes. Two closely related 6.8 kb viral genomes were identified in C. pipiens and named as Culex pipiens associated tunisia virus (CpATV) strains Ayed and Jedaida...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga, Aarón Medina-Sánchez, Jorge M Sánchez-González, Kristen Allison Eckert, Erendira Villalobos-Sánchez, Antonio Rigoberto Navarro-Zúñiga, Gustavo Sánchez-Tejeda, Fabián Correa-Morales, Cassandra González-Acosta, Carlos F Arias, Susana López, Rosa María Del Ángel, Victoria Pando-Robles, Armando E Elizondo-Quiroga
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen, and Aedes aegypti has been identified as the main vector of the disease. Other mosquito species in the Aedes and Culex genera have been suggested to have the potential for being competent vectors based on experimental exposition of mosquitoes to an infectious blood meal containing ZIKV. Here, we report the isolation in cell culture of ZIKV obtained from different body parts of wild-caught female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti, Ae. vexans, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, and Cx...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Megan Quinlan, Josephine Birungi, Mamadou B Coulibaly, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Luca Facchinelli, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, James Mutuku Mutunga, Tony Nolan, Peter Raymond, Sékou F Traoré
Genetic strategies for large scale pest or vector control using modified insects are not yet operational in Africa, and currently rely on import of the modified strains to begin preliminary, contained studies. Early involvement of research teams from participating countries is crucial to evaluate candidate field interventions. Following the recommended phased approach for novel strategies, evaluation should begin with studies in containment facilities. Experiences to prepare facilities and build international teams for research on transgenic mosquitoes revealed some important organizing themes underlying the concept of "facilities readiness," or the point at which studies in containment may proceed, in sub-Saharan African settings...
January 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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