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Kishor Kumar Paul, Parnali Dhar-Chowdhury, C Emdad Haque, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Doli Rani Goswami, Mohammad Abdullah Heel Kafi, Michael A Drebot, L Robbin Lindsay, Gias Uddin Ahsan, W Abdullah Brooks
Dengue viruses are responsible for over 100 million infections a year worldwide and are a public health concern in Bangladesh. Although risk of transmission is high, data on vector population characteristics are scanty in Bangladesh; therefore, a comprehensive prediction of the patterns of local virus transmission is not possible. Recognizing these gaps, multi-year entomological surveys were carried out in Dhaka, where the disease is most frequently reported. The specific objectives of the present study are threefold: i) to determine the risk factors for the presence of Aedes mosquitoes; ii) to identify the types of most productive and key containers; and iii) to estimate the effects of climatic factors on Aedes abundance in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh...
2018: PloS One
Mary E Danforth, William K Reisen, Christopher M Barker
Most species of mosquitoes consume sugar to survive and during sugar feeding can expectorate virus. Scientists have used this behavior to develop novel methods of mosquito control and arbovirus surveillance. In this study, we use sugar feeding and corresponding viral expectoration to develop an affordable method of monitoring individual mosquitoes for longitudinal data collection. Female Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) that consumed an infectious bloodmeal of West Nile virus were placed into separate containers and offered a sucrose-soaked cotton wick...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Raquel Vilela, Cristian Montalva, Christian Luz, Richard A Humber, Leonel Mendoza
Pythium insidiosum is a straminopilan pathogen causing life threatening infections in mammals inhabiting temperate, tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The concept that P. insidiosum could also infect mosquitoes was mentioned earlier by investigators conducting phylogenetic analysis on available P. insidiosum isolates deposited at different culture collections. However, an official report and details on its pathological features in mosquitoes are not available. We are reporting the isolation of P. insidiosum from infected mosquito larvae during a survey conducted in central Brazil...
June 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
Wai Hoong Chang, Alvina G Lai
The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans...
2018: F1000Research
Anaïs Portet, Richard Galinier, Silvain Pinaud, Julien Portela, Fanny Nowacki, Benjamin Gourbal, David Duval
Insect thioester-containing protein (iTEP) is the most recently defined group among the thioester-containing protein (TEP) superfamily. TEPs are key components of the immune system, and iTEPs from flies and mosquitoes were shown to be major immune weapons. Initially characterized from insects, TEP genes homologous to iTEP were further described from several other invertebrates including arthropods, cniderians, and mollusks albeit with few functional characterizations. In the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata , a vector of the schistosomiasis disease, the presence of a TEP protein (BgTEP) was previously described in a well-defined immune complex involving snail lectins (fibrinogen-related proteins) and schistosome parasite mucins (SmPoMuc)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
F Trentini, P Poletti, F Baldacchino, A Drago, F Montarsi, G Capelli, A Rizzoli, R Rosà, C Rizzo, S Merler, A Melegaro
The arrival of infected travelers from endemic regions can trigger sustained autochthonous transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens in Europe. In 2007 a Chikungunya outbreak was observed in central Italy, mostly affecting two villages characterised by a high density of Aedes albopictus. The outbreak was mitigated through intervention strategies reducing the mosquito abundance. Ten years later, in 2017, sustained Chikungunya transmission was documented in both central and southern Italy. The proposed analysis identifies suitable reactive measures for the containment and mitigation of future epidemics by combining epidemiological modeling with a health economic approach, considering different arrival times of imported infections and possible delays in the notification of cases...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chetan D Meshram, Peter Agback, Nikita Shiliaev, Nadya Urakova, James A Mobley, Tatiana Agback, Elena I Frolova, Ilya Frolov
