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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820715/limited-transmission-potential-of-takeda-s-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-candidate-by-aedes-albopictus
#1
Elizabeth A Dietrich, Yee Tsuey Ong, Janae L Stovall, Hansi Dean, Claire Y-H Huang
Recombinant live-attenuated chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine viruses, TDV-1, -2, -3, and -4, contain the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in the replicative background of the attenuated dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) PDK-53 vaccine strain. Previous results have shown that these recombinant vaccine viruses demonstrate limited infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti and are unlikely to be transmitted by the primary mosquito vector of DENVs. In this report, we expand this analysis by assessing vector competence of all four serotypes of the TDV virus in Aedes albopictus, the secondary mosquito vector of DENVs...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817563/assessment-of-risk-of-dengue-and-yellow-fever-virus-transmission-in-three-major-kenyan-cities-based-on-stegomyia-indices
#2
Sheila B Agha, David P Tchouassi, Armanda D S Bastos, Rosemary Sang
Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) are re-emerging in East Africa, with contributing drivers to this trend being unplanned urbanization and increasingly adaptable anthropophilic Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors. Entomological risk assessment of these diseases remains scarce for much of East Africa and Kenya even in the dengue fever-prone urban coastal areas. Focusing on major urban cities of Kenya, we compared DEN and YF risk in Kilifi County (DEN-outbreak-prone), and Kisumu and Nairobi Counties (no documented DEN outbreaks)...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810872/-repel-all-biters-an-enhanced-collection-of-endophilic-anopheles-gambiae-and-anopheles-arabiensis-in-cdc-light-traps-from-the-kagera-region-of-tanzania-in-the-presence-of-a-combination-mosquito-net-impregnated-with-piperonyl-butoxide-and-permethrin
#3
Corey LeClair, Judith Cronery, Enock Kessy, Elsa V E Tomás, Yohannes Kulwa, Franklin W Mosha, Mark Rowland, Natacha Protopopoff, J Derek Charlwood
BACKGROUND: Mosquito nets containing synergists designed to overcome metabolic resistance mechanisms in vectors have been developed. These may enhance excitability in the mosquitoes and affect how they respond to CDC light-traps. Investigating the behaviour of vectors of disease in relation to novel mosquito nets is, therefore, essential for the design of sampling and surveillance systems. METHODS: In an initial experiment in Muleba, Tanzania, nine bedrooms from three housing clusters were sampled...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810866/the-development-of-an-ivermectin-based-attractive-toxic-sugar-bait-atsb-to-target-anopheles-arabiensis
#4
Frank Chelestino Tenywa, Athumani Kambagha, Adam Saddler, Marta Ferreira Maia
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa are moving towards malaria-elimination, mostly thanks to successful vector control campaigns. However, elimination has proven challenging, resulting in the persistence of malaria transmission. It is now accepted that in order to eliminate malaria, new complementary vector control approaches must be developed. This study describes the development of a sugar-baited resting place containing a toxic dose of ivermectin for the control of Anopheles arabiensis...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807760/a-simple-methodology-to-collect-culturable-bacteria-from-feces-of-anopheles-darlingi-diptera-culicidae
#5
Andrelisse Arruda, Gabriel Sousa Ferreira, Nucia Cristiane da Silva Lima, Antonio Dos Santos Júnior, Márlon Grégori Flores Custódio, Najla Benevides-Matos, Luiz Shozo Ozaki, Rodrigo G Stabeli, Alexandre A Silva
A simple methodology based in a modified mosquito cage with a Petri dish containing culture medium was successfully used as an alternative method to the traditional digestive tract dissection protocol to collect bacteria from the feces of the mosquito Anopheles darlingi.
August 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806618/public-sentiment-and-discourse-about-zika-virus-on-instagram
#6
E K Seltzer, E Horst-Martz, M Lu, R M Merchant
OBJECTIVE: Social media have strongly influenced the awareness and perceptions of public health emergencies, and a considerable amount of social media content is now shared through images, rather than text alone. This content can impact preparedness and response due to the popularity and real-time nature of social media platforms. We sought to explore how the image-sharing platform Instagram is used for information dissemination and conversation during the current Zika outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of publicly posted images about Zika on Instagram...
