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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038287/genetic-complexity-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-and-liver-diseases
#1
Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Vicente E Torres, Peter C Harris
Data indicate significant phenotypic and genotypic overlap, plus a common pathogenesis, between two groups of inherited disorders, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases (ADPKD), a significant cause of ESRD, and autosomal dominant polycystic liver diseases (ADPLD), which result in significant PLD with minimal PKD. Eight genes have been associated with ADPKD (PKD1 and PKD2), ADPLD (PRKCSH, SEC63, LRP5, ALG8, and SEC61B), or both (GANAB). Although genetics is only infrequently used for diagnosing these diseases and prognosing the associated outcomes, its value is beginning to be appreciated, and the genomics revolution promises more reliable and less expensive molecular diagnostic tools for these diseases...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973524/liver-cyst-gene-knockout-in-cholangiocytes-inhibits-cilium-formation-and-wnt-signaling
#2
Edgar S Wills, René H M Te Morsche, Jeroen van Reeuwijk, Nicola Horn, Iris Geomini, Liyanne F M van de Laarschot, Dorus A Mans, Marius Ueffing, Karsten Boldt, Joost P H Drenth, Ronald Roepman
Mutations in the PRKCSH, SEC63, and LRP5 genes cause autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD). The proteins products of PRKCSH (alias GIIB) and SEC63 function in protein quality control and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while LRP5 is implicated in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To identify common denominators in the PLD pathogenesis, we mapped the PLD interactome by affinity proteomics, employing both HEK293T cells and H69 cholangiocytes. Identification of known complex members, such as glucosidase IIA (GIIA) for PRKCSH, and SEC61A1 and SEC61B for SEC63, confirmed the specificity of the analysis...
August 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838205/a-new-role-for-fbp21-as-regulator-of-brr2-helicase-activity
#3
Lisa M Henning, Karine F Santos, Jana Sticht, Stefanie Jehle, Chung-Tien Lee, Malte Wittwer, Henning Urlaub, Ulrich Stelzl, Markus C Wahl, Christian Freund
Splicing of eukaryotic pre-mRNA is carried out by the spliceosome, which assembles stepwise on each splicing substrate. This requires the concerted action of snRNPs and non-snRNP accessory proteins, the functions of which are often not well understood. Of special interest are B complex factors that enter the spliceosome prior to catalytic activation and may alter splicing kinetics and splice site selection. One of these proteins is FBP21, for which we identified several spliceosomal binding partners in a yeast-two-hybrid screen, among them the RNA helicase Brr2...
July 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782656/genetics-and-mechanisms-of-hepatic-cystogenesis
#4
REVIEW
L F M van de Laarschot, J P H Drenth
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a heterogeneous genetic condition. PKD1 and PKD2 germline mutations are found in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is associated with germline mutations in PRKCSH, SEC63, LRP5, and recently ALG8, and SEC61. GANAB mutations are found in both patient groups. Loss of heterozygosity of PLD-genes in cyst epithelium contributes to the development of hepatic cysts. A genetic interaction network is implied in hepatic cystogenesis that connects the endoplasmic glycoprotein control mechanisms and polycystin expression and localization...
August 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709963/animal-models-of-biliary-injury-and-altered-bile-acid-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Valeria Mariotti, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris, Diego F Calvisi
In the last 25years, a number of animal models, mainly rodents, have been generated with the goal to mimic cholestatic liver injuries and, thus, to provide in vivo tools to investigate the mechanisms of biliary repair and, eventually, to test the efficacy of innovative treatments. Despite fundamental limitations applying to these models, such as the distinct immune system and the different metabolism regulating liver homeostasis in rodents when compared to humans, multiple approaches, such as surgery (bile duct ligation), chemical-induced (3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine, DDC, α-naphthylisothiocyanate, ANIT), viral infections (Rhesus rotavirustype A, RRV-A), and genetic manipulation (Mdr2, Cftr, Pkd1, Pkd2, Prkcsh, Sec63, Pkhd1) have been developed...
