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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539441/chikungunya-virus-overcomes-polyamine-depletion-by-mutation-of-nsp1-and-the-opal-stop-codon-to-confer-enhanced-replication-and-fitness
#1
Bryan C Mounce, Teresa Cesaro, Lea Vlajnić, Anna Vidiņa, Thomas Vallet, James Weger-Lucarelli, Gabriella Pasoni, Kenneth A Stapleford, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Marco Vignuzzi
Polyamines, small positively-charge molecules present in all cells, play important roles in the replication of DNA and RNA viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) relies on polyamines for translation of the viral genome upon viral entry, and pharmacological depletion of polyamines limits viral replication. However, the potential development of antiviral resistance necessitates a better understanding of how polyamines function and can be targeted via compounds that alter polyamine levels. We have isolated CHIKV that is resistant to polyamine depletion that contains two mutations in the non-structural protein 1 (nsP1) coding region in combination with mutation to the opal stop codon preceding nsP4...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534105/bacterial-diversity-of-cosmopolitan-culex-pipiens-and-invasive-aedes-japonicus-from-germany
#2
Sina Zotzmann, Antje Steinbrink, Kathrin Schleich, Felix Frantzmann, Chinhda Xoumpholphakdy, Manuela Spaeth, Claire Valiente Moro, Patrick Mavingui, Sven Klimpel
Symbiotic bacteria have gained significant attention in recent years. For example, microbiota of some mosquito species seems to influence the development and transmission of pathogens. Furthermore, several attempts using bacteria as a paratransgenetic tool have been made in order to assist the control of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, we examined the bacterial diversity of wild-caught adult Culex (Cx.) pipiens and laboratory-reared adult Aedes japonicus (Ae. japonicus) in Germany using a culture-independent method...
May 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533956/toxicity-repellency-and-flushing-out-in-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae-exposed-to-the-repellents-deet-and-ir3535
#3
Mercedes M N Reynoso, Emilia A Seccacini, Javier A Calcagno, Eduardo N Zerba, Raúl A Alzogaray
DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220.8 µg/insect. Using IR3535, topical application of 500 µg/insect killed no nymphs. The minimum concentration that produced repellency was the same for both compounds: 1,15 µg/cm(2)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526032/multiplex-dnase-free-one-step-reverse-transcription-pcr-for-plasmodium-18s-rrna-and-spliced-gametocyte-specific-mrnas
#4
Amelia E Hanron, Zachary P Billman, Annette M Seilie, Tayla M Olsen, Matthew Fishbaugher, Ming Chang, Thomas Rueckle, Nicole Andenmatten, Bryan Greenhouse, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Smita Das, Gonzalo J Domingo, Kelly Shipman, Stefan H Kappe, James G Kublin, Sean C Murphy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium gametocytes are sexual stages transmitted to female Anopheles mosquitoes. While Plasmodium parasites can be differentiated microscopically on Giemsa-stained blood smears, molecular methods are increasingly used because of their increased sensitivity. Molecular detection of gametocytes requires methods that discriminate between asexual and sexual stage parasites. Commonly tested gametocyte-specific mRNAs are pfs25 and pfs230 detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525986/the-lspc3-41i-restriction-modification-system-is-the-major-determinant-for-genetic-manipulations-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-c3-41
#5
Pan Fu, Yong Ge, Yiming Wu, Ni Zhao, Zhiming Yuan, Xiaomin Hu
BACKGROUND: Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been widely used in integrated mosquito control program and it is one of the minority bacterial species unable to metabolize carbohydrates. In consideration of the high genetic conservation at genomic level and difficulty of genetic horizontal transfer, it is hypothesized that effective restriction-modification (R-M) systems existed in mosquitocidal L. sphaericus. RESULTS: In this study, six type II R-M systems including LspC3-41I were predicted in L...