August 11, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803981/first-report-of-coelomomyces-santabrancae-sp-nov-blastocladiomycetes-blastocladiales-infecting-mosquito-larvae-diptera-culicidae-in-central-brazil
#7
M E Rueda-Páramo, C Montalva, W Arruda, É K K Fernandes, C Luz, R A Humber
A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796799/differential-outcomes-of-zika-virus-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-orally-challenged-with-infectious-blood-meals-and-infectious-protein-meals
#8
Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Wei-Wen Hsu, So Lee Park, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
BACKGROUND: Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795398/robust-fluorescent-labelling-of-micropipettes-for-use-in-fluorescence-microscopy-application-to-the-observation-of-a-mosquito-borne-parasite-infection
#9
Amanda E Balaban, Keir Neuman, Photini Sinnis, Robert S Balaban
The ability to monitor micropipette injections with a high-resolution fluorescent microscope has utility for a variety of applications. Herein, different approaches were tested for creating broad-band fluorescently labelled glass micropipettes including: UV cured glass glues, baked glass enamel containing fluorescent dyes as well as nanodiamonds attached during pipette formation in the microforge. The most robust and simplest approach was to use labelled baked enamel on the exterior of the pipette. This approach was tested using pipettes designed to mimic a mosquito proboscis for the injection of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium spp...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794043/sorafenib-impedes-rift-valley-fever-virus-egress-by-inhibiting-valosin-containing-protein-function-in-the-cellular-secretory-pathway
#10
Ashwini Brahms, Rajini Mudhasani, Chelsea Pinkham, Krishna Kota, Farooq Nassar, Rouzbeh Zamani, Sina Bavari, Kylene Kehn-Hall
There is an urgent need for therapeutic development to combat Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infections, which causes devastating disease in both humans and animals. In an effort to repurpose drugs for RVFV treatment, our previous studies screened a library of FDA-approved drugs. The most promising candidate identified was the hepatocellular and renal cell carcinoma drug, sorafenib. Mechanism of action studies indicated sorafenib targeted a late stage in virus infection and caused a buildup of virions within cells...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790200/chromosome-end-repair-and-genome-stability-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#11
Susannah F Calhoun, Jake Reed, Noah Alexander, Christopher E Mason, Kirk W Deitsch, Laura A Kirkman
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum replicates within circulating red blood cells, where it is subjected to conditions that frequently cause DNA damage. The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is thought to rely almost exclusively on homologous recombination (HR), due to a lack of efficient nonhomologous end joining. However, given that the parasite is haploid during this stage of its life cycle, the mechanisms involved in maintaining genome stability are poorly understood. Of particular interest are the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes, which contain the majority of the multicopy variant antigen-encoding genes responsible for virulence and disease severity...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782510/contributions-of-5-utr-and-3-utr-cis-elements-to-cyt1aa-synthesis-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis
#12
Yuko Sakano, Hyun-Woo Park, Dennis K Bideshi, Baoxue Ge, Brian A Federici
The biopesticide used most effectively to control mosquito and blackfly vectors of human diseases worldwide is Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The high efficacy of this bacterium is due to synergistic interactions among four protein entomotoxins assembled individually into a single parasporal body (PB) during sporulation. Cyt1Aa, the primary synergist, is the most abundant toxin, comprising approximately 55% of the PB's mass. The other proteins are Cry11Aa at ∼35%, and Cry4Aa and Cry4Ba, which together account for the remaining ∼10%...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782121/rift-valley-fever-virus-and-european-mosquitoes-vector-competence-of-culex-pipiens-and-stegomyia-albopicta-%C3%A2-aedes-albopictus
#13
M Brustolin, S Talavera, A Nuñez, C Santamaría, R Rivas, N Pujol, M Valle, M Verdún, A Brun, N Pagès, N Busquets
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Rift Valley fever affects a large number of species, including human, and has severe impact on public health and the economy, especially in African countries. The present study examined the vector competence of three different European mosquito species, Culex pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758) form molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex pipiens hybrid form and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae)...
August 7, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780653/bti-based-insecticide-enhances-the-predatory-abilities-of-the-backswimmer-buenoa-tarsalis-hemiptera-notonectidae
#14
Yeisson Gutiérrez, Gabryele S Ramos, Hudson V V Tomé, Eugênio E Oliveira, Ana L Salaro
The backswimmer Buenoa tarsalis (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) is a naturally occurring predator of immature stages of mosquitoes. These aquatic predators can suffer from non-targeted exposure to insecticides that are commonly used in aquatic environments to control mosquitoes. Here, we evaluated whether insecticide formulations containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) or the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl would affect the survival and the predatory abilities of B. tarsalis. First, we conducted survival bioassays to estimate the median survival time (LT50) of B...