July 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375157/isolated-polycystic-liver-disease-genes-define-effectors-of-polycystin-1-function
#6
Whitney Besse, Ke Dong, Jungmin Choi, Sohan Punia, Sorin V Fedeles, Murim Choi, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Emily B Huang, Ashima Gulati, James Knight, Shrikant Mane, Esa Tahvanainen, Pia Tahvanainen, Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Richard P Lifton, Terry Watnick, York P Pei, Vicente E Torres, Stefan Somlo
Dominantly inherited isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) consists of liver cysts that are radiologically and pathologically identical to those seen in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, but without clinically relevant kidney cysts. The causative genes are known for fewer than 40% of PCLD index cases. Here, we have used whole exome sequencing in a discovery cohort of 102 unrelated patients who were excluded for mutations in the 2 most common PCLD genes, PRKCSH and SEC63, to identify heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in 3 additional genes, ALG8, GANAB, and SEC61B...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286332/two-alternative-binding-mechanisms-connect-the-protein-translocation-sec71-sec72-complex-with-heat-shock-proteins
#7
Arati Tripathi, Elisabet C Mandon, Reid Gilmore, Tom A Rapoport
The biosynthesis of many eukaryotic proteins requires accurate targeting to and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Post-translational protein translocation in yeast requires both the Sec61 translocation channel, and a complex of four additional proteins: Sec63, Sec62, Sec71, and Sec72. The structure and function of these proteins are largely unknown. This pathway also requires the cytosolic Hsp70 protein Ssa1, but whether Ssa1 associates with the translocation machinery to target protein substrates to the membrane is unclear...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552964/chromosomal-abnormalities-in-hepatic-cysts-point-to-novel-polycystic-liver-disease-genes
#8
Edgar S Wills, Wybrich R Cnossen, Joris A Veltman, Rob Woestenenk, Marloes Steehouwer, Jody Salomon, René H M Te Morsche, Meritxell Huch, Jayne Y Hehir-Kwa, Martijn J Banning, Rolph Pfundt, Ronald Roepman, Alexander Hoischen, Joost P H Drenth
Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is caused by variants in PRKCSH, SEC63, and LRP5, whereas autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is caused by variants in PKD1 and PKD2. Liver cyst development in these disorders is explained by somatic loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type allele in the developing cyst. We hypothesize that we can use this mechanism to identify novel disease genes that reside in LOH regions. In this study, we aim to map abnormal genomic regions using high-density SNP microarrays to find novel PLD genes...
December 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454487/spliceosome-snrnp200-promotes-viral-rna-sensing-and-irf3-activation-of-antiviral-response
#9
Nicolas Tremblay, Martin Baril, Laurent Chatel-Chaix, Salwa Es-Saad, Alex Young Park, Robert K Koenekoop, Daniel Lamarre
Spliceosomal SNRNP200 is a Ski2-like RNA helicase that is associated with retinitis pigmentosa 33 (RP33). Here we found that SNRNP200 promotes viral RNA sensing and IRF3 activation through the ability of its amino-terminal Sec63 domain (Sec63-1) to bind RNA and to interact with TBK1. We show that SNRNP200 relocalizes into TBK1-containing cytoplasmic structures upon infection, in contrast to the RP33-associated S1087L mutant, which is also unable to rescue antiviral response of SNRNP200 knockdown cells. This functional rescue correlates with the Sec63-1-mediated binding of viral RNA...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259053/mutations-in-ganab-encoding-the-glucosidase-ii%C3%AE-subunit-cause-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-and-liver-disease
#10
Binu Porath, Vladimir G Gainullin, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Elizabeth K Dillinger, Christina M Heyer, Katharina Hopp, Marie E Edwards, Charles D Madsen, Sarah R Mauritz, Carly J Banks, Saurabh Baheti, Bharathi Reddy, José Ignacio Herrero, Jesús M Bañales, Marie C Hogan, Velibor Tasic, Terry J Watnick, Arlene B Chapman, Cécile Vigneau, Frédéric Lavainne, Marie-Pierre Audrézet, Claude Ferec, Yannick Le Meur, Vicente E Torres, Peter C Harris
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common, progressive, adult-onset disease that is an important cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which requires transplantation or dialysis. Mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 (∼85% and ∼15% of resolved cases, respectively) are the known causes of ADPKD. Extrarenal manifestations include an increased level of intracranial aneurysms and polycystic liver disease (PLD), which can be severe and associated with significant morbidity. Autosomal-dominant PLD (ADPLD) with no or very few renal cysts is a separate disorder caused by PRKCSH, SEC63, or LRP5 mutations...