May 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520737/outdoor-spatial-spraying-against-dengue-a-false-sense-of-security-among-inhabitants-of-hermosillo-mexico
#6
Pablo A Reyes-Castro, Lucía Castro-Luque, Rolando Díaz-Caravantes, Kathleen R Walker, Mary H Hayden, Kacey C Ernst
BACKGROUND: Government-administered adulticiding is frequently conducted in response to dengue transmission worldwide. Anecdotal evidence suggests that spraying may create a "false sense of security" for residents. Our objective was to determine if there was an association between residents' reporting outdoor spatial insecticide spraying as way to prevent dengue transmission and both their reported frequency of dengue prevention practices and household entomological indices in Hermosillo, Mexico...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515886/aquatic-microfauna-alter-larval-food-resources-and-affect-development-and-biomass-of-west-nile-and-saint-louis-encephalitis-vector-culex-nigripalpus-diptera-culicidae
#7
Dagne Duguma, Michael G Kaufman, Arthur B Simas Domingos
Ciliate protists and rotifers are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and can comprise a significant portion of the microbial food resources available to larval mosquitoes, often showing substantial declines in abundance in the presence of mosquito larvae. This top-down regulation of protists is reported to be strong for mosquitoes inhabiting small aquatic containers such as pitcher plants or tree holes, but the nature of these interactions with larval mosquitoes developing in other aquatic habitats is poorly understood...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515869/implications-of-guppy-poecilia-reticulata-life-history-phenotype-for-mosquito-control
#8
Misha L Warbanski, Piata Marques, Therese C Frauendorf, Dawn A T Phillip, Rana W El-Sabaawi
Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are frequently introduced to both natural and artificial water bodies as a mosquito control. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that guppies can consume large numbers of larval mosquitoes. Our study investigates how intraspecific variability in guppy phenotype affects their importance as a mosquito biocontrol and how habitat conditions (natural ponds vs. water storage containers) may influence insect biomass and guppy feeding. Using a blocked experimental design, we established stream-side mesocosm ponds with half receiving gravel substrate to simulate pond-bottom habitat...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507193/current-and-future-prospects-for-preventing-malaria-transmission-via-the-use-of-insecticides
#9
Hilary Ranson
Malaria vectors have developed resistance to all classes of insecticides that are used to target the adult mosquito to prevent parasite transmission. The number of resistant mosquito populations has increased dramatically in recent years, most likely as a result of the scale-up of vector control activities, and the intensity of this resistance is increasing rapidly and compromising the performance of vector control tools. Bednets and indoor residual spray formulations containing alternative active ingredients have shown promise in field trials but are still several years away from implementation...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506254/reemergence-of-yellow-fever-in-ethiopia-after-50%C3%A2-years-2013-epidemiological-and-entomological-investigations
#10
Abrham Lilay, Negga Asamene, Abyot Bekele, Mesfin Mengesha, Milliyon Wendabeku, Israel Tareke, Abiy Girmay, Yonas Wuletaw, Abate Adossa, Yamar Ba, Amadou Sall, Daddi Jima, Debritu Mengesha
BACKGROUND: Yellow Fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by aedes mosquito species. Approximately, 200,000 cases and 30,000 deaths occur worldwide every year. In Ethiopia, the last outbreak was reported in 1966 with 2200 cases and 450 deaths. A number of cases with deaths from unknown febrile illness reported from South Ari district starting from November 2012. This investigation was conducted to identify the causative agent, source of the outbreak and recommend appropriate interventions...
May 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506207/the-midgut-transcriptome-of-aedes-aegypti-fed-with-saline-or-protein-meals-containing-chikungunya-virus-reveals-genes-potentially-involved-in-viral-midgut-escape
#11
Shengzhang Dong, Susanta K Behura, Alexander W E Franz
BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Following oral acquisition, an arbovirus has to persistently infect several organs in the mosquito before becoming transmissible to another vertebrate host. A major obstacle an arbovirus has to overcome during its infection cycle inside the mosquito is the midgut escape barrier, representing the exit mechanism arboviruses utilize when disseminating from the midgut...
May 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500788/unraveling-the-importance-of-the-malaria-parasite-helicases
#12
REVIEW
Renu Tuteja
Malaria is a human parasitic disease caused by infection from Plasmodium species, particularly Plasmodium falciparum. Each year millions of people are infected with malaria and large numbers of deaths result due to this deadly infection. P. falciparum contains 14 chromosomes, nearly 5400 genes and a multistage life cycle in humans and mosquitoes. The control of malaria is still a challenge as the parasite is continuously developing resistance to available anti-malarial drugs and the mosquito vector is developing resistance to insecticides...
May 13, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500043/potential-for-water-borne-and-invertebrate-transmission-of-west-nile-virus-in-the-great-salt-lake-utah
#13
Melissa Lund, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Robert J Dusek, Jan Shivers, Erik Hofmeister
In November and December of 2013, a large mortality event involving 15,000 - 20,000 eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) occurred at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The onset of the outbreak in grebes was followed by a mortality event in > 86 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). During the die-off, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by RT-PCR or viral culture in carcasses of grebes and eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center. However, no mosquito activity, the primary vector of WNV, was detected by the State of Utah's WNV monitoring program...