August 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780069/serine-protease-related-proteins-in-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#15
Xiaolong Cao, Mansi Gulati, Haobo Jiang
Insect serine proteases (SPs) and serine protease homologs (SPHs) participate in digestion, defense, development, and other physiological processes. In mosquitoes, some clip-domain SPs and SPHs (i.e. CLIPs) have been investigated for possible roles in antiparasitic responses. In a recent test aimed at improving quality of gene models in the Anopheles gambiae genome using RNA-seq data, we observed various discrepancies between gene models in AgamP4.5 and corresponding sequences selected from those modeled by Cufflinks, Trinity and Bridger...
August 2, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770247/age-of-initial-cohort-of-dengue-patients-could-explain-the-origin-of-disease-outbreak-in-a-setting-a-case-control-study-in-rajasthan-india
#16
Annette Angel, Bennet Angel, Karuna Yadav, Neha Sharma, Vinod Joshi, Indu Thanvi, Sharad Thanvi
Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a public health problem with 390 million cases reported in world annually. In Rajasthan, DF with DHF is being reported for about two decades. For undertaking interventions into disease transmission, locating origin of transmission is very important. Present paper reports retrospective analysis of the hospital reported cases of dengue during the year 2013-2014 undertaken in Barmer, Rajasthan. To address task of investigating outbreak, detailed analysis of the data on serological test results (Mac-ELISA assay of NS1, IgG and IgM) performed by local hospital, Balotra was made...
June 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761783/quantitative-real-time-pcr-analysis-of-anopheles-dirus-tep1-and-nos-during-plasmodium-berghei-infection-using-three-reference-genes
#17
Jonathan W K Liew, Mun Yik Fong, Yee Ling Lau
Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has been an integral part of characterizing the immunity of Anopheles mosquitoes towards Plasmodium invasion. Two anti-Plasmodium factors of Anopheles, thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), play a role in the refractoriness of Anopheles towards Plasmodium infection and are generally expressed during infection. However, these are less studied in Anopheles dirus, a dominant malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, most studies used a single reference gene for normalization during gene expression analysis without proper validation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761113/cell-fusing-agent-virus-and-dengue-virus-mutually-interact-in-aedes-aegypti-cell-lines
#18
Guangmei Zhang, Sultan Asad, Alexander A Khromykh, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains more than 70 single-stranded, positive-sense arthropod-borne RNA viruses. Some flaviviruses are particularly medically important to humans and other vertebrates including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. These viruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropod species. Mosquitoes are also infected by insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that do not appear to be infective to vertebrates. Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was discovered in an Aedes aegypti cell culture...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760483/preliminary-efficacy-investigations-of-oral-fipronil-against-anopheles-arabiensis-when-administered-to-zebu-cattle-bos-indicus-under-field-conditions
#19
Richard M Poché, Naftaly Githaka, Frans van Gool, Rebekah C Kading, Daniel Hartman, Larisa Polyakova, Edward Okoth Abworo, Vishvanath Nene, Saul Lozano-Fuentes
Globally, malaria remains one of the most important vector-borne diseases despite the extensive use of vector control, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). These control methods target endophagic vectors, whereas some malaria vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis, preferentially feed outdoors on cattle, making it a complicated vector to control using conventional strategies. Our study evaluated whether treating cattle with a capsule containing the active ingredient (AI) fipronil could reduce vector density and sporozoite rates, and alter blood feeding behavior, when applied in a small-scale field study...
July 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759593/proteogenomic-analysis-of-the-total-and-surface-exposed-proteomes-of-plasmodium-vivax-salivary-gland-sporozoites
#20
Kristian E Swearingen, Scott E Lindner, Erika L Flannery, Ashley M Vaughan, Robert D Morrison, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Muller, Aaron Jex, Robert L Moritz, Stefan H I Kappe, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Sebastian A Mikolajczak
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause the majority of human malaria cases. Research efforts predominantly focus on P. falciparum because of the clinical severity of infection and associated mortality rates. However, P. vivax malaria affects more people in a wider global range. Furthermore, unlike P. falciparum, P. vivax can persist in the liver as dormant hypnozoites that can be activated weeks to years after primary infection, causing relapse of symptomatic blood stages. This feature makes P. vivax unique and difficult to eliminate with the standard tools of vector control and treatment of symptomatic blood stage infection with antimalarial drugs...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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