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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923385/field-effectiveness-of-microbial-larvicides-on-mosquito-larvae-in-malaria-areas-of-botswana-and-zimbabwe
#1
Mulamuli Mpofu, Piet Becker, Kaka Mudambo, Christiaan de Jager
BACKGROUND: The successful control of malaria vectors requires the control of both the larval and adult stages. The adult control methods through indoor residual spraying (IRS) and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) continue to be widely used with some high measure of success. Larval control methods are also being used by a number of National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) with limited understanding of its contribution. Larval control might be needed in some areas to move from malaria control to elimination...
December 6, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918577/control-of-aedes-aegypti-breeding-a-novel-intervention-for-prevention-and-control-of-dengue-in-an-endemic-zone-of-delhi-india
#2
B N Nagpal, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Arshad Shamim, Kumar Vikram, Aruna Srivastava, N R Tuli, Rekha Saxena, Himmat Singh, V P Singh, V N Bhagat, N K Yadav, Neena Valecha
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The study is based on hypothesis that whether continuous entomological surveillance of Ae. aegypti and simultaneous appropriate interventions in key containers during non-transmission (December-May) months would have any impact on breeding of Aedes and dengue cases during the following transmission months (June-November). The impact of the surveillance and intervention measures undertaken during non-transmission months were assessed by entomological indicators namely container index (CI), house index (HI), pupal index (PI) and breteau index (BI)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912876/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-activity-of-an-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-seed-kernel-extract-on-early-sporogonic-development-of-plasmodium-in-comparison-with-azadirachtin-a-its-most-abundant-constituent
#3
Nisha Dahiya, Giuseppina Chianese, Solomon Mequanente Abay, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Fulvio Esposito, Giulio Lupidi, Massimo Bramucci, Luana Quassinti, George Christophides, Annette Habluetzel, Leonardo Lucantoni
BACKGROUND: NeemAzal(®) (NA) is a quantified extract from seed kernels of neem, Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae), with a wide spectrum of biological properties, classically ascribed to its limonoid content. NA contains several azadirachtins (A to L), azadirachtin A (AzaA) being its main constituent. AzaA has been shown to inhibit microgamete formation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, and NA was found to completely inhibit the transmission of Plasmodium berghei to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes when administered to gametocytemic mice at a corresponding AzaA dose of 50mg/kg before exposure to mosquitoes...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905873/comparative-genomics-of-beauveria-bassiana-uncovering-signatures-of-virulence-against-mosquitoes
#4
Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Luigi Faino, Daphne Spring In't Veld, Sandra Smit, Bas J Zwaan, Jan A L van Kan
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902358/wolbachia-suppresses-cell-fusing-agent-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#5
Guagmei Zhang, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains a large number of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses. While some are transmitted by mosquitoes or other arthropods and are pathogenic to humans and animals (e.g. dengue and Zika viruses), some are insect-specific and do not replicate in vertebrate cells. These are known as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was detected in an Aedes aegypti cell line, Aag2. Here, we investigated the effect of Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of many insect species, that is known to block replication of several pathogenic flaviviruses, on CFAV...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892990/zika-virus-what-the-otolaryngologist-should-know-a-review
#6
Demetri Arnaoutakis, Tapan Padhya
Importance: Initially discovered in 1947, Zika virus infection received little notoriety as a tropical disease until 2015 when an outbreak of microcephaly cases was reported in Brazil. Zika is a single-stranded RNA arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. The primary source of infection in humans stems from Aedes aegypti mosquito bites but can also occur through sexual, blood, and perinatal transmission. With expectations that 3 to 4 million people across the Americas will be infected over the next year, the World Health Organization has declared this event a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...
November 17, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876044/generation-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-native-viral-proteins-using-antigen-expressing-mammalian-cells-for-mouse-immunization
#7
Natalie Rose, Carlos Augusto Pinho-Nascimento, Alessia Ruggieri, Paola Favuzza, Marco Tamborrini, Hanna Roth, Marcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes, Hugues Matile, Thomas Jänisch, Gerd Pluschke, Katharina Röltgen
BACKGROUND: Due to their rising incidence and progressive geographical spread, infections with mosquito-borne viruses, such as dengue (DENV), chikungunya and zika virus, have developed into major public health challenges. Since all of these viruses may cause similar symptoms and can occur in concurrent epidemics, tools for their differential diagnosis and epidemiological monitoring are of urgent need. RESULTS: Here we report the application of a novel strategy to rapidly generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against native viral antigens, exemplified for the DENV nonstructural glycoprotein 1 (NS1)...