Alphaviruses are widely distributed in both hemispheres and circulate between mosquitoes and amplifying vertebrate hosts. Geographically separated alphaviruses have adapted to replication in particular organisms. The accumulating data suggest that this adaptation is determined not only by changes in their glycoproteins, but also by the amino acid sequence of the hypervariable domain (HVD) of the alphavirus nsP3 protein. We performed a detailed investigation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) nsP3 HVD interactions with host factors and their roles in viral replication in vertebrate and mosquito cells...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Carolina Torres-Gutierrez, Tatiane M P de Oliveira, Kevin J Emerson, Eduardo Sterlino Bergo, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
The subgenus Melanoconion of the mosquito genus Culex is taxonomically diverse and is widely distributed in the Neotropical Region, with 10 species occurring in the Nearctic Region. Species of this subgenus pose a taxonomical challenge because morphological identification is based largely on anatomical characters of the male genitalia. We addressed the monophyly of the Spissipes and Melanoconion Sections of the subgenus Melanoconion and some of the informal groups in each section. Our sample taxa included 97 specimens representing 43 species, from which we analysed fragments of two single-copy nuclear genes ( CAD , HB ) and one mitochondrial gene ( COI )...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Roland Remenyi, Yanni Gao, Ruth E Hughes, Alistair Curd, Carsten Zothner, Michelle Peckham, Andres Merits, Mark Harris
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne human pathogen, causes a disabling disease characterized by severe joint pain that can persist for weeks, months or even years in patients. The non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) plays essential roles during acute infection, but little is known about the function of nsP3 during chronic disease. Here, we used sub-diffraction multi-color microscopy for spatial and temporal analysis of CHIKV nsP3 within human cells that persistently replicate replicon RNA. Round cytoplasmic granules of various sizes (i) contained nsP3 and stress granule assembly factors 1 and 2 (G3BP1/2); (ii) were next to double-stranded RNA foci and nsP1-positive structures; and (iii) were close to the nuclear membrane and the nuclear pore complex protein Nup98...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jennifer S Armistead, Charlie Jennison, Matthew T O'Neill, Sash Lopaticki, Peter Liehl, Kirsten K Hanson, Takeshi Annoura, Pravin Rajasekaran, Sara M Erickson, Christopher J Tonkin, Shahid M Khan, Maria M Mota, Justin A Boddey
Transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum involves infection of Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we characterize SOPT, a protein expressed in P. falciparum ookinetes that facilitates infection of the mosquito midgut. SOPT was identified on the basis that it contains a signal peptide, a PEXEL-like sequence and is expressed in asexual, ookinete and sporozoite stages, suggesting it is involved in infecting the human or mosquito host. SOPT is predicted to contain a subtilisin-like fold with a non-canonical catalytic triad and is orthologous to P...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Isabel Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Amanda Roberta Revoredo Vicentino, Renata Coutinho Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Anderson de Mendonça Amarante, Vitor Coutinho Carneiro, Marcia de Amorim Pinto, Estefania Anahi Aguilera, Ronaldo Mohana-Borges, Paulo Mascarello Bisch, Mario Alberto Cardoso da Silva-Neto, Marcelo Rosado Fantappié
High-mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have highly conserved, unique DNA-binding domains, HMG boxes, that can bind non-B-type DNA structures, such as bent, kinked and unwound structures, with high affinity. HMGB proteins also promote DNA bending, looping and unwinding. In this study, we determined the role of the Aedes aegypti single HMG-box domain protein AaHMGB; characterized its structure, spatiotemporal expression levels, subcellular localization, and nucleic acid binding activities; and compared these properties with those of its double-HMG-box counterpart protein, AaHMGB1...