June 2, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161313/transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-and-the-role-of-atypical-calpain-protein-and-autophagy-in-the-spliced-leader-silencing-pathway-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#11
Ronen Hope, Katarina Egarmina, Konstantin Voloshin, Hiba Waldman Ben-Asher, Shai Carmi, Dror Eliaz, Yaron Drori, Shulamit Michaeli
Under persistent ER stress, Trypanosoma brucei parasites induce the spliced leader silencing (SLS) pathway. In SLS, transcription of the SL RNA gene, the SL donor to all mRNAs, is extinguished, arresting trans-splicing and leading to programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we investigated the transcriptome following silencing of SEC63, a factor essential for protein translocation across the ER membrane, and whose silencing induces SLS. The proteome of SEC63-silenced cells was analyzed with an emphasis on SLS-specific alterations in protein expression, and modifications that do not directly result from perturbations in trans-splicing...
October 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923573/components-and-mechanisms-of-import-modification-folding-and-assembly-of-immunoglobulins-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#12
Richard Zimmermann
In mammalian cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a central role in biogenesis of secretory- and plasma membrane proteins as well as in cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. The protein biogenesis function involves an aqueous polypeptide conducting channel in the ER membrane, which is formed by the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex; the store- and receptor-controlled Ca(2+)- release function requires a steep ER to cytosol gradient, with more than 500 μM free Ca(2+) in the ER and 50 nM Ca(2+) in the cytosol...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510791/sec66-dependent-regulation-of-yeast-spindle-pole-body-duplication-through-pom152
#13
Santharam S Katta, Jingjing Chen, Jennifer M Gardner, Jennifer M Friederichs, Sarah E Smith, Madelaine Gogol, Jay R Unruh, Brian D Slaughter, Sue L Jaspersen
In closed mitotic systems such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nuclear envelope (NE) does not break down during mitosis, so microtubule-organizing centers such as the spindle-pole body (SPB) must be inserted into the NE to facilitate bipolar spindle formation and chromosome segregation. The mechanism of SPB insertion has been linked to NE insertion of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) through a series of genetic and physical interactions between NPCs and SPB components. To identify new genes involved in SPB duplication and NE insertion, we carried out genome-wide screens for suppressors of deletion alleles of SPB components, including Mps3 and Mps2...
December 2015: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365003/severe-polycystic-liver-disease-is-not-caused-by-large-deletions-of-the-prkcsh-gene
#14
Wybrich R Cnossen, Jake S F Maurits, Jody Salomon, René H M Te Morsche, Esmé Waanders, Joost P H Drenth
BACKGROUND: Isolated polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is an autosomal dominant Mendelian disorder. Heterozygous PRKCSH (where PRKCSH is protein kinase C substrate 80K-H (80 kDa protein, heavy chain; MIM*177060) mutations are the most frequent cause. Routine molecular testing using Sanger sequencing identifies pathogenic variants in the PRKCSH (15%) and SEC63 (where SEC63 is Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog 63 (MIM*608648); 6%) genes, but about approximately 80% of patients meeting the clinical ADPLD criteria carry no PRKCSH or SEC63 mutation...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26303067/essential-role-of-x-box-binding-protein-1-during-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-podocytes
#15
Hossam Hassan, Xuefei Tian, Kazunori Inoue, Nathan Chai, Chang Liu, Keita Soda, Gilbert Moeckel, Alda Tufro, Ann-Hwee Lee, Stefan Somlo, Sorin Fedeles, Shuta Ishibe
Podocytes are terminally differentiated epithelial cells that reside along the glomerular filtration barrier. Evidence suggests that after podocyte injury, endoplasmic reticulum stress response is activated, but the molecular mechanisms involved are incompletely defined. In a mouse model, we confirmed that podocyte injury induces endoplasmic reticulum stress response and upregulated unfolded protein response pathways, which have been shown to mitigate damage by preventing the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum...