November 22, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869724/mosquito-oviposition-behavior-and-vector-control
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan F Day
The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation...
November 18, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867076/the-dna-chaperone-hmgb1-potentiates-the-transcriptional-activity-of-rel1a-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#9
Anderson de Mendonça Amarante, Natapong Jupatanakul, Isabel Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Vitor Coutinho Carneiro, Amanda Roberta Revoredo Vicentino, George Dimopolous, Octávio Augusto C Talyuli, Marcelo Rosado Fantappié
High Mobility Group protein 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone, chromatin-associated nuclear protein that functions in regulating eukaryotic gene expression. We investigated the influence and mechanism of action of Aedes aegypti HMGB1 (AaHMGB1) on mosquito Rel1A-mediated transcription from target gene promoters. The DNA-binding domain (RHD) of AaRel1A was bacterially expressed and purified, and AaHMGB1 dramatically enhanced RHD binding to consensus NF-kB/Rel DNA response elements. Luciferase reporter analyses using a cecropin gene promoter showed that AaHMGB1 potentiates the transcriptional activity of AaRel1A in Aag-2 cells...
November 17, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863275/cytoarchitecture-of-zika-virus-infection-in-human-neuroblastoma-and-aedes-albopictus-cell-lines
#10
Danielle K Offerdahl, David W Dorward, Bryan T Hansen, Marshall E Bloom
The Zika virus (ZIKV) pandemic is a global concern due to its role in the development of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. This mosquito-borne flavivirus alternates between mammalian and mosquito hosts, but information about the biogenesis of ZIKV is limited. Using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36), we characterized ZIKV infection by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET) to better understand infection in these disparate host cells...
November 15, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849032/the-disruption-of-gdp-fucose-de-novo-biosynthesis-suggests-the-presence-of-a-novel-fucose-containing-glycoconjugate-in-plasmodium-asexual-blood-stages
#11
Sílvia Sanz, Borja López-Gutiérrez, Giulia Bandini, Sebastian Damerow, Sabrina Absalon, Rhoel R Dinglasan, John Samuelson, Luis Izquierdo
Glycosylation is an important posttranslational protein modification in all eukaryotes. Besides glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and N-glycosylation, O-fucosylation has been recently reported in key sporozoite proteins of the malaria parasite. Previous analyses showed the presence of GDP-fucose (GDP-Fuc), the precursor for all fucosylation reactions, in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. The GDP-Fuc de novo pathway, which requires the action of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-L-fucose synthase (FS), is conserved in the parasite genome, but the importance of fucose metabolism for the parasite is unknown...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836744/dynamic-expression-of-genes-encoding-subunits-of-inward-rectifier-potassium-kir-channels-in-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#12
Zhongxia Yang, Bethanie-Michelle Statler, Travis L Calkins, Edna Alfaro, Carlos J Esquivel, Matthew F Rouhier, Jerod S Denton, Peter M Piermarini
Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play fundamental roles in neuromuscular, epithelial, and endocrine function in mammals. Recent research in insects suggests that Kir channels play critical roles in the development, immune function, and excretory physiology of fruit flies and/or mosquitoes. Moreover, our group has demonstrated that mosquito Kir channels may serve as valuable targets for the development of novel insecticides. Here we characterize the molecular expression of 5 mRNAs encoding Kir channel subunits in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Kir1, Kir2A-c, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3...
November 9, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832590/plasmodium-merozoite-trap-family-protein-is-essential-for-vacuole-membrane-disruption-and-gamete-egress-from-erythrocytes
#13
Daniel Y Bargieri, Sabine Thiberge, Chwen L Tay, Alison F Carey, Alice Rantz, Florian Hischen, Audrey Lorthiois, Ursula Straschil, Pallavi Singh, Shailja Singh, Tony Triglia, Takafumi Tsuboi, Alan Cowman, Chetan Chitnis, Pietro Alano, Jake Baum, Gabriele Pradel, Catherine Lavazec, Robert Ménard
Surface-associated TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) family proteins are conserved across the phylum of apicomplexan parasites. TRAP proteins are thought to play an integral role in parasite motility and cell invasion by linking the extracellular environment with the parasite submembrane actomyosin motor. Blood stage forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium express a TRAP family protein called merozoite-TRAP (MTRAP) that has been implicated in erythrocyte invasion. Using MTRAP-deficient mutants of the rodent-infecting P...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820821/a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-to-reduce-diarrheal-disease-and-dengue-entomological-risk-factors-in-rural-primary-schools-in-colombia
#14
Hans J Overgaard, Neal Alexander, Maria Ines Matiz, Juan Felipe Jaramillo, Victor Alberto Olano, Sandra Vargas, Diana Sarmiento, Audrey Lenhart, Thor Axel Stenström
BACKGROUND: As many neglected tropical diseases are co-endemic and have common risk factors, integrated control can efficiently reduce disease burden and relieve resource-strained public health budgets. Diarrheal diseases and dengue fever are major global health problems sharing common risk factors in water storage containers. Where provision of clean water is inadequate, water storage is crucial. Fecal contamination of stored water is a common source of diarrheal illness, but stored water also provides breeding sites for dengue vector mosquitoes...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819201/the-formulation-of-the-essential-oil-of-piper-aduncum-linnaeus-piperales-piperaceae-increases-its-efficacy-as-an-insect-repellent
#15
S N H Mamood, O Hidayatulfathi, S B Budin, G Ahmad Rohi, M H Zulfakar
The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum Linnaeus, known as 'sireh lada' to locals Malaysian, has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic insect repellents such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. However, the EO's efficacy as a repellent decreases after application due to the high volatility of its active ingredients. A number of studies have showed that optimizing the formulation of plant-based EOs can improve their efficacy as repellents. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of 10% P...
