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Coronary artery disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055128/a-generalized-outflow-boundary-condition-impedance-model-for-non-invasive-prediction-of-ischemia-in-diseased-coronary-arteries
#1
Iyad A Fayssal, Fadl Moukalled, Samir Alam, Hussain Isma'eel
This paper reports on a new boundary condition formulation to model the total coronary myocardial flow and impedance characteristics of the myocardial vascular bed for any specific patient when considered for non-invasive diagnosis of fractional flow reserve (FFR). The developed boundary condition model inherits an implicit representation of the downstream truncated vascular bed and is based on integrating patient-specific physiologic parameters that can be non-invasively extracted for each patient to account for blood flow demand to the myocardium at rest and hyperemic conditions...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054839/incremental-prognostic-utility-of-left-ventricular-global-longitudinal-strain-in-hypertrophic-obstructive-cardiomyopathy-patients-and-preserved-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction
#2
Albree Tower-Rader, Jorge Betancor, Zoran B Popovic, Kimi Sato, Maran Thamilarasan, Nicholas G Smedira, Harry M Lever, Milind Y Desai
BACKGROUND: In obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, we sought to determine whether LV global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) provided incremental prognostic utility. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 1019 patients with documented hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (mean age, 50±12 years; 63% men) evaluated at our center between 2001 and 2011. We excluded age <18 years, maximal LV outflow tract gradient <30 mm Hg, bundle branch block or atrial fibrillation, past pacemaker/cardiac surgery, including myectomy/alcohol ablation, and obstructive coronary artery disease...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054558/serum-lipid-lipoprotein-and-apolipoprotein-profiles-in-workers-exposed-to-low-arsenic-levels-lipid-profiles-and-occupational-arsenic-exposure
#3
Caterina Ledda, Ivo Iavicoli, Massimo Bracci, Roberto Avola, Paola Senia, Lory Santarelli, Cristoforo Pomara, Venerando Rapisarda
Epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to arsenic (As) is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial heart disease) and mortality. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare serum lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in workers exposed to As. The subjects of this study included 57 workers exposed to As and 57 controls. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Exposure to As was assessed in indoor air of a workplace and determined using the creatinine values in the urine...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054234/coronary-dissection-discovered-during-ex%C3%A2-vivo-organ-preservation-avoiding-a%C3%A2-fatal-complication
#4
Sandro Sponga, Dave Napgal, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Veronica Ferrara, Sandro Nalon, Nicoletta Finato, Ugolino Livi
This report describes the case of undiagnosed posttraumatic coronary artery dissection in a young multiorgan donor. Ex vivo preservation with the Organ Care System (TransMedics, Inc, Andover, MA) revealed the presence of coronary disease and avoided transplantation of an organ at high risk for failure.
November 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054204/electroceuticals-in-medicine-the-brave-new-future
#5
Sundeep Mishra
Electroceuticals are a new category of therapeutic agents which act by targeting the neural circuits of organs. The therapy involves mapping the neural circuitry and delivering neural impulses to these specific targets. The impulse is administered via an implantable device. In cardiology besides pacemaker, defibrillation and resynchronization applications it could have usefulness in heart failure, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, myocarditis, resistant hypertension, atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias, pulseless electrical activity, and refractory angina...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054190/bilateral-internal-thoracic-artery-grafting-in-india-time-to-raise-the-bar
#6
Lokeswara Rao Sajja, Prashanthi Beri
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting strategy is the current trend in coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel coronary artery disease. Although better long-term outcomes have been shown, BITA grafting is underutilized as a main strategy for revascularization by most of the surgeons. The survey was conducted to ascertain the current usage and concerns of BITA grafting in India. METHODS: Database of 856 Indian cardiac surgeons currently with predominantly adult practice was prepared and a questionnaire was sent about use of single and bilateral ITA grafts and BITA grafting strategy in different clinical scenarios...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054189/development-of-a-diagnosis-model-for-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Hongzeng Xu, Zhiying Duan, Chi Miao, Song Geng, Yuanzhe Jin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop a coronary artery disease (CAD) prediction model that optimally estimates the pre-test probability of CAD for patients suspected of CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective, multi-centre study included 7360 consecutive patients (4678 men, 57.87±11.42 years old; 2682 women, 61.60±9.58 years old) who underwent coronary angiography for evaluation of CAD. A prediction model was fitted for diagnosis of CAD with the help of eight significant risk factors including sex, age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, serum creatinine and angina...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054187/accuracy-of-exercise-tolerance-test-in-the-diagnosis-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-left-dominant-coronary-circulation
