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Coronary artery disease

Giuseppe Andò, Felice Gragnano, Paolo Calabrò, Marco Valgimigli
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the impact of radial vs femoral access on the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary angiography or intervention. BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition of the importance of access site selection as an adjudicative measure to mitigate the risk of renal impairment for patients with coronary artery disease undergoing angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analyzed available evidence comparing the rates of AKI with radial vs femoral access in patients undergoing coronary angiography or intervention...
September 23, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Daina Kashiwazaki, Shiraishi Keitaro, Shusuke Yamamoto, Tetsuhiro Kamo, Haruto Uchino, Hisayasu Saito, Naoki Akioka, Naoya Kuwayama, Kyo Noguchi, Satoshi Kuroda
OBJECTIVE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is known to reduce stroke risk in patients with symptomatic, moderate to severe carotid stenosis, but have no apparent impact in patients with symptomatic, mild (<50%) carotid stenosis. However, recent development of non-invasive imaging modalities has shown that a certain subgroup of them are at high risk for further ischemic events in spite of antiplatelet therapy. This study, therefore, was aimed to clarify their clinical features and to explore the impact of CEA for them...
September 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Michael A Fierro, Eric I Ehieli, Mary Cooter, Austin Traylor, Mark Stafford-Smith, Madhav Swaminathan
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of cardiac surgery, and early detection is difficult. This study was performed to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and statistical performance of renal angina (RA) as an early predictor of AKI in an adult cardiac surgical patient population. DESIGN: Retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study. SETTING: A single, university-affiliated, quaternary medical center...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Wilke M C Koenraadt, Margot M Bartelings, Regina Bökenkamp, Marco C DeRuiter, Mark G Hazekamp, Ad J J C Bogers, Jan M Quaegebeur, Martin J Schalij, Hubert W Vliegen, Robert E Poelmann, Monique R M Jongbloed
OBJECTIVES: Variations in coronary anatomy are common and may relate to the position of the coronary ostium relative to the aortic sinus, the angle of coronary take-off, or the course of the coronary arterial branches. Several classification systems have been proposed. However, they all lack a simple rationale that is applicable irrespective of the relative position of the great arteries, as well as in bicuspid aortic valves. We present a modification of a relatively simple system introduced in the early 1980s, designated the "Leiden Convention...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Hsin-Bang Leu, Wei-Hsian Yin, Wei-Kung Tseng, Yen-Wen Wu, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Hung-I Yeh, Kuan- Cheng Chang, Ji-Hung Wang, Chau-Chung Wu, Jaw-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: Some personality types are associated with cardiovascular (CV) diseases and may be related to clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigates the association between type D personality and clinical outcomes in stable CAD patients in an Asian cohort. METHODS: Stable CAD patients were enrolled and prospectively followed up for at least 1 year in Taiwan. The inclusion criteria were at least one successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and stable medical treatment for at least 1 month before enrollment...
September 19, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Rui Lu, Tingting Yuan, Yingge Wang, Ting Zhang, Yuguo Yuan, Daijin Wu, Minya Zhou, Zhengyi He, Yaoyao Lu, Yajie Chen, Jianglin Fan, Jingyan Liang, Yong Cheng
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been the very frequently used as animal models in the study of human lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, because they have similar lipoprotein metabolism to humans. Most of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis rabbit models are produced by feeding rabbits a high-cholesterol diet. Gene editing or knockout (KO) offered another means of producing rabbit models for study of the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. Even so, apolipoprotein (Apo)E KO rabbits must be fed a high-cholesterol diet to induce hyperlipidemia...
September 19, 2018: EBioMedicine
Jae Hyun Lee, Joon Seon Yang, Sang-Hak Lee, Myeong Hee Moon
A comprehensive lipid analysis was performed at the plasma lipoprotein level in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Because the lipids in lipoproteins are related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system, lipoprotein-specific lipid analysis can be useful for understanding the mechanism of lipid-associated cardiovascular diseases. Lipoproteins were size-sorted into high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, then lipids of each lipoprotein were analysed using nanoflow ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh Shabestari, Leila Alizadeh, Mohammad Moshiri, Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh, Mahdi Balali-Mood
It was aimed to investigate possible late cardiac effects of Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure in Iranian veterans. Thirty-eight veterans with late complications of SM exposure were investigated. Clinical history, physical examinations, 12 leads electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were performed. Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) was performed as clinically indicated for angiographic assessment and patients were stratified according to the CTCA findings. Incomplete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation were detected in 3 (7...
September 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Rasha K Al-Lamee, Alexandra N Nowbar, Darrel P Francis
The adverse consequences of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are death, myocardial infarction (MI) and angina. Trials in stable CAD show that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not reduce mortality. PCI does appear to reduce spontaneous MI rates but at the expense of causing some periprocedural MI. Therefore, the main purpose of PCI is to relieve angina. Indeed, patients and physicians often choose PCI rather than first attempting to control symptoms with anti-anginal medications as recommended by guidelines...