May 12, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499036/potential-of-a-northern-population-of-aedes-vexans-diptera-culicidae-to-transmit-zika-virus
#14
Kyle L O'Donnell, Mckenzie A Bixby, Kelsey J Morin, David S Bradley, Jefferson A Vaughan
Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of humans in the western hemisphere. With its potential spread into new geographical areas, it is important to define the vector competence of native mosquito species. We tested the vector competency of Aedes vexans (Meigen) from the Lake Agassiz Plain of northwestern Minnesota and northeastern North Dakota. Aedes aegypti (L.) was used as a positive control for comparison. Mosquitoes were fed blood containing Zika virus and 2 wk later were tested for viral infection and dissemination...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497885/larval-interference-competition-between-the-native-neotropical-mosquito-limatus-durhamii-and-the-invasive-aedes-aegypti-improves-the-fitness-of-both-species
#15
Stanislas Talaga, Alain Dejean, Clémence Mouza, Yves Dumont, Céline Leroy
Interspecific competition with native species during biological invasions can sometimes limit alien expansion. We aimed to determine the potential ecological effects of Limatus durhamii Theobald 1901, a native Neotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species, on the invasive species Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) that breeds in the same artificial water containers. Development time and adult dry mass were measured in three rearing conditions: control (a single larva), intraspecific competition (two conspecific larvae), and interspecific competition (two heterospecific larvae)...
May 12, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487557/humoral-cross-reactivity-between-zika-and-dengue-viruses-implications-for-protection-and-pathology
#16
REVIEW
Lalita Priyamvada, William Hudson, Rafi Ahmed, Jens Wrammert
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently caused extensive outbreaks in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Given its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and neurological and ocular malformities in neonates, ZIKV has become a pathogen of significant public health concern worldwide. ZIKV shares a considerable degree of genetic identity and structural homology with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). In particular, the surface glycoprotein envelope (E), which is involved in viral fusion and entry and is therefore a chief target for neutralizing antibody responses, contains regions that are highly conserved between the two viruses...
May 10, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478763/molecular-phylogeny-of-anopheles-hyrcanus-group-diptera-culicidae-based-on-mtdna-coi
#17
Yuan Fang, Wen-Qi Shi, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND: The Anopheles hyrcanus group, which includes at least 25 species, is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palearctic regions. Some group members have been incriminated as vectors of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. It is difficult to identify Hyrcanus Group members by morphological features. Thus, molecular phylogeny has been proposed as an important complementary method to traditional morphological taxonomy. METHODS: Based on the GenBank database and our original study data, we used 466 mitochondrial DNA COI sequences belonging to 18 species to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the Hyrcanus Group across its worldwide geographic range...
May 8, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474344/differential-expression-of-duplicated-binary-toxin-genes-bina-binb-in-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-c3-41
#18
Pan Fu, Xingchen Xiang, Yong Ge, Zhiming Yuan, Xiaomin Hu
Due to the self-produced binary toxins BinA/BinB, some Lysinibacillus sphaericus isolates exhibit high toxicity against mosquito larvae and are utilized in mosquito control programs. Previous whole genome sequencing revealed the presence of a large plasmid pBsph in L. sphaericus C3-41, which contains a 30.5-kb duplication of the genome including the binary toxin genes binA/binB. This was confirmed by Southern blot and qPCR experiments in this study. Mutants of L. sphaericus C3-41, bearing disruptions of the chromosomal-bin (C3-41ΔCab ) or the plasmid-bin (C3-41ΔPab ) and a plasmid cured strain G725, were generated...
May 5, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470499/coffee-its-roasted-form-and-their-residues-cause-birth-failure-and-shorten-lifespan-in-dengue-vectors
#19
Hamady Dieng, Salbiah Binti Ellias, Tomomitsu Satho, Abu Hassan Ahmad, Fatimah Abang, Idris Abd Ghani, Sabina Noor, Hamdan Ahmad, Wan Fatma Zuharah, Ronald E Morales Vargas, Noppawan P Morales, Cirilo N Hipolito, Siriluck Attrapadung, Gabriel Tonga Noweg
In dengue mosquitoes, successful embryonic development and long lifespan are key determinants for the persistence of both virus and vector. Therefore, targeting the egg stage and vector lifespan would be expected to have greater impacts than larvicides or adulticides, both strategies that have lost effectiveness due to the development of resistance. Therefore, there is now a pressing need to find novel chemical means of vector control. Coffee contains many chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing environmental concern, is as rich in toxicants as the green coffee beans; these chemicals do not have a history of resistance in insects, but some are lost in the roasting process...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457675/four-segmented-rift-valley-fever-virus-based-vaccines-can-be-applied-safely-in-ewes-during-pregnancy
#20
Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Lucien van Keulen, Jet Kant, Jeroen Kortekaas
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe and recurrent outbreaks on the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula and continues to expand its habitat. This mosquito-borne virus, belonging to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae contains a tri-segmented negative-strand RNA genome. Previously, we developed four-segmented RVFV (RVFV-4s) variants by splitting the M-genome segment into two M-type segments each encoding one of the structural glycoproteins; Gn or Gc. Vaccination/challenge experiments with mice and lambs subsequently showed that RVFV-4s induces protective immunity against wild-type virus infection after a single administration...
April 27, 2017: Vaccine
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