#8
Armin Attar, Arman Mehrzadeh, Mohsen Foulad, Davar Aldavood, Mohammad Amin Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Assadian Rad, Shahdad Khosropanah
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a physiologic stress that helps the physicians to clarify the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease which may be obscure at rest. Although it is sensitive, its specificity is affected by several parameters, such as some metabolic conditions, some structural heart diseases, and some baseline electrocardiogram abnormalities. Currently, the relationship between coronary dominance and accuracy of EET is not examined. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the potential impact of coronary dominance on the accuracy of EET...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054183/appropriateness-of-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-and-impact-of-government-health-insurance-scheme-a-tertiary-centre-experience-from-western-india
#9
Devendra Patil, Charan Lanjewar, Goutam Vaggar, Juhi Bhargava, Girish Sabnis, Jivtesh Pahwa, Ankur Phatarpekar, Hetan Shah, Prafulla Kerkar
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of data regarding the appropriateness of elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a limited-resource country such as India. In an attempt to rationalise the use of PCI, Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) were developed for cardiovascular care in the USA. In the Indian context, considering the high prevalence of coronary artery disease, the dramatic rise in the number of revascularization procedures and an increasing role of government/private reimbursements, application of AUC could potentially guide policy to optimize the utilization of resources and the benefit-risk ratio for individual patients...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054181/clinico-angiographic-profile-and-procedural-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-interventions-the-srinagar-registry
#10
Jahangir Rashid Beig, Tariq R Shah, Imran Hafeez, Mohd Iqbal Dar, Hilal A Rather, Nisar A Tramboo, Ajaz A Lone, Fayaz A Rather
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at exploring the clinical profile, angiographic characteristics and procedural outcomes in patients undergoing PCI at our institute. METHODS: This prospective observational study included all consecutive patients who underwent PCI at our hospital between January 2014 and December 2015. Data including clinico-demographic profile, angiographic details and lesion characteristics were recorded in all patients. Procedural details including devices and drugs used, procedure related complications, and in-hospital outcomes of these patients were analysed...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052801/coronary-flow-response-to-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-is-preserved-in-old-cardiac-patients
#11
Elpidio Santillo, Monica Migale, Fabrizio Balestrini, Demetrio Postacchini, Silvia Bustacchini, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi
BACKGROUND: The effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) on coronary flow in elderly cardiac patients has not been investigated yet. Thus, we aimed to study the change of coronary flow subsequent to RIPC in old patients with heart diseases and to identify its main correlates. METHODS: Ninety-five elderly patients (aged ≥ 65 years) accessing cardiac rehabilitation ward underwent transthoracic ultrasound evaluation of peak diastolic flow velocity of left anterior descending artery...
October 20, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051757/role-of-gut-microbiota-on-cardio-metabolic-parameters-and-immunity-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Lidia Sanchez-Alcoholado, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Laura Jordán-Martínez, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Pilar Cardila-Cruz, Daniel Elena, Antonio J Muñoz-Garcia, Maria I Queipo-Ortuño, Manuel Jimenez-Navarro
Gut microbiota composition has been reported as a factor linking host metabolism with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and intestinal immunity. Such gut microbiota has been shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is a pro-atherogenic compound. Treg cells expressing the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) play an essential role in the regulation of immune responses to commensal microbiota and have an atheroprotective role...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051139/mining-the-stiffness-sensitive-transcriptome-in-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-identifies-long-noncoding-rna-stiffness-regulators
#13
Christopher Yu, Tina Xu, Richard Assoian, Daniel J Rader
OBJECTIVE: Vascular extracellular matrix stiffening is a risk factor for aortic and coronary artery disease. How matrix stiffening regulates the transcriptome profile of human aortic and coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is not well understood. Furthermore, the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the cellular response to stiffening has never been explored. This study characterizes the stiffness-sensitive (SS) transcriptome of human aortic and coronary VSMCs and identifies potential key lncRNA regulators of stiffness-dependent VSMC functions...