November 7, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815127/larvicidal-activity-of-essential-oil-of-peumus-boldus-molina-and-its-ascaridole-enriched-fraction-against-culex-quinquefasciatus
#16
Débora Silva Borges de Castro, Denise Brentan da Silva, Jacqueline Domingues Tibúrcio, Marcos Eduardo Guerra Sobral, Vany Ferraz, Alex Gutterres Taranto, José Eduardo Serrão, João Máximo de Siqueira, Stênio Nunes Alves
Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809907/high-prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocyte-infections-in-school-age-children-using-molecular-detection-patterns-and-predictors-of-risk-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-southern-malawi
#17
Jenna E Coalson, Jenny A Walldorf, Lauren M Cohee, Miriam D Ismail, Don Mathanga, Regina Joice Cordy, Matthias Marti, Terrie E Taylor, Karl B Seydel, Miriam K Laufer, Mark L Wilson
BACKGROUND: In endemic areas, many people experience asymptomatic Plasmodium infections, particularly older children and adults, but their transmission contribution is unknown. Though not the exclusive determinant of infectiousness, transmission from humans to mosquitoes requires blood meals containing gametocytes. Gametocytes often occur at submicroscopic densities, challenging measurement in human populations. More sensitive molecular techniques allow better characterization of gametocyte epidemiologic patterns...
November 4, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809838/characterization-of-plasmodium-falciparum-atp-dependent-dna-helicase-ruvb3
#18
Paviga Limudomporn, Saengduen Moonsom, Ubolsree Leartsakulpanich, Pattra Suntornthiticharoen, Songsak Petmitr, Michael Weinfeld, Porntip Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most serious and widespread parasitic diseases affecting humans. Because of the spread of resistance in both parasites and the mosquito vectors to anti-malarial drugs and insecticides, controlling the spread of malaria is becoming difficult. Thus, identifying new drug targets is urgently needed. Helicases play key roles in a wide range of cellular activities involving DNA and RNA transactions, making them attractive anti-malarial drug targets. METHODS: ATP-dependent DNA helicase gene (PfRuvB3) of Plasmodium falciparum strain K1, a chloroquine and pyrimethamine-resistant strain, was inserted into pQE-TriSystem His-Strep 2 vector, heterologously expressed and affinity purified...
November 3, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802396/morphological-differentiation-of-the-eggs-of-north-american-container-inhabiting-aedes-mosquitoes
#19
Jake Bova, Sally Paulson, Greg Paulson
Aedes aegypti , Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus japonicus, and Ae. triseriatus eggs are described with the aid of color images and images from scanning electron microscopy. All eggs were broadly cigar shaped with Ae. triseriatus and Ae. j japonicus eggs being dull or matte black, while Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti eggs were shiny jet black. Aedes triseriatus eggs were lighter in color and had a rougher appearance when compared to those of Ae. j. japonicus. Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti eggs can be differentiated by the distinct presence of micropylar collars in Ae...
September 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800692/waiting-in-the-wings-the-potential-of-mosquito-transmitted-flaviviruses-to-emerge
#20
Duncan R Smith
The sudden dramatic emergence of the mosquito transmitted flavivirus Zika virus has bought to the world's attention a relatively obscure virus that was previously only known to specialist researchers. The genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae contains a number of well-known mosquito transmitted human pathogenic viruses including the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. However, the genus also contains a number of lesser known human pathogenic viruses transmitted by mosquitoes including Wesselsbron virus, Ilheus virus, St...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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