September 21, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Hayato Tada, Masa-Aki Kawashiri, Akihiro Nomura, Ryota Teramoto, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Atsushi Nohara, Akihiro Inazu, Hiroshi Mabuchi, Atsushi Tajima, Masakazu Yamagishi
BACKGROUND: The genetic background of severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: We tested if genetic variants associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-altering autosomal recessive diseases influenced LDL cholesterol levels and the odds for coronary artery disease in patients with high LDL cholesterol. METHODS: We recruited 500 individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol levels (≥180 mg/dL or ≥140 mg/dL for subjects <15 years)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Huimin Li, Qian Tong, Lirong Guo, Shui Yu, Yuewei Li, Qinqin Cao, Jinwei Li, Feng Li
BACKGROUND: The association between chronic inflammation and the accelerated development of atherosclerosis is well recognized. However, it remains controversial as to whether the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this meta-analysis was to obtain a better estimate of the risk of CAD in patients with SLE. METHODS: An English-restricted literature review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines using key databases, surveying all articles published through October 31, 2017...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Yuan Li, HuiPing Zhang, Ya-Feng Hao, Yi Liang, Ling-Ge Wei, Tong-Shun Xu, Tao Wang
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is widely used in clinical settings for many disease treatments. To investigate the potential effects of hyperbaric oxygen on patients with slow coronary flow (SCF) we retrospectively analyzed 98 patients who were diagnosed with SCF by coronary artery angiography. Of these, 50 patients received conventional treatment only (control group; the other 48 patients received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for four weeks in addition to the routine therapy (HBO2 group). By using gated myocardial perfusion tomography examination before and after treatment, we observed that 71 out of 148 (47...
July 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Yen-Feng Lin, Albert Vernon Smith, Thor Aspelund, Rebecca A Betensky, Jordan W Smoller, Vilmundur Gudnason, Lenore J Launer, Deborah Blacker
INTRODUCTION: We sought to examine the genetic overlap between vascular pathologies and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, and the potential mediating role of vascular pathologies between AD-related genetic variants and late-life cognition. METHODS: For 2907 stroke-free older individuals, we examined the association of polygenic risk scores for AD dementia (ADPRSs) with vascular pathologies and with cognition. Mediation analyses addressed whether association between ADPRSs and cognition was mediated by a vascular pathology...
September 18, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Miriam S Udler, Jaegil Kim, Marcin von Grotthuss, Sílvia Bonàs-Guarch, Joanne B Cole, Joshua Chiou, Michael Boehnke, Markku Laakso, Gil Atzmon, Benjamin Glaser, Josep M Mercader, Kyle Gaulton, Jason Flannick, Gad Getz, Jose C Florez
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease for which (1) disease-causing pathways are incompletely understood and (2) subclassification may improve patient management. Unlike other biomarkers, germline genetic markers do not change with disease progression or treatment. In this paper, we test whether a germline genetic approach informed by physiology can be used to deconstruct T2D heterogeneity. First, we aimed to categorize genetic loci into groups representing likely disease mechanistic pathways...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Anna L Goldman, Harrison G Pope, Shalender Bhasin
Context: The prevalence of body image disorders and anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is increasing, despite the evidence of their serious adverse health effects and despite the passage of laws regulating their sales. Here we review the evolution of the dual emerging epidemics of body image disorders and AAS use, adverse health effects of AAS, and the need for an integrated health policy and regulatory response to stem these epidemics. Evidence Acquisition: We searched for studies published in English language prior to June 2018...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karolina Szummer, Lars Wallentin, Lars Lindhagen, Joakim Alfredsson, David Erlinge, Claes Held, Stefan James, Thomas Kellerth, Bertil Lindahl, Annica Ravn-Fischer, Erik Rydberg, Troels Yndigegn, Tomas Jernberg
Aims: We assessed the changes in short- and long-term outcomes and their relation to implementation of new evidence-based treatments in all patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in Sweden over 20 years. Methods and results: Cases with NSTEMI (n = 205 693) between 1995 and 2014 were included from the nationwide Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) registry...
September 19, 2018: European Heart Journal
Federico Vancheri, Michael Henein
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Whether aging affects left ventricular (LV) filling and ejection and the LV electric function is not well established. We investigated the effect of normal aging on echocardiographic measurements of LV morphology and function, LV electric function and the relationship between LV electric and mechanical function in asymptomatic individuals. METHODS: As part of a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence of coronary risk factors in the general population in Caltanissetta, Italy, individuals without signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease or heart failure were randomly selected and underwent electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examination...
September 21, 2018: Echocardiography
Joaquim Barreto Oliveira, Yew Min Sen, Kshama Wechalekar
BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with 82 Rb PET/CT is increasingly utilized in the evaluation of coronary artery disease with high diagnostic accuracy. Various softwares for data processing have been developed over the years with conflicting data regarding their reproducibility. In this study, we compared the quantitative results of myocardial perfusion and exam classification from three different softwares. METHODS: Data from consecutive patients who have undergone rest/stress 82 Rb PET/CT MPI at the Royal Brompton & Harefield Trust, London, were analyzed...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Roberto Sciagrà, Elisa Milan, Raffaele Giubbini, Tomasz Kubik, Rossella Di Dato, Lara Gallo, Luca Camoni, Michela Allocca, Raffaella Calabretta
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) in the sub-endocardial (SEN) and sub-epicardial (SEP) layers of the left ventricular myocardium using 13 NH3 positron emission tomography (PET) and an automated procedure gives reasonable results in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Resting and stress 13 NH3 dynamic PET were performed in 70 patients. Using ≥ 70% diameter stenosis in invasive coronary angiography (ICA) to identify significant CAD, we examined the diagnostic value of SEN- and SEP-MBF, and coronary flow reserve (CFR) vs...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Massimo Fioranelli, Anna G Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Maria Bianchi, Miriam Rovesti, Maria G Roccia
Recent findings have deeply changed the current view of coronary heart disease, going beyond the simplistic model of atherosclerosis as a passive process involving cholesterol build-up in the subintimal space of the arteries until their final occlusion and/or thrombosis and instead focusing on the key roles of inflammation and the immune system in plaque formation and destabilization. Chronic inflammation is a typical hallmark of cardiac disease, worsening outcomes irrespective of serum cholesterol levels. Low-grade chronic inflammation correlates with higher incidence of several non-cardiac diseases, including depression, and chronic depression is now listed among the most important cardiovascular risk factors for poor prognosis among patients with myocardial infarction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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