May 30, 2018: Gene
Manabu Ote, Hirotaka Kanuka
Background: Vector-borne infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms transmitted mainly by blood-sucking arthropod vectors. In laboratories, the handling of insects carrying human pathogens requires extra caution because of safety concerns over their escape risk. Based on standard insect containment practices, there have been cases where costly enhancements were required to definitely protect laboratory workers and neighbors from potential infection through mosquito bites...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Eduardo Fukutani, Moreno Rodrigues, José Irahe Kasprzykowski, Cintia Figueiredo de Araujo, Alexandre Rossi Paschoal, Pablo Ivan Pereira Ramos, Kiyoshi Ferreira Fukutani, Artur Trancoso Lopo de Queiroz
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of several arthropod-borne diseases that have global impacts. In a previous meta-analysis, our group identified a vector gene set containing 110 genes strongly associated with infections of dengue, West Nile and yellow fever viruses. Of these 110 genes, four genes allowed a highly accurate classification of infected status. More recently, a new study of Ae. aegypti infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) was published, providing new data to investigate whether this "infection" gene set is also altered during a ZIKV infection...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Valentina Mastrantonio, Graziano Crasta, Arianna Puggioli, Romeo Bellini, Sandra Urbanelli, Daniele Porretta
Cannibalism is a commonly observed phenomenon in arthropod species having relevant consequences for population dynamics and individual fitness. It is a context-dependent behaviour and an understanding of the factors affecting cannibalism rate is crucial to highlight its ecological relevance. In mosquitoes, cannibalism between larval stages has been widely documented, and the role of density, food availability and length of contact between individuals also ascertained. However, although mosquitoes can develop in temporary water habitats with very heterogeneous topologies, the role of the site shape where cannibals and victims co-occur has been instead overlooked...
2018: PloS One
Christopher S Bibbs, Maia Tsikolia, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Ulrich R Bernier, Rui-De Xue, Phillip E Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Mosquito mortality has been documented in numerous studies of spatial repellents but the concentration-dependent toxicity of spatial repellent vapors has not been documented. To address this issue, prallethrin, flumethrin, metofluthrin, transfluthrin, and meperfluthrin were selected for comparative study against Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ae. aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Mosquito were exposed to vapors of each chemical for 2h, 4h, and 24h with mortality recorded at each time point...
May 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
M J Schultz, A L Tan, C N Gray, S Isern, S F Michael, H M Frydman, J H Connor
Mosquito-transmitted viruses are spread globally and present a great risk to human health. Among the many approaches investigated to limit the diseases caused by these viruses are attempts to make mosquitos resistant to virus infection. Coinfection of mosquitos with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis from supergroup A is a recent strategy employed to reduce the capacity for major vectors in the Aedes mosquito genus to transmit viruses, including dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus (ZIKV)...
May 22, 2018: MBio
Violeta Kaunelienė, Marija Meišutovič-Akhtarieva, Dainius Martuzevičius
With the introduction of novel and potentially less polluting nicotine containing products to the market, the impacts of their usage to indoor air quality as opposed to conventional pollution sources must be reviewed and considered. This review study aimed to comparatively analyse changes in indoor air quality as the consequence of tobacco heating system (THS) generated pollution against general indoor air quality in various micro-environments, especially with combustion-based pollution sources present. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, nicotine and PM2...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Sarah Lumley, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Daniel L Horton, Maria Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Jolyon M Medlock, Roger Hewson, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus causing severe disease in humans and livestock. It is endemic in Africa and spread to the Arabian Peninsula in 2000 raising concerns it could emerge in Europe. The ability of temperate mosquitoes from the United Kingdom (UK) to support replication and transmission of RVFV is unknown. METHODS: In this study, two colonised lines of Culex pipiens, wild-caught Aedes detritus and Ae. rusticus from the UK were infected with pathogenic strains of RVFV to assess their vector competence...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho, Juliana de Carvalho Apolinário Coêlho, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Wilma Aparecida Starke Buzetti
Mosquitoes can act as vectors of important diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika virus, yellow fever, Chikungunya and Mayaro fever, in addition to filariasis. The use of insecticides, larvicides, bed nets and repellents, besides the use of drugs as chemoprevention and the treatment of the sick are currently the pillars of the control of these vectors. We studied the biological control against of Anopheles darlingi , Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae using shrimps of the species M. pantanalense , M...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Alazne Díez-Fernández, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Santiago Ruiz, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: Aedes vittatus is currently found in Africa, Asia and Europe, where it acts as a vector of pathogens causing animal and human diseases (e.g. chikungunya, Zika and dengue). Like other Aedes species, Ae. vittatus is able to breed in artificial containers. The ECDC has recently highlighted the need for molecular tools (i.e. barcoding characterization) that enable Aedes species to be identified in entomological surveys. RESULTS: We sampled mosquito larvae and adults in southern Spain and used a molecular approach to amplify and sequence a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (barcoding region) of the mosquitoes...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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