April 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26085089/co-chaperone-specificity-in-gating-of-the-polypeptide-conducting-channel-in-the-membrane-of-the-human-endoplasmic-reticulum
#16
Stefan Schorr, Marie-Christine Klein, Igor Gamayun, Armin Melnyk, Martin Jung, Nico Schäuble, Qian Wang, Birgit Hemmis, Florian Bochen, Markus Greiner, Pavel Lampel, Sabine Katharina Urban, Sarah Hassdenteufel, Johanna Dudek, Xing-Zhen Chen, Richard Wagner, Adolfo Cavalié, Richard Zimmermann
In mammalian cells, signal peptide-dependent protein transport into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel, the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex. Previous work has characterized the Sec61 complex as a potential ER Ca(2+) leak channel in HeLa cells and identified ER lumenal molecular chaperone immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP) as limiting Ca(2+) leakage via the open Sec61 channel by facilitating channel closing. This BiP activity involves binding of BiP to the ER lumenal loop 7 of Sec61α in the vicinity of tyrosine 344...
July 24, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26082458/identification-of-biomarkers-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-by-bioinformatics-analysis
#17
Yanxin Zhao, Wei Tan, Wenhua Sheng, Xiaohong Li
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: The microarray data of GSE16759 were from the expression profile samples of 4 parietal lobe tissues from patients with AD and 4 ones from age-matched control participants. The differentially expressed micro RNAs (miRNAs) and genes (DEGs) underwent hierarchical clustering and function analysis followed by target genes prediction. Finally, DEGs were mapped to the target genes to construct miRNA-regulated networks...
March 2016: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074080/comparative-haploid-genetic-screens-reveal-divergent-pathways-in-the-biogenesis-and-trafficking-of-glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored-proteins
#18
Eric M Davis, Jihye Kim, Bridget L Menasche, Jacob Sheppard, Xuedong Liu, Aik-Choon Tan, Jingshi Shen
Glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) play essential roles in physiology, but their biogenesis and trafficking have not been systematically characterized. Here, we took advantage of the recently available haploid genetics approach to dissect GPI-AP pathways in human cells using prion protein (PrP) and CD59 as model molecules. Our screens recovered a large number of common and unexpectedly specialized factors in the GPI-AP pathways. PIGN, PGAP2, and PIGF, which encode GPI anchor-modifying enzymes, were selectively isolated in the CD59 screen, suggesting that GPI anchor composition significantly influences the biogenesis of GPI-APs in a substrate-dependent manner...
June 23, 2015: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25849387/a-noncanonical-pwi-domain-in-the-n-terminal-helicase-associated-region-of-the-spliceosomal-brr2-protein
#19
Eva Absmeier, Leonie Rosenberger, Luise Apelt, Christian Becke, Karine F Santos, Ulrich Stelzl, Markus C Wahl
The spliceosomal RNA helicase Brr2 is required for the assembly of a catalytically active spliceosome on a messenger RNA precursor. Brr2 exhibits an unusual organization with tandem helicase units, each comprising dual RecA-like domains and a Sec63 homology unit, preceded by a more than 400-residue N-terminal helicase-associated region. Whereas recent crystal structures have provided insights into the molecular architecture and regulation of the Brr2 helicase region, little is known about the structural organization and function of its N-terminal part...
April 2015: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844898/sec63-and-xbp1-regulate-ire1%C3%AE-activity-and-polycystic-disease-severity
#20
Sorin V Fedeles, Jae-Seon So, Amol Shrikhande, Seung Hun Lee, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Christina E Barkauskas, Stefan Somlo, Ann-Hwee Lee
The HSP40 cochaperone SEC63 is associated with the SEC61 translocon complex in the ER. Mutations in the gene encoding SEC63 cause polycystic liver disease in humans; however, it is not clear how altered SEC63 influences disease manifestations. In mice, loss of SEC63 induces cyst formation both in liver and kidney as the result of reduced polycystin-1 (PC1). Here we report that inactivation of SEC63 induces an unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway that is protective against cyst formation. Specifically, using murine genetic models, we determined that SEC63 deficiency selectively activates the IRE1α-XBP1 branch of UPR and that SEC63 exists in a complex with PC1...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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