October 19, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051098/impact-of-tyrosine-nitration-at-positions-tyr307-and-tyr335-on-structural-dynamics-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-a-therapeutically-important-cardiovascular-biomarker-for-atherosclerosis
#14
Arun Bahadur Gurung, Atanu Bhattacharjee
Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a post translational event which results in the generation of 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT). High levels of 3-NT were reported in several human diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amylotrophic lateral sclerosis and coronary artery disease. It was reported that PTN at positions 307 and 335 of Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) curtails its enzymatic activity but the mechanism of inhibition at the structure level is still incomprehensible. The present study is an in silico endeavor to understand nitrative stress induced structural changes in Lp-PLA2...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051079/reduced-myocardial-flow-reserve-is-associated-with-diastolic-dysfunction-and-decreased-left-atrial-strain-in-patients-with-normal-ejection-fraction-and-epicardial-perfusion
#15
Matthew C Konerman, Joshua C Greenberg, Theodore J Kolias, James R Corbett, Ravi V Shah, Venkatesh L Murthy, Scott L Hummel
INTRODUCTION: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (MVD) may contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Speckle-tracking echocardiography is a feasible and reproducible method for identifying abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) function among HFpEF patients. By assessing myocardial flow reserve (MFR), positron emission tomography (PET) imaging enables quantitative assessment of coronary MVD. We hypothesized that, in patients with risk factors for HFpEF and normal epicardial perfusion on cardiac PET, abnormal MFR is associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (DD) and reduced LV and LA strain...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050869/parameters-influencing-the-physical-activity-of-patients-with-a-history-of-coronary-revascularization
#16
Burak Acar, Cagri Yayla, Esra Gucuk Ipek, Sefa Unal, Ahmet Goktug Ertem, Cengiz Burak, Bihter Senturk, Fatih Bayraktar, Meryem Kara, Burcu Demirkan, Yesim Guray
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Regular physical activity is part of a comprehensive management strategy for these patients. We investigated the parameters that influence physical activity in patients with a history of coronary revascularization. METHODS: We included outpatients with a history of coronary revascularization at least six months prior to enrollment. Data on physical activity, demographics, and clinical characteristics were collected via a questionnaire...
October 16, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050847/anomalous-origin-of-the-left-coronary-artery-from-the-pulmonary-artery-presenting-in-adulthood-a-french-nationwide-retrospective-study
#17
Laura Le Berre, Alban-Elouen Baruteau, Alain Fraisse, Dominique Boulmier, Maria Jimenez, Bruno Gallet, Karine Warin Fresse, Jacques Mansourati, Patrice Guerin
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital heart disease usually diagnosed during the first months of life. Without surgical treatment, ALCAPA carries a high mortality risk, and disease presentation in adulthood is rare. We describe the diagnosis and management of patients presenting with ALCAPA in adulthood. This multicenter French nationwide retrospective study included adult patients diagnosed from 1980 to 2014. Eleven adult patients (mean age: 38 ± 17 years) were analyzed...
August 25, 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050805/modelling-of-thrombin-generation-under-flow-in-realistic-left-anterior-descending-geometries
#18
Konstantinos P Papadopoulos, Grigoris T Gerotziafas, Manolis Gavaises
Currently there are no available methods for prediction of thrombotic complications in Coronary Artery disease. Additionally, blood coagulation tests are mainly performed in a steady system while coagulation in vivo occurs under flow conditions. In this work, a phenomenological model for coagulation up-to thrombin generation is proposed; the model is mainly based on the results of thrombin generation assays and therefore it can account for the variation of the coagulability that is observed in different individuals...
October 16, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050797/25-year-physical-activity-trajectories-and-development-of-subclinical-coronary-artery-disease-as-measured-by-coronary-artery-calcium-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#19
Deepika R Laddu, Jamal S Rana, Rosenda Murillo, Michael E Sorel, Charles P Quesenberry, Norrina B Allen, Kelley P Gabriel, Mercedes R Carnethon, Kiang Liu, Jared P Reis, Donald Lloyd-Jones, J Jeffrey Carr, Stephen Sidney
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 25-year physical activity (PA) trajectories from young to middle age and assess associations with the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study includes 3175 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who self-reported PA by questionnaire at 8 follow-up examinations over 25 years (from March 1985-June 1986 through June 2010-May 2011). The presence of CAC (CAC>0) at year 25 was measured using computed tomography...
October 13, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050745/a-spectrum-of-retinal-vasculature-measures-and-coronary-artery-disease
#20
Sarah B Wang, Paul Mitchell, Gerald Liew, Tien Yin Wong, Kevin Phan, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Nichole Joachim, George Burlutsky, Bamini Gopinath
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to comprehensively describe a spectrum of retinal vessel measures including fractal dimension (Df) and their associations with indices of coronary artery disease (CAD) extent and severity, as well as hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: The Australian Heart Eye Study (AHES) is an observational study that surveyed 1680 participants presenting to a tertiary referral hospital for the evaluation of potential CAD by coronary angiography. A range of newer retinal vessel geometric measures (Df, curvature tortuosity, and branching angle) were quantified from retinal photographs using semi-automated software, the Singapore 'I' Vessel Assessment (SIVA) tool...
October 10, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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